Charaka Kalpa Sthana 12th Chapter Danti Dravanti Kalpam

12 th chapter of Charaka kalpa sthana deals with Pharmaceutics of Danti and Dravanti. The chapter name is Danti Dravanti Kalpa.

Table of Contents

Danti Dravanti Kalpa (Pharmaceutics of Danti Dravanti)

Prologue
अथातो दन्तीद्रवन्तीकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
athāto dantīdravantīkalpaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātreyaḥ||2||

We shall now explore the chapter dealing with the “Pharmaceutics of Danti and Dravanti’’. Thus, said Lord Atreya.  [1-2]
Read – Baliospermum montanum – Danti – Uses, Research, Side Effects

Synonyms

दन्त्युदुम्बरपर्णी स्यान्निकुम्भोऽथ मुकूलकः|
द्रवन्ती नामतश्चित्रा न्यग्रोधी मूषिकाह्वया||३||
(तथा मूषिकपर्णी चाप्युपचित्रा च शम्बरीप्रत्यक्श्रेणी सुतश्रेणी दन्ती र(च)ण्डा च कीर्तिता [१] )
dantyudumbaraparṇī syānnikumbho’tha mukūlakaḥ|
dravantī nāmataścitrā nyagrodhī mūṣikāhvayā||3||
(tathā mūṣikaparṇī cāpyupacitrā ca śambarīpratyakśreṇī sutaśreṇī dantī ra(ca)ṇḍā ca kīrtitā [1])

The synonyms of Danti are: Udumbara, Nikumbha and Mukulaka. Synonyms of Dravanti are: Citra, Nyagrodhi and Musikahvavya. (It is also known as Musika parni, Upacitra, Sambari, Pratyak, Suta-serni, Danti and ra(ca)anda. [3]

Parts to be collected

A wise physician should collect the roots of Danti and Dravanti which are strong, thick (having thick root-bark) and resembling an elephant’s tusk. The roots of Danti are dark brown. The roots of Dravanti are coppery in colour. [4]

Processing of Danti and Dravanti

The roots of Danti and Dravanti are smeared with the paste (of the powder) of Pippali and honey, and covered with Kusha. The bundle is smeared with mud and fomented with steam. Thereafter, the roots are taken out and dried in the sun. By the exposure to the heat of the fire and sun the Vikasi attribute (toxic effect which causes looseness of joints) is removed. [5]
Read – Virechana Therapy – Right Method, Side Effects, Management

Attributes of Danti and Dravanti

The roots of Danti and Dravanti are tikshna (sharp), ushna (hot), ashukari (producing effects instantaneously), vikasi (causing looseness of joints) and guru (heavy). They cause liquefaction of Kapha and Pitta. These roots on the other hand aggravate Vayu. [6]

Recipes of Danti and Dravanti to be taken with Yoghurt Etc

दधितक्रसुरामण्डैः पिण्डमक्षसमं तयोः|
प्रियालकोलबदरपीलुशीधुभिरेव च||७||
पिबेद्गुल्मोदरी दोषैरभिखिन्नश्च यो नरः|
dadhitakrasurāmaṇḍaiḥ piṇḍamakṣasamaṃ tayoḥ|
priyālakolabadarapīluśīdhubhireva ca||7||
pibedgulmodarī doṣairabhikhinnaśca yo naraḥ|

The root of Danti and Dravanti is made into a paste (by triturating with water). One aksa of this paste is given to the patient along with the following vehicles:
Yoghurt
Buttermilk
Sura manda (supernatant part of alcohol)
Priyala Sidhu (a type of wine prepared of Priyala)
Kola Sidhu (another type of wine prepared of Kola fruit)
Badara Sidhu (another type of the wine prepared of Badara) and 
Pilu Sidhu (another type of wine prepared of Pillu)

These recipes are useful for patients suffering from phantom tumour and obstinate abdominal diseases including ascites. These recipes are also useful for those who are afflicted by severely aggravated morbid doshas. [7 – ½ 8]
Read – Charaka Udara Roga Chikitsa – 13th Chapter

Recipes of Danti and Dravanti to be taken with Meat- soup

गोमृगाजरसैः पाण्डुः कृमिकोष्ठी भगन्दरी||८||
gomṛgājarasaiḥ pāṇḍuḥ kṛmikoṣṭhī bhagandarī||8||

One Aksa of the paste of Danthi and Dravanti is taken with the soup of the meat of cow, deer or goat, by the patient suffering from anemia, infestation with intestinal parasites and anal fistula. [8 ½]
Read – Goat Meat Benefits As Per Ayurveda

Recipes of Danti and Dravanti in the form of Medicated Ghee etc

तयोः कल्के कषाये च दशमूलरसायुते|
कक्ष्यालजीविसर्पेषु दाहे च विपचेद्घृतम्||
तैलं मेहे च गुल्मे च सोदावर्ते कफानिले|
चतुःस्नेहं शकृच्छुक्रवातसङ्गानिलार्तिषु||१०||
tayoḥ kalke kaṣāye ca daśamūlarasāyute|
kakṣyālajīvisarpeṣu dāhe ca vipacedghṛtam||
tailaṃ mehe ca gulme ca sodāvarte kaphānile|
catuḥsnehaṃ śakṛcchukravātasaṅgānilārtiṣu||10||

Ghee is cooked by adding the paste and decoction of Danthi and Dravanti and equal quantity of the decoction of Dashamula. This medicated ghee is useful for patients suffering from herpes in the axilla, boils, erysipelas and burning syndrome.
With the above mentioned ingredients, oil is cooked. This medicated oil is useful in Meha (obstinate urinary disorders), Gulma (phantom tumour) and Udavarta (upward movement of wind in the abdomen) caused by the aggravation of Kapha and vayu.
With the above mentioned ingredients, Chathur Sneha (four types of fat, viz, oil, ghee, muscle-fat and bone –marrow) is cooked.  This recipe of medicated fat is useful in conditions of obstruction of faeces, semen and flatus, and other diseases caused by aggravated Vayu. [9-10]
Read – Vicharana And Achcha Snehapana: Utility, Practical aspects

Recipes of Danthi and Dravanti in the form of Linctus

रसे दन्त्यजशृङ्गयोश्च गुडक्षौद्रघृतान्वितः|
लेहः सिद्धो विरेकार्थे दाहसन्तापमेहनुत् ||
वाततर्षे ज्वरे पैत्ते स्यात् स एवाजगन्धया|
दन्तीद्रवन्त्योर्मूलानि पचेदामलकीरसे||
त्रींस्तु तस्य कषायस्य भागौ द्वौ फाणितस्य च|
तप्ते सर्पिषि तैले वा भर्जयेत्तत्र चावपेत्||
कल्कं दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च श्यामादीनां च भागशः|
तत्सिद्धं प्राशयेल्लेहं सुखं तेन विरिच्यते||१४||
rase dantyajaśṛṅgayośca guḍakṣaudraghṛtānvitaḥ|
lehaḥ siddho virekārthe dāhasantāpamehanut ||
vātatarṣe jvare paitte syāt sa evājagandhayā|
dantīdravantyormūlāni pacedāmalakīrase||
trīṃstu tasya kaṣāyasya bhāgau dvau phāṇitasya ca|
tapte sarpiṣi taile vā bharjayettatra cāvapet||
kalkaṃ dantīdravantyośca śyāmādīnāṃ ca bhāgaśaḥ|
tatsiddhaṃ prāśayellehaṃ sukhaṃ tena viricyate||14||

To the decoction of Danti and Ajasrngi; jaggery, honey and ghee are added and cooked. This recipe of linctus is used for purgation which cures burning syndrome, heating sensation and obstinate urinary disorders. 

In the place of Ajasrngi in the above recipe, Ajagandha may be added. And the linctus is prepared. This is useful in morbid thirst caused by Vayu, and fever caused by Pitta.

The root of Danthi and Dravanti is cooked by adding the juice (decoction) of Amalaki. Three parts of this decoction should be added with two parts of Phanita (Penidium) which is sizzled by adding hot ghee or hot oil. To this, one part each of the paste of Danti, Dravanti, Syama (Trivrt), Chaturangula, Tilvaka, Sudha, Saptala and Sankhini] is added and cooked. This linctus is taken as a potion which helps in easy purgation. [11-14]
Read – Virechanopaga Gana: Purgation Aiding Herbs: Review, Benefits

Second Group of Sixteen Recipes;

रसे च दशमूलस्य तथा बैभीतके रसे|
हरीतकीरसे चैव लेहानेवं पचेत् पृथक् ||
तयोर्बिल्वसमं चूर्णं तद्रसेनेव भावितम्|
असृष्टे विशि वातोत्थे गुल्मे चाम्लयुतं शुभम्||
पाटयित्वेक्षुकाण्डं वा कल्केनालिप्य चान्तरा|
स्वेदयित्वा ततः खादेत् सुखं तेन विरिच्यते||
मूलं दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च सह मुद्गैर्विपाचयेत्|
लाववर्तीरकाद्यैश्च ते रसाः स्युर्विरेचने||
तयोर्वाऽपि कषायेण यवागूं जाङ्गलं रसम्|
माषयूषं च संस्कृत्य दद्यात्तैश्च विरिच्यते||१९||
rase ca daśamūlasya tathā baibhītake rase|
harītakīrase caiva lehānevaṃ pacet pṛthak ||
tayorbilvasamaṃ cūrṇaṃ tadraseneva bhāvitam|
asṛṣṭe viśi vātotthe gulme cāmlayutaṃ śubham||
pāṭayitvekṣukāṇḍaṃ vā kalkenālipya cāntarā|
svedayitvā tataḥ khādet sukhaṃ tena viricyate||
mūlaṃ dantīdravantyośca saha mudgairvipācayet|
lāvavartīrakādyaiśca te rasāḥ syurvirecane||
tayorvā’pi kaṣāyeṇa yavāgūṃ jāṅgalaṃ rasam|
māṣayūṣaṃ ca saṃskṛtya dadyāttaiśca viricyate||19||

1-3. in the recipe of linctus described in the verse no. 12-14, the decoction of Dashamula or Vibhitaki or Haritaki may be used in the place of the decoction of Amalaki and three other recipes of linctus may be prepared.

4. One Bilva of the powder of Danti and Dravanti is impregnated with the decoction of Danti and Dravanti. This is taken with the sour juice. This is useful in the retention of feces and in phantom tumour caused by aggravated Vayu.

5. Stem of the sugarcane is split, and its inner surface is smeared with the paste of Danti and Dravanti. Thereafter the sugar-cane is fermented. When this sugarcane is chewed and its juice sucked it causes easy purgation.

6-13. The root of Danti and Dravanti along with Mudga is cooked with the meat- soup of
Lava
Vartiraka
Vartika
Kapinjala
Cakora
Upacakra
Kakubha
Rakta carmaka 

These eight medicated soups are useful for purgation.

4-15. with the decoction of Danti and Dravanti, gruel (yavagu) or the soup of the meat of animals living in arid zone is prepared. These two recipes are sizzled with spices, and administered as a potion for purgations.

16. Similarly, with the decoction of Danti and Dravanti, yavagu (gruel) is prepared by adding the soup of masa. This is sizzled and administered as a potion for purgation. [15-19]
Read – Rules For Vamana and Virechana Treatment- Charak Samhita Sutrasthan 15

Third Group of Sixteen Recipes

तत्कषायात्त्रयो भागा द्वौ सितायास्तथैव च|
एको गोधूमचूर्णानां कार्या चोत्कारिका शुभा||
मोदको वाऽस्य कल्पेन कार्यस्तच्च विरेचनम्|
तयोश्चापि कषायेण मद्यान्यस्योपकल्पयेत्||
दन्तीक्वाथेन चालोड्य दन्तीतैलेन साधितान्|
गुडलावणिकान् भक्ष्यान् विविधान् भक्षयेन्नरः||
दन्तीं द्रवन्तीं मरिचं यवानीमुपकुञ्चिकाम्|
नागरं हेमदुग्धां च चित्रकं चेति चूर्णितम्||
सप्ताहं भावयेन्मूत्रे गवां पाणितलं ततः|
पिबेत्घृतेन जीर्णे तु विरिक्तश्चापि तर्पणम्||
सर्वरोगहरं मुख्यं सर्वेष्वृतुषु यौगिकम्|
चूर्णं तदनपायित्वाद्बालवृद्धेषु पूजितम्||
दुर्भक्ताजीर्णपार्श्वार्तिगुल्मप्लीहोदरेषु च|
गण्डमालासु वाते च पाण्डुरोगे च शस्यते||
पलं चित्रकदन्त्योश्च हरीतक्याश्च विंशतिः|
त्रिवृत्पिप्पलिकर्षौ द्वौ गुडस्याष्टपलेन तत्||
विनीय मोदकान् कुर्याद्दशैकं भक्षयेत्ततः|
उष्णाम्बु च पिबेच्चानु दशमे दशमेऽह्नि च||
एते निष्परिहाराः स्युः सर्वरोगनिबर्हणाः|
ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगार्शःकण्डूकोठानिलापहाः||
दन्तीद्विपलनिर्यूहो द्राक्षार्धप्रस्थसाधितः|
विरेचनं पित्तकासे पाण्डुरोगे च शस्यते||
दन्तीकल्कं समगुडं शीतवारियुतं पिबेत्|
विरेचनं मुख्यतमं कामलाहरमुत्तमम् ||
श्यामादन्तीरसे गौडः पिप्पलीफलचित्रकैः|
लिप्तेऽरिष्टोऽनिलश्लेष्मप्लीहपाण्डूदरापहः||
तथा दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च कषाये साजगन्धयोः|
गौडः कार्योऽऽजशृङ्ग्या वा स वै सुखविरेचनः||
तच्चूर्णक्वाथमाषाम्बुकिण्वतोयसमुद्भवा|
मदिरा कफगुल्माल्पवह्निपार्श्वकटिग्रहे||
अजगन्धाकषायेण सौवीरकतुषोदके|
सुराकम्पिल्लके योगौ लोध्रवच्च तयोः स्मृतौ||३५||
tatkaṣāyāttrayo bhāgā dvau sitāyāstathaiva ca|
eko godhūmacūrṇānāṃ kāryā cotkārikā śubhā||
modako vā’sya kalpena kāryastacca virecanam|
tayoścāpi kaṣāyeṇa madyānyasyopakalpayet||
dantīkvāthena cāloḍya dantītailena sādhitān|
guḍalāvaṇikān bhakṣyān vividhān bhakṣayennaraḥ||
dantīṃ dravantīṃ maricaṃ yavānīmupakuñcikām|
nāgaraṃ hemadugdhāṃ ca citrakaṃ ceti cūrṇitam||
saptāhaṃ bhāvayenmūtre gavāṃ pāṇitalaṃ tataḥ|
pibetghṛtena jīrṇe tu viriktaścāpi tarpaṇam||
sarvarogaharaṃ mukhyaṃ sarveṣvṛtuṣu yaugikam|
cūrṇaṃ tadanapāyitvādbālavṛddheṣu pūjitam||
durbhaktājīrṇapārśvārtigulmaplīhodareṣu ca|
gaṇḍamālāsu vāte ca pāṇḍuroge ca śasyate||
palaṃ citrakadantyośca harītakyāśca viṃśatiḥ|
trivṛtpippalikarṣau dvau guḍasyāṣṭapalena tat||
vinīya modakān kuryāddaśaikaṃ bhakṣayettataḥ|
uṣṇāmbu ca pibeccānu daśame daśame’hni ca||
ete niṣparihārāḥ syuḥ sarvaroganibarhaṇāḥ|
grahaṇīpāṇḍurogārśaḥkaṇḍūkoṭhānilāpahāḥ||
dantīdvipalaniryūho drākṣārdhaprasthasādhitaḥ|
virecanaṃ pittakāse pāṇḍuroge ca śasyate||
dantīkalkaṃ samaguḍaṃ śītavāriyutaṃ pibet|
virecanaṃ mukhyatamaṃ kāmalāharamuttamam ||
śyāmādantīrase gauḍaḥ pippalīphalacitrakaiḥ|
lipte’riṣṭo’nilaśleṣmaplīhapāṇḍūdarāpahaḥ||
tathā dantīdravantyośca kaṣāye sājagandhayoḥ|
gauḍaḥ kāryo”jaśṛṅgyā vā sa vai sukhavirecanaḥ||
taccūrṇakvāthamāṣāmbukiṇvatoyasamudbhavā|
madirā kaphagulmālpavahnipārśvakaṭigrahe||
ajagandhākaṣāyeṇa sauvīrakatuṣodake|
surākampillake yogau lodhravacca tayoḥ smṛtau||35||

Three parts of the decoctions of Danti and Dravanti are added with two parts of sugar and one part of wheat-flour. With this, Utkarika (pan-cake) is prepared and is useful for purgation.

With the above-mentioned ingredients, Modaka (sweet bolus) may also be prepared and used for purgation.

From the decoction of Danti and Dravanti, wine may be prepared and used for purgation.

Different types of eatables made of jaggery or salt can also be prepared by boiling food ingredients with the decoction or oil of Danti. [These eatables may be used for purgation]

Danti, Dravanti, Marica, Yavani, Upakuncika, Nagara, Hemadugdha, and Citraka are made into powder. This is impregnated with cow’s urine for the week. One Pani-Tala of this recipe is given to the patient along with ghee. After the potion is digested and the patient is purged, he is given demulcent drink. This recipe is immensely useful for all kinds of diseases. It can be administered in all the seasons. Since it has no untoward effects, it can be safely given to children and old persons. It is useful in loss of appetite, indigestion, pain in the sides of the chest, phantom tumour, splenomegaly, cervical lymphadenitis, diseases of Vata and anemia.

One Pala of Citraka, one Palla of Danti, twenty fruits of haritaki, two karsas of Trivrt and two karsas of Pippali are added with eight palas of jaggery. Out of these ingredients, ten Modakas (sweet boluses) are prepared. One of these modakas is taken along with hot water, and this is repeated on every tenth day. No dietetic restriction is necessary while using these modakas. These are useful for curing all diseases, specially spure syndrome, anemia, piles, itching, urticaria and diseases caused by Vayu.

The decoction of two Palas of Danti added with half Prastha of Draksa is a purgative useful in cough caused by Pitta and anemia.

The paste of Danti is added with jaggery in equal quantity and taken as a potion along with cold water. It is an excellent purgation recipe for curing jaundice.

The decoction of syama and Danti is added with jaggery and kept for fermentation in a jar. The inner wall of the jar is smeared with the paste of Pippali, Phala and Citraka. This Arista (mediated wine) is useful for ailments caused by vayu and Kapha, and diseases like splenic disorders, anemia and obstinate abdominal diseases including ascites.

The decoction of Danti, Dravanti and Ajagandha is added with jaggery and made to ferment [this arista is useful for purgation].

In the above recipe, Ajasrngi may be added in the place of Ajagandha. This Arista helps in easy purgation.

The decoction of the powder of Danti and Dravanti is added with the decoction of Masa and made to ferment. Out of this fermented (Kinva) wine, alcohol (Madira) is extracted which is useful in treating phantom tumour caused by Kapha, suppression of the power of digestion and stiffness of the sides of the chest and waist.

14. With the decoction of Danti, Dravanti and Ajagandha, Sauviraka (vinegar) and Tusodaka (a type of sour drink) is prepared on the lines suggested for Lodhra (vide Kalpa9: 7). {these two recipes are useful for purgation].

With the decoction of Danti and Dravanti, sura (alcoholic drink) is prepared on the lines suggested for Lodhra (vide Kalpha9:8: 10). This is useful for purgation.

Danti and Dravanti is added with Kampillaka, and the recipe is prepared on the line suggested for Lodhra (vide Kalpha 9: 10-11). This recipe is useful for purgation]. [20-35]
Read – Benefits of Vamana and Virechana Treatment – Charaka Sutrasthana 16

Contents (up to this Portion) of Chapter

तत्र श्लोकाः-
(दध्यादिषु त्रयः पञ्च प्रियालाद्यैस्त्रयो रसे|
स्नेहेषु वै त्रयो लेह्याः षट् चूर्णे त्वेक एव च||
इक्षावेकस्तथा मुद्गमांसानां च रसास्त्रयः|
यवाग्वादौ त्रयश्चैव उक्त उत्कारिकाविधौ||
एकश्च मोदके मद्ये चैकस्तत्क्वाथतैलके|
चूर्णमेकं पुनश्चैको मोदकः पञ्च चासवे||
एकः सौवीरकेऽथैको योगः स्यात्तु तुषोदके|
एका सुरैकः कम्पिल्ले तथा पञ्च घृते स्मृताः||३९||
tatra ślokāḥ-
(dadhyādiṣu trayaḥ pañca priyālādyaistrayo rase|
sneheṣu vai trayo lehyāḥ ṣaṭ cūrṇe tveka eva ca||
ikṣāvekastathā mudgamāṃsānāṃ ca rasāstrayaḥ|
yavāgvādau trayaścaiva ukta utkārikāvidhau||
ekaśca modake madye caikastatkvāthatailake|
cūrṇamekaṃ punaścaiko modakaḥ pañca cāsave||
ekaḥ sauvīrake’thaiko yogaḥ syāttu tuṣodake|
ekā suraikaḥ kampille tathā pañca ghṛte smṛtāḥ||39||

To sum up:
In this (up to this portion of the chapter) the following recipes of Danti and Dravanti are described:
1-3. three recipes to be prepared with Danthi or yoghurt, etc. (vide verse nos. 7-8)
4-7. four recipes to be prepared with Priyala etc (vide verse nos. 7-8)
8-10. three recipes to be prepared in the form of meat-soup vide verse no. 8)
11-13. There recipes to be prepared in the form of medicated fat (vide verse nos. 9-10)
14-19. six recipes to be prepared with the form of powder (vide verse nos. 11-15)
20. One recipe to be prepared in the form of linctus: (vide verse nos. 16)
21. One recipe to be prepared with sugar-cane (vide verse no. 17)
22-39. eight recipes to be prepared with the soup of Mudga and meat-soups; (Rasastrayah’ in the text appears to be an error) (vide verse no. 18)
30-32. three recipes to be prepared in the form of Yavagu etc (vide verse no. 19)
33. One recipe in the form of Utkarika (vide verse no. 20)
34. One recipe in the form of Modaka (sweet bolus) (vide verse no. 21)
35. One recipe in the form of alcoholic drink (vide verse no. 21)
36. One recipe of Etables to be prepared with the decoction and oil of Danti and Dravanti (vide verse no. 22)
37. One recipe in powder form (vide verse no. 23-26)
38. One recipe again in the form of Modaka (vide verse nos. 27-29)
39-44. six recipes in the form of Asava (medicated wine) (vide verse nos. 30-34) [“Panca Casave” appears to be an error]
45. One recipe in the form of Sauviraka (vinegar) (vide verse no. 35)
46. One recipe in the form of Tusodaka (sour drink prepared of husked)
47. One recipe in the form of Sura (alcohol) (vide verse no. 35)
48. One recipe to be prepared along with kampillaka and (vide verse no. 35)
49. Five recipes to be prepared in the form of medicated ghee.
 [Panca Ghtre Smrtah” in the text appears to be an error because such five recipes of medicated ghee are not found in the text. Only three recipes of medicated fat are described in verse nos, 9-10 which are already enumerated in item nos. 11- 13 above.].

Summary of Contents

दन्तीद्रवन्तीकल्पेऽस्मिन् प्रोक्ताः षोडशकास्त्रयः|
नानाविधानां योगानां भक्तिदोषामयान्प्रति||४०||
dantīdravantīkalpe’smin proktāḥ ṣoḍaśakāstrayaḥ|
nānāvidhānāṃ yogānāṃ bhaktidoṣāmayānprati||40||

In this dealing with the “Pharamaceutics of Danti and Dravanti”, three groups each containing sixteen recipes, have been described to suit the likings of the patient, Doshas aggravated and diseases to be treated. [40]

Summary of Kalpa- section

त्रिशतं पञ्चपञ्चाशद्योगानां वमने स्मृतम्|
द्वे शते नवकाः पञ्च योगानां तु विरेचने||
ऊर्ध्वानुलोमभागानामित्युक्तानि शतानि षट्|
प्राधान्यतः समाश्रित्य द्रव्याणि दश पञ्च च||४२||
triśataṃ pañcapañcāśadyogānāṃ vamane smṛtam|
dve śate navakāḥ pañca yogānāṃ tu virecane||
ūrdhvānulomabhāgānāmityuktāni śatāni ṣaṭ|
prādhānyataḥ samāśritya dravyāṇi daśa pañca ca||42||

In this Kalpa- section, 355 recipes for emesis and 245 recipes for purgation, thus taken together six hundred in total, are described for the purification of the body (by elimination of Doshas) through upward and downward tracts. These recipes are mainly composed of fifteen drugs. [41-42]
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 7th Chapter Shyama Trivrit Kalpam

Recapitulation

भवन्ति चात्र-
यद्धि येन प्रधानेन द्रव्यं समुपसृज्यते|
तत्सञ्ज्ञकः स योगो वै भवतीति विनिश्चयः||
फलादीनां प्रधानानां गुणभूताः सुरादयः|
ते हि तान्यनुवर्तन्ते मनुजेन्द्रमिवेतरे||४४||
bhavanti cātra –
yaddhi yena pradhānena dravyaṃ samupasṛjyate|
tatsañjñakaḥ sa yogo vai bhavatīti viniścayaḥ||
phalādīnāṃ pradhānānāṃ guṇabhūtāḥ surādayaḥ|
te hi tānyanuvartante manujendramivetare||44||
Thus it is said:
The recipes are invariably named after the principal (most active) drugs used in their composition.
Alcohol, etc, used along with the principal ingredients like Madanaphala, etc., play a secondary role. Thier effects follows the attributes of the principal ingredients used in the recipe as the attendants follow the king. [43- 44]

Similarity or Dissimilarity of Potency

विरुद्धवीर्यमप्येषां प्रधानानामबाधकम्|
अधिकं तुल्यवीर्ये हि क्रियासामर्थ्यमिष्यते ||४५||
viruddhavīryamapyeṣāṃ pradhānānāmabādhakam|
adhikaṃ tulyavīrye hi kriyāsāmarthyamiṣyate ||45||
Sometimes the drugs of secondary nature have antagonistic potency. Even then they do not contradict the effects of the principal drug. If these drugs of secondary nature are similar in potency as that of the principal drugs, then the recipe becomes all the more effective theoretically. [45]

Need for using drugs of dissimilar potency

इष्टवर्णरसस्पर्शगन्धार्थं प्रति चामयम्|
अतो विरुद्धवीर्याणां प्रयोग इति निश्चितम्||४६||
iṣṭavarṇarasasparśagandhārthaṃ prati cāmayam|
ato viruddhavīryāṇāṃ prayoga iti niścitam||46||

Drugs of antagonistic potency are added to a recipe in order to impart desirable colour, taste, touch and smell. Such addition also helps to effectively cure the diseases. [46]
Read – Veerya, Potency Of Herbs And Doshas – Inter-relationship

Needs for impregnation

भूयश्चैषां बलाधानं कार्यं स्वरसभावनैः|
सुभावितं ह्यल्पमपि द्रव्यं स्याद्बहुकर्मकृत्||
स्वरसैस्तुल्यवीर्यैर्वा तस्माद्द्रव्याणि भावयेत्|४८|
bhūyaścaiṣāṃ balādhānaṃ kāryaṃ svarasabhāvanaiḥ|
subhāvitaṃ hyalpamapi dravyaṃ syādbahukarmakṛt||
svarasaistulyavīryairvā tasmāddravyāṇi bhāvayet|48|

In addition to adding to the potency of the recipe, it is necessary to impregnate the ingredients of a recipe with the juice or decoction of other drugs. When properly impregnated, even a small quantity of the drug becomes exceedingly effective. Therefore, ingredients of a recipe are impregnated with the juice or decoction of other ingredients having identical potency. [47- ½ 48]

Modification of effects of recipe

अल्पस्यापि महार्थत्वं प्रभूतस्याल्पकर्मताम्||
कुर्यात् संयोगविश्लेषकालसंस्कारयुक्तिभिः|४९|
alpasyāpi mahārthatvaṃ prabhūtasyālpakarmatām||
kuryāt saṃyogaviśleṣakālasaṃskārayuktibhiḥ|49|

By virtue of appropriate Samyoga (addition of ingredients), Vislesa (elimination of ingredients), Kala (appropriate time of administration) and Samskra (processing) even a small quantity of a drug may produce more powerful effects and otherwise even a recipe in large quantity may produce very mild effects. [48 ½ – ½ 49]
Read – Various Methods of Ayurvedic Food Processing – Ahara Samskara

Innumerability of Recipes

प्रदेशमात्रमेतावद्द्रष्टव्यमिह षट्शतम्||
स्वबुद्ध्यैवं सहस्राणि कोटीर्वाऽपि प्रकल्पयेत्|
बहुद्रव्यविकल्पत्वाद्योगसङ्ख्या न विद्यते||५०||
pradeśamātrametāvaddraṣṭavyamiha ṣaṭśatam||
svabuddhyaivaṃ sahasrāṇi koṭīrvā’pi prakalpayet|
bahudravyavikalpatvādyogasaṅkhyā na vidyate||50||

Six hundred recipes for emesis and purgation, described in this section, are only a fraction of the total number of such recipes. The physician, according to his own wisdom, may prepare thousands and billions of such recipes because the permutation and combination of ingredients are innumerable. Therefore, there is no limit to these recipes. [49 ½ – 50]
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 4th Chapter Dhamargava kalpa

Three Categories of Recipes

तीक्ष्णमध्यमृदूनां तु तेषां शृणुत लक्षणम्|
tīkṣṇamadhyamṛdūnāṃ tu teṣāṃ śṛṇuta lakṣaṇam|

Recipes for emesis and purgation are of three categories, viz, Tikshna (strong or sharp), Madhya (Moderate) and Mrdu (mild). Their characteristic features will be described which you may listen to (addressed to the disciple Agnivesha). [½ 51]

Characteristics of Tikshna recipe

सुखं क्षिप्रं महावेगमसक्तं यत् प्रवर्तते||
नातिग्लानिकरं पायौ हृदये न च रुक्करम्|
अन्तराशयमक्षिण्वन् कृत्स्नं दोषं निरस्यति||
विरेचनं निरूहो वा तत्तीक्ष्णमिति निर्दिशेत्|५३|
sukhaṃ kṣipraṃ mahāvegamasaktaṃ yat pravartate||
nātiglānikaraṃ pāyau hṛdaye na ca rukkaram|
antarāśayamakṣiṇvan kṛtsnaṃ doṣaṃ nirasyati||
virecanaṃ nirūho vā tattīkṣṇamiti nirdiśet|53|

Strong type of recipe for emesis, purgation as well as Niruha type of enema has the following characteristics:
It causes purgation and emesis easily, quickly and with strong force;
The morbid material does not get adhered to the gastrointestinal tract;
It does not cause excessive fatigue of the anal region;
It does not cause pain in the cardiac region;
It does not cause any erosion in the gastro-intestinal tract and
It eliminates the morbid material in its entirety. [51 1/2- ½ 53]
Read – Ayurvedic Heart Care And Treatment For Cardiac Disorders

Factors Responsible for Making a Recipe Strong

The following factors are responsible for increasing the strength of a recipe:
the ingredients not being impaired by exposure to water, fire and insects;
the ingredients being imbibed with the beneficial attributes of the soil and season;
the recipe should have been administered in a slightly higher dose
the ingredients being appropriately impregnated with drugs having similar potency and
the patient having been administered with oleation and fomentation therapies. [53 ½ – 54]

Characteristics of Madhya (Moderate) Type of Recipe

किञ्चिदेभिर्गुणैर्हीनं पूर्वोक्तैर्मात्रया तथा|
स्निग्धस्विन्नस्य वा सम्यङ्मध्यं भवति भेषजम्||५५||
kiñcidebhirguṇairhīnaṃ pūrvoktairmātrayā tathā|
snigdhasvinnasya vā samyaṅmadhyaṃ bhavati bheṣajam||55||

Recipes having ingredients which are slightly inferior in the above-mentioned characteristics and administered in a lesser dose to a person who has undergone oleation and fomentation therapies appropriately produce moderate effect. [55]

Characteristics of Recipes having Mrdu(Mild) effect

मन्दवीर्यं विरूक्षस्य हीनमात्रं तु भेषजम्|
अतुल्यवीर्यैः संयुक्तं मृदु स्यान्मन्दवेगवत्||५६||
mandavīryaṃ virūkṣasya hīnamātraṃ tu bheṣajam|
atulyavīryaiḥ saṃyuktaṃ mṛdu syānmandavegavat||56||

Recipes are categorized as mild (Mrdu) when they cause slow urge of emesis and purgation because of the following:
the ingredients are of low potency
the ingredients are of contradictory potencies
the recipe is administered in small doe and
the recipe is administered to a patient who has ununctuousness (i.e has not been properly oleated) [56]

Suitability of Different Categories of Recipes for different Types of Patients

अकृत्स्नदोषहरणादशुद्धी ते बलीयसाम्|
मध्यावरबलानां तु प्रयोज्ये सिद्धिमिच्छता||५७||
akṛtsnadoṣaharaṇādaśuddhī te balīyasām|
madhyāvarabalānāṃ tu prayojye siddhimicchatā||57||

Recipes of moderate and mild categories do not cause purification of a patient with strongly aggravated Doshas as these are too mild to eliminate morbid matter (Doshas) in its entirety. A physician desirous of professional success should administer such therapies only to patients with moderately or mildly aggravated Doshas. [57]

Selection of Recipes for Different Categories of Diseases

तीक्ष्णो मध्यो मृदुर्व्याधिः सर्वमध्याल्पलक्षणः|
तीक्ष्णादीनि बलावेक्षी भेषजान्येषु योजयेत्||५८||
tīkṣṇo madhyo mṛdurvyādhiḥ sarvamadhyālpalakṣaṇaḥ|
tīkṣṇādīni balāvekṣī bheṣajānyeṣu yojayet||58||

Strong, moderate and mild diseases are characterised by the manifestation of all the symptoms, manifestation of only some symptoms which are moderate in nature, and manifestation of only few symptoms which are of mild nature respectively. For such strong, moderate and mild diseases, therapies of strong, moderate and mild nature are to be used respectively provided the patient is strong, of moderate strength, or of mild strength. [The patient who is strong is given strong therapy, the one who is of moderate strength is given moderate therapy, and the patient who is of mild strength is given mild therapy. [58]
Read – Virechana Therapy – Right Method, Side Effects, Management

Repeated use of therapy

देयं त्वनिर्हृते पूर्वं पीते पश्चात् पुनः पुनः|
भेषजं वमनार्थीयं प्राय आपित्तदर्शनात्||५९|
deyaṃ tvanirhṛte pūrvaṃ pīte paścāt punaḥ punaḥ|
bheṣajaṃ vamanārthīyaṃ prāya āpittadarśanāt||59|

If by the administration of the emetic recipe, the morbid material (Dosha) is not eliminated completely, then same recipe is administered again to the patient till there is appearance of bile in the vomited material. [59]

Exceptions to this General Rule

बलत्रैविध्यमालक्ष्य दोषाणामातुरस्य च|
पुनः प्रदद्याद्भैषज्यं सर्वशो वा विवर्जयेत्||६०||
balatraividhyamālakṣya doṣāṇāmāturasya ca|
punaḥ pradadyādbhaiṣajyaṃ sarvaśo vā vivarjayet||60||

After ascertaining three different types of the strength of the Doshas and that of the patient, the recipes of appropriate category is administered repeatedly. However, if the patient is weak and the disease is of mild nature, then the therapy may be avoided altogether. [60]

Administration of Another Recipe

निर्हृते वाऽपि जीर्णे वा दोषनिर्हरणे बुधः|
भेषजेऽन्यत्प्रयुञ्जीत प्रार्थयन्सिद्धिमुत्तमाम्||६१||
nirhṛte vā’pi jīrṇe vā doṣanirharaṇe budhaḥ|
bheṣaje’nyatprayuñjīta prārthayansiddhimuttamām||61||

If the recipe administered for elimination of Doshas itself gets eliminated or gets digested (without eliminating the Dosha), then another recipe is administered to the patient by a wise physician desirous of professional success. [61]

Necessity to prevent Digestion of Emetic Recipe

अपक्वं वमनं दोषं पच्यमानं विरेचनम्|
निर्हरेद्वमनस्यातः पाकं न प्रतिपालयेत्||६२||
apakvaṃ vamanaṃ doṣaṃ pacyamānaṃ virecanam|
nirharedvamanasyātaḥ pākaṃ na pratipālayet||62||

An emetic recipe produces emesis only when it is not digested. A purgative recipe causes purgation during the process of its digestion. Therefore, the physician should not lose any time after the recipe is digested and administer another recipe immediately [62]
Read – Vamana Therapy – Right Method, Side Effects, Management

Digestion of Purgative Recipe

पीते प्रस्रंसने दोषान्न निर्हत्य जरां गते|
वमिते चौषधे धीरः पाययेदौषधं पुनः||६३||
pīte prasraṃsane doṣānna nirhatya jarāṃ gate|
vamite cauṣadhe dhīraḥ pāyayedauṣadhaṃ punaḥ||63||

If a purgative recipe itself gets digested or gets eliminated by vomiting without eliminating the Doshas, even then an intelligent physician should administer the purgative recipe again on the same day.

Repetition of Therapy for strong and weak Patients

दीप्ताग्निं बहुदोषं तु दृढस्नेहगुणं नरम्|
दुःशुद्धं तदहर्भुक्तं श्वोभूते पाययेत् पुनः||
दुर्बलो बहुदोषश्च दोषपाकेन यो नरः|
विरिच्यते शनैर्भोज्यैर्भूयस्तमनुसारयेत् ||६५||
dīptāgniṃ bahudoṣaṃ tu dṛḍhasnehaguṇaṃ naram|
duḥśuddhaṃ tadaharbhuktaṃ śvobhūte pāyayet punaḥ||
durbalo bahudoṣaśca doṣapākena yo naraḥ|
viricyate śanairbhojyairbhūyastamanusārayet ||65||

If a person who has strong power of digestion, who has more of aggravated Doshas and whose body is strongly unctuous is not fully cleansed of morbid material, then he may be given food on that day, and on the second day, he is given purgation therapy again.
If a weak patient has aggravated Doshas in large quantity, and his Doshas have developed the tendency to undergo Paka (metabolic  transformation) leading to purgation, then only giving him food which causes downward movement of wind in the colon will again help in slow purgation. [64-65]
Read – Vata Dosha – Introduction, 40 Things To Know

Treatment of Residual Doshas

वमनैश्च विरेकैश्च विशुद्धस्याप्रमाणतः|
भोजनान्तरपानाभ्यां दोषशेषं शमं नयेत्||६६||
vamanaiśca virekaiśca viśuddhasyāpramāṇataḥ|
bhojanāntarapānābhyāṃ doṣaśeṣaṃ śamaṃ nayet||66||

If a person is not fully cleansed by emesis or purgation then the residual Doshas may be alleviated by the appropriate diet like gruel and anta-pana (decoctions of drugs) which stimulate the power of digestion. [66]
Read – 120 Remedies For Indigestion Caused By Specific Foods

Persons to be given mild recipe

दुर्बलं शोधितं पूर्वमल्पदोषं च मानवम्|
अपरिज्ञातकोष्ठं च पाययेतौषधं मृदु||६७||
durbalaṃ śodhitaṃ pūrvamalpadoṣaṃ ca mānavam|
aparijñātakoṣṭhaṃ ca pāyayetauṣadhaṃ mṛdu||67||

Persons who are weak, who have undergone the process of purification earlier, who have less of aggravated Doshas and whose bowel condition is not known is given purificatory recipe of mild nature. [67]

Preference for Milder recipes

श्रेयो मृद्वसकृत्पीतमल्पबाधं निरत्ययम्|
न चातितीक्ष्णं यत् क्षिप्रं जनयेत्प्राणसंशयम्||६८||
śreyo mṛdvasakṛtpītamalpabādhaṃ niratyayam|
na cātitīkṣṇaṃ yat kṣipraṃ janayetprāṇasaṃśayam||68||

Mild recipes give less discomfort and do not involve any risk. Therefore, it is better to take such mild recipes if required even frequently than strong recipes which may cause immediate danger to life. [68]

Essentiality of Purification

दुर्बलोऽपि महादोषो विरेच्यो बहुशोऽल्पशः|
मृदुभिर्भेषजैर्दोषा हन्युर्ह्येनमनिर्हृताः||६९||
durbalo’pi mahādoṣo virecyo bahuśo’lpaśaḥ|
mṛdubhirbheṣajairdoṣā hanyurhyenamanirhṛtāḥ||69||

If the Doshas are excessively aggravated then even a weak person is given therapeutic doses administered in small Doses, but very frequently with the ingredients having mild effects. If the Doshas are not eliminated, then these may cause death of the patient. [69]
Read – Which Panchakarma Ayurvedic Treatment Suits You?

Emetic effects of Purgative Drugs

यस्योर्ध्वं कफसंसृष्टं पीतं यात्यानुलोमिकम्|
वमितं कवलैः शुद्धं लङ्घितं पाययेत्तु तम्||७०||
yasyordhvaṃ kaphasaṃsṛṣṭaṃ pītaṃ yātyānulomikam|
vamitaṃ kavalaiḥ śuddhaṃ laṅghitaṃ pāyayettu tam||70||

A purgative recipe may get mixed up with kapha and move upwards. This may cause vomiting. To such patients emetic therapy and Kavala (gargling therapy) is administered for the elimination of kapha. He is made to fast, and thereafter, the purgative potion is given to him. [70]
Read – How To Do Oil Pulling In Genuine Ayurvedic Way?

Management of Complications

विबद्धेऽल्पे चिराद्दोषे स्रवत्युष्णं पिबेज्जलम्|
तेनाध्मानं तृषा च्छर्दिर्विबन्धश्चैव शाम्यति||
भेषजं दोषरुद्धं चेन्नोर्ध्वं नाधः प्रवर्तते|
सोद्गारं साङ्गशूलं च स्वेदं तत्रावचारयेत्||७२||
vibaddhe’lpe cirāddoṣe sravatyuṣṇaṃ pibejjalam|
tenādhmānaṃ tṛṣā cchardirvibandhaścaiva śāmyati||
bheṣajaṃ doṣaruddhaṃ cennordhvaṃ nādhaḥ pravartate|
sodgāraṃ sāṅgaśūlaṃ ca svedaṃ tatrāvacārayet||72||

If the morbid Doshas get obstructed or get eliminated in small quantities or get eliminated after a long  time, then hot water is given to the patient for drinking. Apart from correcting the above mentioned defects, it relieves flatulence, morbid thirst, vomiting and constipation.
At times, the medicine gets obstructed by morbid Doshas and move neither upwards nor downwards. Such a condition gets associated with eructation and body ache. In such cases, fomentation therapy is administered. [71-72]
Read – Sweating Treatment – Swedana Types And Methods – Charaka Samhita 14

Elimination of Residual Medicaments

सुविरिक्ते तु सोद्गारमाश्वेवौषधमुल्लिखेत्|
अतिप्रवर्तनं जीर्णे सुशीतैः स्तम्भयेद्भिषक्||७३||
suvirikte tu sodgāramāśvevauṣadhamullikhet|
atipravartanaṃ jīrṇe suśītaiḥ stambhayedbhiṣak||73||

If a person who has been well purged continues to have eructation, the residual medicament inside the gatro-intestinal tract is eliminated by emesis. If after the digestion of the recipe, there is excess of purgation, then it is stopped by excessively using cooling ingredients. [73]

Delayed action

कदाचिच्छ्लेष्मणा रुद्धं तिष्ठत्युरसि भेषजम्|
क्षीणे श्लेष्मणि सायाह्ने रात्रौ वा तत्प्रवर्तते||७४||
kadācicchleṣmaṇā ruddhaṃ tiṣṭhatyurasi bheṣajam|
kṣīṇe śleṣmaṇi sāyāhne rātrau vā tatpravartate||74||

At times, the recipe being obstructed by Kapha remains in the chest (oesophagus). It produces its effects when Kapha gets diminished either in the evening or at night. [74]

Repetition of Dose

रूक्षानाहारयोर्जीर्णे विष्टभ्योर्ध्वं गतेऽपि वा|
वायुना भेषजे त्वन्यत् सस्नेहलवणं पिबेत्||७५||
rūkṣānāhārayorjīrṇe viṣṭabhyordhvaṃ gate’pi vā|
vāyunā bheṣaje tvanyat sasnehalavaṇaṃ pibet||75||

If because of un-unctuouness (dryness) or fasting, medicine gets digested or if because of aggravated Vayu, it moves upwards along with flatulence, then another dose of the recipe is given to the patient along with unctuous ingredients and salt. [75]
Read – Effects Of Forcible Stopping Of Fart, Remedies

Use of Pitta-alleviating Medicines

तृण्मोहभ्रममूर्च्छायाः स्युश्चेज्जीर्यति भेषजे|
पित्तघ्नं स्वादु शीतं च भेषजं तत्र शस्यते||७६||
tṛṇmohabhramamūrcchāyāḥ syuścejjīryati bheṣaje|
pittaghnaṃ svādu śītaṃ ca bheṣajaṃ tatra śasyate||76||

If during the digestion of medicines there is morbid thirst, stupor, giddiness or fainting, then Pitta alleviating medicines which are sweet and cooling are given. [76]

Use of Kapha- alleviating medicines

लालाहृल्लासविष्टम्भलोमहर्षाः कफावृते|
भेषजं तत्र तीक्ष्णोष्णं कट्वादि कफनुद्धितम्||७७||
lālāhṛllāsaviṣṭambhalomaharṣāḥ kaphāvṛte|
bheṣajaṃ tatra tīkṣṇoṣṇaṃ kaṭvādi kaphanuddhitam||77||

If there is salivation, nausea, intestinal stasis and horripilition because of the medicament getting covered up by kapha, then the patient is given Kapha alleviating drugs which are  sharp, hot, pungent, etc.

Fasting Therapy

सुस्निग्धं क्रूरकोष्ठं च लङ्घयेदविरेचितम्|
तेनास्य स्नेहजः श्लेष्मा सङ्गश्चैवोपशाम्यति||७८||
susnigdhaṃ krūrakoṣṭhaṃ ca laṅghayedavirecitam|
tenāsya snehajaḥ śleṣmā saṅgaścaivopaśāmyati||78||

If there is no purgation even after the patient has undergone appropriate oleation therapy because of Krurakostha (constipative / hard bowel) then the patient is made to fast. As a result of this, his Kapha aggravated by oleation therapy and its adherence to the body gets alleviated. [78]
Read – Koshta: Understanding Gut Behaviour And Gut Reactivity

Digestion of Recipe

रूक्ष-बह्वनिल-क्रूरकोष्ठ-व्यायामशालिनाम् |
दीप्ताग्नीनां च भैषज्यमविरिच्यैव जीर्यति||
तेभ्यो बस्तिं पुरा दत्त्वा पश्चाद्दद्याद्विरेचनम्|
बस्तिप्रवर्तितं दोषं हरेच्छीघ्रं विरेचनम्||८०||
rūkṣa-bahvanila-krūrakoṣṭha-vyāyāmaśālinām |
dīptāgnīnāṃ ca bhaiṣajyamaviricyaiva jīryati||
tebhyo bastiṃ purā dattvā paścāddadyādvirecanam|
bastipravartitaṃ doṣaṃ harecchīghraṃ virecanam||80||

Because of un-unctuousness (dryness) of the body, aggravation of Vayu, Krura- Kostha (constipation / hard nature of the bowel), habitual exercise and strong power of digestion, a recipe may get digested without causing purgation.

To such patients, medicated enema is given prior to the administration of purgation therapy. By this medicated enema, the morbid Doshas get excited and the recipe of purgation eliminates the morbid Doshas quickly. [79-80]

Persons unsuitable for elimination therapy

रूक्षाशनाः कर्मनित्या ये नरा दीप्तपावकाः|
तेषां दोषाः क्षयं यान्ति कर्मवातातपाग्निभिः||
विरुद्धाध्यशनाजीर्णदोषानपि सहन्ति ते|
स्नेह्यास्ते मारुताद्रक्ष्या नाव्याधौ तान् विशोधयेत् ||८२||
rūkṣāśanāḥ karmanityā ye narā dīptapāvakāḥ|
teṣāṃ doṣāḥ kṣayaṃ yānti karmavātātapāgnibhiḥ||
viruddhādhyaśanājīrṇadoṣānapi sahanti te|
snehyāste mārutādrakṣyā nāvyādhau tān viśodhayet ||82||

In persons who indulge in non-unctuous (dry) food, who are accustomed to physical exercise and whose power of digestion is very strong, the aggravated Doshas get dismissed by the influence of exercise and exposure to wind, sun as well as fire. They are capable of tolerating the effects of antagonistic diet, intake of food before the previous meal has been digested and indigestion. Such patients are given oleation therapy, and are protected from the aggravation of Vayu. They are protected from the aggravation of Vayu. They should not be given purgation therapy unless they are affected by a serious disease. [81-82]
Read – Vyayama Shakti Pariksha Examination Of Capacity To Exercise

Unctuous and Ununctuous Type of Purgation

नातिस्निग्धशरीराय दद्यात् स्नेहविरेचनम्|
स्नेहोत्क्लिष्टशरीराय रूक्षं दद्याद्विरेचनम्||८३||
nātisnigdhaśarīrāya dadyāt snehavirecanam|
snehotkliṣṭaśarīrāya rūkṣaṃ dadyādvirecanam||83||

Unctuous type of purgation therapy is not to be given to a person whose body is excessively unctuous. To the person whose whole body is saturated with unctuousness, a non-unctuous type of purgation is given. [83]

Appropriate Administration of Purgation Therapy

एवं ज्ञात्वा विधिं धीरो देशकालप्रमाणवित्|
विरेचनं विरेच्येभ्यः प्रयच्छन्नापराध्यति||८४||
evaṃ jñātvā vidhiṃ dhīro deśakālapramāṇavit|
virecanaṃ virecyebhyaḥ prayacchannāparādhyati||84||

A wise physician who is acquainted with the above mentioned procedure (for the administration of purgation including emetic therapies), and  who is well- versed with the nature of the land, seasons and dosage, does not commit errors in the administration of purgation including emetic therapies to persons for whom these therapies are indicated. [84]

Proper administration of therapies

विभ्रंशो विषवद्यस्य सम्यग्योगो यथाऽमृतम्|
कालेष्ववश्यं पेयं च तस्माद्यत्नात् प्रयोजयेत्||८५||
vibhraṃśo viṣavadyasya samyagyogo yathā’mṛtam|
kāleṣvavaśyaṃ peyaṃ ca tasmādyatnāt prayojayet||85||

Purgation including emetic therapies work like poison if inappropriately administrated. If properly administered, these work like ambrosia.
It is essential to administer these therapies at the time of need. Therefore, these therapies are to be administered carefully. [85]

Dosage

द्रव्यप्रमाणं तु यदुक्तमस्मिन्मध्येषु तत् कोष्ठवयोबलेषु|
तन्मूलमालम्ब्य भवेद्विकल्प्यं तेषां विकल्प्योऽभ्यधिकोनभावः||८६||
dravyapramāṇaṃ tu yaduktamasminmadhyeṣu tat koṣṭhavayobaleṣu|
tanmūlamālambya bhavedvikalpyaṃ teṣāṃ vikalpyo’bhyadhikonabhāvaḥ||86||

The dosage of recipes described in this section is with reference to persons having moderate type of Kostha (nature of bowel movement), age and strength. Keeping this standard in view, changes in the dosage could be done either by its increases or decrease. [86]
Read – How Dose Of Ayurvedic Medicine Is Decided? 7 Factors

Table of weights and Measures

षड् ध्वंश्यस्तु मरीचिः स्यात् षण्मरीच्यस्तु सर्षपः|
अष्टौ ते सर्षपा रक्तास्तण्डुलश्चापि तद्द्वयम्||
धान्यमाषो भवेदेको धान्यमाषद्वयं यवः|
अण्डिका ते तु चत्वारस्ताश्चतस्रस्तु माषकः||
हेमश्च धान्यकश्चोक्तो भवेच्छाणस्तु ते त्रयः|
शाणौ द्वौ द्रङ्क्षणं विद्यात् कोलं बदरमेव च||
विद्याद्द्वौ द्रङ्क्षणौ कर्षं सुवर्णं चाक्षमेव च|
बिडालपदकं चैव पिचुं पाणितलं तथा||
तिन्दुकं च विजानीयात् कवलग्रहमेव च|
द्वे सुवर्णे पलार्धं स्याच्छुक्तिरष्टमिका तथा||
द्वे पलार्धे पलं मुष्टिः प्रकुञ्चोऽथ चतुर्थिका|
बिल्वं षोडशिका चाम्रं द्वे पले प्रसृतं विदुः||
अष्टमानं तु विज्ञेयं कुडवौ द्वौ तु मानिका|
पलं चतुर्गुणं विद्यादञ्जलिं कुडवं तथा||
चत्वारः कुडवाः प्रस्थश्चतुःप्रस्थमथाढकम्|
पात्रं तदेव विज्ञेयं कंसः प्रस्थाष्टकं तथा||
कंसश्चतुर्गुणो द्रोणश्चार्मणं नल्वणं च तत्|
स एव कलशः ख्यातो घटमुन्मानमेव च||
द्रोणस्तु द्विगुणः शूर्पो विज्ञेयः कुम्भ एव च|
गोणीं शूर्पद्वयं विद्यात् खारीं भारं तथैव च||
द्वात्रिंशतं विजानीयाद्वाहं शूर्पाणि बुद्धिमान्|
तुलां शतपलं विद्यात् परिमाणविशारदः||
शुष्कद्रव्येष्विदं मानमेवमादि प्रकीर्तितम्|९८|
ṣaḍ dhvaṃśyastu marīciḥ syāt ṣaṇmarīcyastu sarṣapaḥ|
aṣṭau te sarṣapā raktāstaṇḍulaścāpi taddvayam||
dhānyamāṣo bhavedeko dhānyamāṣadvayaṃ yavaḥ|
aṇḍikā te tu catvārastāścatasrastu māṣakaḥ||
hemaśca dhānyakaścokto bhavecchāṇastu te trayaḥ|
śāṇau dvau draṅkṣaṇaṃ vidyāt kolaṃ badarameva ca||
vidyāddvau draṅkṣaṇau karṣaṃ suvarṇaṃ cākṣameva ca|
biḍālapadakaṃ caiva picuṃ pāṇitalaṃ tathā||
tindukaṃ ca vijānīyāt kavalagrahameva ca|
dve suvarṇe palārdhaṃ syācchuktiraṣṭamikā tathā||
dve palārdhe palaṃ muṣṭiḥ prakuñco’tha caturthikā|
bilvaṃ ṣoḍaśikā cāmraṃ dve pale prasṛtaṃ viduḥ||
aṣṭamānaṃ tu vijñeyaṃ kuḍavau dvau tu mānikā|
palaṃ caturguṇaṃ vidyādañjaliṃ kuḍavaṃ tathā||
catvāraḥ kuḍavāḥ prasthaścatuḥprasthamathāḍhakam|
pātraṃ tadeva vijñeyaṃ kaṃsaḥ prasthāṣṭakaṃ tathā||
kaṃsaścaturguṇo droṇaścārmaṇaṃ nalvaṇaṃ ca tat|
sa eva kalaśaḥ khyāto ghaṭamunmānameva ca||
droṇastu dviguṇaḥ śūrpo vijñeyaḥ kumbha eva ca|
goṇīṃ śūrpadvayaṃ vidyāt khārīṃ bhāraṃ tathaiva ca||
dvātriṃśataṃ vijānīyādvāhaṃ śūrpāṇi buddhimān|
tulāṃ śatapalaṃ vidyāt parimāṇaviśāradaḥ||
śuṣkadravyeṣvidaṃ mānamevamādi prakīrtitam|98|

The tables of weights and measures used in Ayurveda is as follows:
(the basic weight is Dhvamsi which is also called trasarenu. According to some physicians, it is also called Dhuli or a floating dust particle)
6 Dhvamsis make one Marici
6 maricis make one (rakta) Sarapa (lit. Red mustard seed);
8 Rakta- Sarasapas make one Tandula (lit grain of rice)
2 Tandulas make one Dhanya- Masa (lit black gram)
2 Dhanya-Masas make one Yava (lit. Grain of Barley)
4 Yavas make one Andika.
4 Andikas make one Massaka (Masa); [it is equivalent to 1 Gram}; its synonyms are Hema and Dhanyaka
3 Masas make one Sana; (It is equivalent to 3 grams)
2 Sanas make on Dranksana; (it is equivalent to grams); its synonyms are Kola and Badara;
2 Dranksanas make one Karsa (It is equivalent to 12 grams); its synonyms are Suvarna, Aksa, Bidala- Padaka, Picu, Pani-tala, Tinduka and Kavala- Graha
2 Suvarnas (Karsas) make one Palardha, i.e half Pala; its is equivalent to 48 grams); its synonyms are Musti, Prakunca, caturthika, Biva, Sodasika and Amra;
2 palardha make One Pala; (it is equivalent to 48 grams); its synonyms are Musti, Prakunca, Caturthika, Bulva, Sodasika and Amra.
2 Palas make one Prasrta; (it is equalient to 96 grams); its synonym is Astamana
4 Palas make one Anjali; (it is equalient to192 grams) its synonym is Kudava
2 Kudavas make one Manika; (it is equalient to 384 grams);
4 Kuduvas make one Prastha; (it is equalient to 768 grams)
4 Prasthas make one Adhaka; (it is equivalent to 3.072 kilograms); its synonyms is Patra
2 Adhakas (8 Prasthas) make one Kamsa; (it is equivalent to 6.144 kilograms)
4 kamsas make one Drona; (it is equivalent to 24.576 kilograms); its synonymous are Armana, Nalvana, Kalasa, Ghata and Unmana.
2 Dronas make one Surpa; (it is equivalen to 49. 152 kilograms); its synonym is Kumbha;
2 Supas make one Goni; (It is equival to 98. 304 kilograms); its synonyms are Khari and Dhara;
32 surpas make one Vaha; (it is equivalent to 1572. 864 kilograms and
100 palas make one Tula; (it is equivalent to 4.800 kilograms).

The above mentioned and such other weights and measures are applicable to dried articles and food ingredient.  [87- ½ 98]

Doubling the quantity of Liquids and fresh drugs

द्विगुणं तद्द्रवेष्विष्टं तथा सद्योद्धृतेषु च||
यद्धि मानं तुला प्रोक्ता पलं वा तत् प्रयोजयेत्|
अनुक्ते परिमाणे तु तुल्यं मानं प्रकीर्तितम्||९९||
dviguṇaṃ taddraveṣviṣṭaṃ tathā sadyoddhṛteṣu ca||
yaddhi mānaṃ tulā proktā palaṃ vā tat prayojayet|
anukte parimāṇe tu tulyaṃ mānaṃ prakīrtitam||99||

Liquids are freshly collected. Herbs are taken in double the prescribed quantity for a recipe. If, in a recipe, the unit of measurement is described in the form of Tula or Pala, then the drug of the same weight (without any change) is used. When the weight of the ingredients in a recipe is not specified, then all these ingredients should be taken in equal quantities. [98 ½- 99]
Read – Collection And Preservation Of Ayurvedic Herbs

Use of water

द्रवकार्येऽपि चानुक्ते सर्वत्र सलिलं स्मृतम्|
यतश्च पादनिर्देशश्चतुर्भागस्ततश्च सः||१००||
dravakārye’pi cānukte sarvatra salilaṃ smṛtam|
yataśca pādanirdeśaścaturbhāgastataśca saḥ||100||

Some recipes are prepared by processing with liquids. If the type of liquid is not specified, then invariably water has to be used for the preparation of such recipes.
When the quantity of the ingredients is specified as Pada (lit. foot) then this implies one fourth in quantity of the main ingredients in the recipe. [100]

Proportion of Ingredients in preparation of Medicated Ghee, etc.

जलस्नेहौषधानां तु प्रमाणं यत्र नेरितम् |
तत्र स्यादौषधात् स्नेहः स्नेहात्तोयं चतुर्गुणम्||१०१||
jalasnehauṣadhānāṃ tu pramāṇaṃ yatra neritam |
tatra syādauṣadhāt snehaḥ snehāttoyaṃ caturguṇam||101||

If in a recipe of medicated ghee or medicated oil, the quantities of water (liquid), fat (ghee or Oil) and other drugs (to be used in the form of paste) are not specified, then the paste of drugs is one part, the fat (oil or ghee) is four parts and water (including decoction, juice, milk,etc) is sixteen parts, i.e. the fat is four times in quantity of the paste, and water, decoction, etc., is four times in quantity of the fat. [101]
Read – Principles Of Making Herbal Ghee – Ghritham

Three types of paka (cooking)

स्नेहपाकस्त्रिधा ज्ञेयो मृदुर्मध्यः खरस्तथा|
तुल्ये कल्केन निर्यासे भेषजानां मृदुः स्मृतः||
संयाव इव निर्यासे मध्यो दर्वीं विमुञ्चति|
शीर्यमाणे तु निर्यासे वर्तमाने खरस्तथा||१०३||
snehapākastridhā jñeyo mṛdurmadhyaḥ kharastathā|
tulye kalkena niryāse bheṣajānāṃ mṛduḥ smṛtaḥ||
saṃyāva iva niryāse madhyo darvīṃ vimuñcati|
śīryamāṇe tu niryāse vartamāne kharastathā||103||


Medicated ghee or medicated oil is prepared according to three different types of Paka (cooking), Viz., Mrdu-Paka (mild cooking), Madhya –Paka (moderate cooking) and Khara –Paka (hard or strong cooking).
When the liquid fraction of the recipe including the paste takes the consistency of Samyava or Gruel (a preparation of ghee, jaggery and broken  pieces of wheat in a bolus form), and when the liquid including the paste slides down from the ladle, then this is called Madhya-Paka or moderate cooking.
If the liquid along with the paste snaps when rolled by fingers, it is called Khara-Paka (strong or hard cooking). [102-103]

Therapeutic effects of Medicated Oil Prepared According to Three Types of Paka

खरोऽभ्यङ्गे स्मृतः पाको, मृदुर्नस्तःक्रियासु च|
मध्यपाकं तु पानार्थे बस्तौ च विनियोजयेत्||१०४||
kharo’bhyaṅge smṛtaḥ pāko, mṛdurnastaḥkriyāsu ca|
madhyapākaṃ tu pānārthe bastau ca viniyojayet||104||

Medicated oil, etc, prepared according to Khara-paka (strong or hard cooking) are useful for massage. Those prepared according to Mrdu-Paka (mild cooking) are useful for inhalation / errhine therapy. Those prepared according to Madhya-Paka (moderate cooking) are useful for being taken internally as a potion and also for medicated enema.  [104]
Read – Ayurvedic Herbal Oil Making: Principles, Method, Examples, Demo

Two traditions for Weights and Measures

मानं च द्विविधं प्राहुः कालिङ्गं मागधं तथा|
कालिङ्गान्मागधं श्रेष्ठमेवं मानविदो विदुः||१०५||
mānaṃ ca dvividhaṃ prāhuḥ kāliṅgaṃ māgadhaṃ tathā|
kāliṅgānmāgadhaṃ śreṣṭhamevaṃ mānavido viduḥ||105||

Weights and measures are two different types, viz, Kalinga (those traditionally used in the ancient land of Kalinga – Part of present Orissa) and Magadha (those traditionally used in the ancient land of Magadha – part of present day Bihar). The latter is better than the former. [105]

Summary of Kalpa section

तत्र श्लोकौ-
कल्पार्थः शोधनं सञ्ज्ञा पृथग्घेतुः प्रवर्तने|
देशादीनां फलादीनां गुणा योगशतानि षट्||
विकल्पहेतुर्नामानि तीक्ष्णमध्याल्पलक्षणम्|
विधिश्चावस्थिको मानं स्नेहपाकश्च दर्शितः||१०७||
tatra ślokau-
kalpārthaḥ śodhanaṃ sañjñā pṛthagghetuḥ pravartane|
deśādīnāṃ phalādīnāṃ guṇā yogaśatāni ṣaṭ||
vikalpaheturnāmāni tīkṣṇamadhyālpalakṣaṇam|
vidhiścāvasthiko mānaṃ snehapākaśca darśitaḥ||107||

To sum up: The topics discussed in the Kalpa section are as follows:
Objects of Pharmaceutical process (vide Kalpa 1:3)
Definition of purificatory procedure (vide Kalpa 1:4)
Raison d’ enter of the effects of drugs; (vide Kalpa 1:5)
Characteristics of land etc.; (vide Kalpa 1: 7- 11)
Attributes of Madana-Phala etc. (vide Kalpa 1:12)
Six hundred recipes (vide kalpa 12:41-42)
Purpose of Vikalpa (vide kalpa 1:6)
Synonyms of Drugs (vide Kalpa 1:27; 2:3; 3: 3-4;  4:3 ; 5: 4; 6:3; 7:4; 8:3; 9:3;  10:8; 11:3; 12:3)
Characteristics of recipes having sharp, moderate and mild actions (vide kalpa 12: 51-56)
Management of different types of morbidities; (vide Kalpa 12-59- 85)
Weights and measures and (vide kalpa 12: 87-99, 105)
Methods of preparing medicated oil and ghee; (vide Kalpa 12: 100-104)  {106-107]

Colophon
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेऽप्राप्ते
दृढबलसम्पूरिते कल्पस्थाने दन्तीद्रवन्तीकल्पोनाम द्वादशोऽध्यायः||१२||
ityagniveśakṛte tantrecarakapratisaṃskṛte’prāpte
dṛḍhabalasampūrite kalpasthāne dantīdravantīkalponāma dvādaśo’dhyāyaḥ||12||

Thus, ends the twelfth chapter of kalpa-sthana dealing with the “pharmaceutics of Danti and Dravanti” in Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka, and because of its non- availability, supplemented by Drdhabala.
इतिचरकसंहितायांसप्तमंकल्पस्थानंसम्पूर्णम्|
iti carakasaṃhitāyāṃ saptamaṃ kalpasthānaṃ sampūrṇam|
Thus, ends the seventh section of Charaka Samhitha called Kalpa- Sthana.

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