Collection And Preservation Of Ayurvedic Herbs

Article by Dr MS Krishnamurthy.
Dravya guna is a branch of Ayurveda, which deals with all drugs used in the treatment of diseases, their source, collection, preservation, preparation dosages and uses.

Collection of specific drugs played utmost role in Ayurveda. In Ayurveda has considered that all the drugs are made up of Pancha Mahabhootha. Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, soil, direction, users, etc.

The herbs should also have some characters, not affected by smoke, rain, air or water and also collected in respective season. Drugs must have single predominant taste, well developed, strong such drug may be collected preserve for therapeutic utility.

After collection of the drugs as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important. Otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment.

Herbs and spices in bowls

Drugs are maintained in a sound condition by adopting proper storage and a study of the causes of deterioration enables one to perceive the general principle which must govern the condition of storage. Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment.

Optimal timing for usage:
There is a limitation for the development of every food and medicinal plant. Time consideration is important for plants. Any plant unless fully grown and completely developed does not acquire its attributes of properties and actions mentioned in the books are those of the mature plants, immature plants, if used, do not show the desired effects. Some drugs mature in summer, some in winter and rest in the rainy season, flowering and fruiting makes the plant rich in its properties.

Latex of a plant should be collected before sunrise. Milky juice of cactus is never collected before the plant is two to three years old. Consideration of time for such collection method is important.

To observe the effect of a drug on the body, every second, minute, hour, morning, afternoon, evening, month, year, etc. are considered. Similarly, in the patient, various stages of digestion like aama, semi-digestion, full digestion, precursor stage, pyretic stage, etc. are also important.

Herbs collection and preservation

Herbs – their collection & preservation:
Ayurveda has considered that all the herbs are made up of Pancha Mahabhootas.
Substances of any use, medicinal or dietary are intimately related to the type of land in which they are produced. Therefore, due consideration should be given to the type of land, i.e., soil, land, which ultimately determines the Guna Karma of Dravyas, produced in it, it is classified into 5 types. Though soil is Panchamahabhoota, its composition in relation to individual Mahabhoota varies at different places, hence the change in properties and action.

Parthiv – This type of soil containing stones, is hard, black, with tall tries and grass.
Aapya – This soil is of different colours, full of small stones, brownish white coloured and grassy.
Tejas – Dry, ash coloured, trees scattered dry, hollow and grassy.
Vavyaveeya – This soil is soft but uneven, water tasteless, trees of useless varieties, large mountains and blackish colour.

Soil & water are responsible for the formation of Rasa just as Panchamahabhootas forms various dravyas, herbs, shrubs and climbers continuously ingest water. Water is devoid of Rasa but it is expressed in climbers and plants because of contact with the soil. Therefore, soil and environment become important factor while considering the dravyas.

As all the medicinal dravyas from various sources ae related to soil, its study for fertility and usefulness becomes essential.Infertile land, uneven pits, deep trenches, collection of dirty and waste water, heaps of ant hills, funeral place, temples and desert land are indicative of infertile land.

Fertile land – land having even surface, salt-less near pond or late, where grass grows, soft black, white or red colour without cultivation containing only medicinal plants and no other vegetation, jungle and sadharan land is considered to be fertile.

The possibility of underground gold, silver, iron or copper can be judged by the habitat and growth of plants in that region. It is also rational to think that the same Guna acquired from the metals into the plants would be useful as medicine.

Irrespective of the type of the crude drug and the area of collection, these can be two options that the drug should be collected when they contain maximum concentration of active constituents.

The advantage of the environmental conditions is also taken into consideration while collecting the crude herbs. The drug which constitute leaf and the flowering tops are collected just before they reach flowering stage (maturity).

eg; Senna digitalis, Vinca, belladonna, etc., the leaves of the aloe are collected whe they are sufficiently thick, flowers need to be collected just before pollinated or before their full blooming.

eg; saffron, clove buds, chamomite, etc. the barks ae generally collected in the spring or early summer when the cambium is active as it is easy to detach them from the stem. Sometimes, they are collected in autumn (wild cherry) or in rainy season (cinnamon), fruits ae collected just before their dehiscence of bael and tamarind after their fully maturity while caraway, tennel and corriander are collected when they are fully ripe.

Rhizomes are collected after full vegetative growth of plants, ginger and turmeric. The roots are collected in spring. Before the vegetative procedure stops, Rhizomes and roots are collected when they store ample of reserve food material and maximum quantities of chemical constituent.

The unorganized drug such are resins, gums and lattices are collected as soon as they ooze out of the plant. The general opinion is that the time of collection should coincide with the time when the active ingredients are at their maximum level. They should also be free from insect infestation.

Drugs preservation

Drugs need preservation for future use in treatment. They should be easily available. A drug used as medicine should not come in contact with bacteria, insects, poison, instruments, smoke, sunshine, air, fire and water.

Plants with deep and thick rooks, fulfilling the essential properties of rasa, guna, colour, smell and proportion and plants grown in favorable season are suitable for proper preservation and treatment of diseases.

In India, the Himalayas lie towards the north and there is a belief that moon which is the guardian of the north is the ruler of plant kingdom. Therefore, plants gown in the himalayas and in the northern region, are considered of the best quality and their use is advocated.

The use of Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus and Herpestis moniera are advocated in fresh form and therefore should not be preserved.
Honey, piper longum and Embelia ribes is used after preserving these for one year. The time is required for their maximum efficacy.

Method of drug preservation

For collecting the plants grown in suitable soil as mentioned above, a peson should pluck or uproot the plant after a bath wearing white clothes, mind stabilised by reciting shlokas, praying to gods, Ashwini kumaras, cow, Brahmin and faithfully facing the north or east direction.

East indicates vitalizing the plant energy through the sun and north is the symbol of the moon, the ruler of plants. Similarly, regarding time, Pushya nakshatra, Ashwini nakshatra and Mriga nakshatra are considered to be superior.

Moon being the ruler of pushya and mriga nakshatra, it (moon) transferred its properties into the plant during these nakshatra. This must be related to Aptopadesha.

Just as man is controlled by cosmos, plants are also under the influence of the cosmos. Therefore, the study of environment for their preservation is essential.

Plants collected in the rainy season always tend to perish, therefore rainy season is unsuitable for preservation. Also perennial plants are immature in their Rasas during rainy season. Generally some are plucked at the end of winter and some at the end of autumn since they are fully enriched with their Rasas.

Specific period of preservation

While preserving the plant, its useful parts should also be given due importance. Generally, the part or the specific portion which is considered for use, must grow full – maturity.

ACC – Rajagnighantu, Tuber – Hemant, Root – Shishir, Flower – Vasant, Leaves – Greeshma & Panchang Sharad.
ACC to some other acharyas, root – pravrutt, leaves – varsha, bark – sharad, latex – hemant, juice – vasant, fruit grishma.

Useful parts                                                                                Period

Branches                                                                                  Rainy season or autumn

Leaves                                                                                       Rainy season or autumn

Root                                                                                           Summer or winter

Bark, Tuber                                                                               End of summer or the beginning of winter,
latex of Latex calotropis procera                                        beginning  of summer and End of winter.

Flower, fruit Blossom and fruiting period of the specific plants.

Veerya in drug procurement

Above mentioned seasonal view may not be useful while considering Veerya. Instead of considering specific parts in specific season for drug collection due importance should be given to its veerya.

Sheeta veerya drugs which possess madhur snigdha & sheeta gunas should be collected during visargakala while ushna veerya drug which possess tikta, ruksha & ushna, properties must be collected in adana kala.

Karma in drug procurement

Similar to veerya, consideration of the action of drug is also important. To bring about effective purgation, the drug must be collected from the soil containing prithvi & jala mahabhootas which have a tendency to move downwards.

Similarly, for emesis, the drug is collected from soil predominantly containing agni and vayu mahabhootas which tend to move downwards. Drug acting for both the purposes must be collected from soil containing akash Mahabhoota so that the expected action is achieved.

Sharangdhar mentions that for emetic and purgative action drug should be collected at the end of vasant ritu and for rest of the action in the sharad rutu but the best period is when they are enriched with their Rasa.

Collection of dietary items

Food contains different part of plants like fruit, tuber, seed, panchanga, etc. – Sushruta has laid down the following guidelines:

Fruit – Only ripe (not raw or over ripe), fruit are collected. The exception is Aegle marmelos which is collected in a raw form which is very effective fruits which are diseased, insect affected, untimely grown, affected by fire or cold or artificially ripened are not to be collected.

Vegetables – over ripe, worms and insect affected, spoilt, grown in dirty soil, untimely tasteless and dried vegetable should not be collected (exception is radish). Vegetables which are soft, mature, unspoilt, grown in proper season and soil are wet are advocated for consumption.

Kanda – Tuber which are raw, untimely grown, old, diseased and eaten by insects should be discarded. They should be well nourished, timely grown and pest-free.

cereals

Cereals – Cereals which are affected by too much heat or cold fire, poisonous gases, insect affected, wet grown in unsuitable soil, untimely, with other cereals and valueless should be discarded and those of suitable quantity must be collected.

Collection of animal origin drugs

Similar consideration must be given to the collection of drugs of animal origin. Animals from whom blood, hair or nails are to be collected, must be fully grown. (These animals mature at ¼ th the age of the total life span of the species.. this span varies with different species.) Similarly, milk, urine, etc. of animals is collected after complete digestion of their food.

Preservation of drugs

After collection of the drug as mentioned above, preservation and protection is equally important, otherwise the drugs once spoiled cannot be used in treatment for this season, the drugs in the store room must be protected from wet soil, dust, water, fire, smoke, dirt, vapour, rats, cockroaches, ants, flies, etc. Even the containers like vessels, jars, drum, etc. must be such that they will not affect the rasa, properties and action of drugs.

Efficacy of sheeta veerya drugs increases if kept in cold storage or refrigerator. At least it will not decrease. In olden days, such medicines were kept in earthen pots, coconut kernel, covering of hard fruits and brass vessels. But now many varieties of containers are available where it can be protected in a better way.

Potency period of the drug

The main aim of collection and preservation of the drug is to maintain its potency by conserving its properties and action. Even the best selected and protected medicine loses its effectiveness after a certain period. Generally they are potent for one year. Therefore, a proper label giving the date of manufacture, batch number and the expiry date must be attached.

The successful preservation of drug depends on air, changing seasons, container and packaging. Then the potency of a drug will be preserved for a longer period. Sunshine, humid air, rainy season, torn or open container immediately depotentiate the drug, making it ineffective.

Preservation of fresh and dried specimens

Different methods are followed for preserving dry and green plants. This is useful for identification.

Leaves of the plant in intact condition must be pressed between two sheets of blotting paper to absorb humidity. Then they must be stuck or stitched to the paper, treated with liquid hydrogen per chloride or clipped in gelatine and then dried. This process helps preservation for a longer period.

Better than this method is the preparation of mega slides. It maintains the natural color, appearance and shape of the specimen and hence it is more suitable.

Plant specimen preservation method

Method of preserving the specimen of plants in natural state: 
(Dr. Mrs. Shyamalatai Chitale’s technique)
Branch of a tree or a creeper bearing leaves and flowers or small sprout with the primary root is collected and immediately dipped for 5 minutes in the mixture mentioned below. If the flowers and leaves are too delicate for the mixture then the sample must be sprinkled with the mixture and then spread on blotting paper for 1-2 hours under pressure. The mixture is prepared by 5 to 1- gms. of tannin powder dissolved in 500 ml of water boiled and filtered and preserved in glass or stainless steel container or jar with a tight lid.

10 gm. of camphor & 10 gm. of menthol are mixed with equal quantity of castor oil and kerosene to make up to one liter. Camphor & menthol take 10-15 minutes to dissolve uniformly in the mixture. The solution is applied to a paper with help of a brush and then spread over the sample.

Another paper is kept on the sample after spreading it with the mixture. Then the sample is wrapped between the two papers. A hot iron is used to dry the sample by pressing the upper paper which is removed repeatedly to test the dryness of sample. Then it is transferred between the cloth fold and again a hot iron press is used to absorb the remaining moisture by the cloth. Left over solution makes the sealing of the sample in a polythene bag , difficult.

A sample prepared in the manner described above is scaled in a polythene bag for the process, a sample is kept between two polythene sheets of required thickness and then transferred between the fold of the cloth bag. A hot iron press is applied over the cloth.

The two polythene paper stick together because of the pressure and heat applied. While sealing the polythene bag it is repeatedly observed that excess of heat is prevented which may burn or wrinkle the polythene bags. Practice, experience and a use of proper hot press makes the sealing optimum.

Principles of this method and its advantages:
Tannic acid is the best preservative of the colour even then excess of acid may change the colour, for example, Hibiscus rosa sinesis change from red to violet many times. Citric acid is used along with tannic acid to preserve the red color. Application of lemon juice over the hibiscus flower for 3-4 minutes induces dehydration and pressure the rend color of the flowers.

Pressure and artificial heat of the hot press dehydrates the sample rapidly. Infiltration of this oily mixture helps to preserve and protect the color of the plants. Oily mixture also makes the sample transparent for examination of the internal structure as well as protect it from insects and fungi.

Oil mixture makes the sample soft and elastic sealed polythene bag protects it from becoming friable and also makes it easier to observe the sample from both dorsal and ventral surfaces. This transparent sample can be better studied under the microscope. Overall, it helps to identify the sample in an easy way.

Chitale’s technique is the best modern preservative method to study plants. Even then the old method of preservation should be known and was as follows:-
Collected fresh and wet leaves after cleaning and drying were kept between two sheets of blotting paper under pressure in a frame. Humidity is absorbed by the blotting paper and the required aeration is given by opening the press intermittently.

Wet paper is also changed frequently. By this process, the sample dries subsequently it can be glued or tied to drawing paper before this process it is treated with a solution of 1:1000 hydrogen per chloride to protect it from insects, mites and fungus.

In this method, even after following all the precautions, the natural color fades and gets spoiled by air after some days. Rainy season is not suitable for preservation by this method as no precaution can prevent fungal growth in this season. Best season is between October & June.

Fresh plant preservation process

The process of preservation of fresh plants:
Green wet plants dipped in 5-10% formalin in an air tight jar remains for many years in the original form which can be used for identification of the plant. For medicinal use, these plants are incorporated in formulations which are based on honey oil or ghee, fruits and vegetables are preserved in air tight jars, wet plants can be preserved in polythene bags for a long duration (needs scientific research).

While preserving fresh power or tablets the old ones must be discarded completely to prevent the danger of using non-effective drugs. Wet & fresh vegetables can be preserved for 7-8 days in air tight plastic bags.

Ref: Sushruta sutra 37/12-13

Drugs whether fresh or old and emitting a contrary smell or in any way affected as regards their natural sap or juice should not be used for pharmaceutical purposed. The virtues of such medicinal drugs and substance such as vidanga, pippali, madhu improve (after a year). Accordingly, all drugs and medicinal herbs excepting the preceding ones should be used fresh and unsoiled or uninjured by insects.

Plant parts collection – Guidelines

Guidelines regarding collection of individual plant parts:
Stem – This is ideally collected when the plant has reached maturity and full growth. The special period for the harvesting of stem is when the interior part is collected after 20 years. Guduchi is at least 2 years old before collected.
Stem bark – is collected in Sharad rutu.
Fruit – are collected according to yielding season and when they achieve full growth and maturity. Eg: Amalaki fruits which can be dried and preserved. those which are used fresh.
Branches – is collected when the tree is shedding its leaves as in cold season. eg: Teja patra.
Root – Grishma season
Flowers – are collected during vasantha ruthu since this is the flowering season. However, there are many exceptions like Kutaja tree flowers during the Varsha rutu and jasmine flowers during Grishma rutu.
Generally speaking, flowers should be collected according to the season when they bloom.
Leaves – tender leaves should be collected during vasantha ruthu and well grown mature leaves are collected during vasantha ruthu.

Generally the leaves are collected before the following season:
Special direction for collection
When the roots are very big and thick the roots bark should be collected. eg., Brahat panchamula are to be collected the innermost part of the stem, i.e. the sara has to be collected.
Collection of herb according to their potency.

Collection schedule of different part of the drug:
Underground parts are collected after shedding to facilitate regeneration.
Generally collected in autumn in 1st year of growth or in spring before the beginning of 2nd year growth as root and other underground parts are the storage organ and accumulate active principle during the summer.
Do least clogging for the collection of underground parts.
Tubers/bulbs is collected during flowering because this aids in identification of the species.
Bark are harvested from mature plants during spring or autumn because this time when the flow of sap is at maximum and bark radically detached from the wood.
Collected from the branches instead of main trunk.
Do not harvest when plant is sprouting.
Do not peel whole bark of plant.
Strip the bark longitudinally and not all over the circumference to trunk / branches.
Cut into small pieces to facilitate complete drying .
Do not remove all the branches of plant.
Harvest only mature branches for stem.
Dry the herbs properly before packing and storing.
Leaves, flowers, fruit seeds and floral are harvested when they are mature.

Preservative

PRESERVATIVE:
A preservative is a substance which is added to pharmaceutical formulations to prevent or inhibit the growth of micro organism in the preparations. They are added to all formulations which are to be stored for long period of time and the ingredients of which support microbial growth.

The emulsions and suspensions (eg., Phanta, Kvatha) containing H2O and carbohydrates as emulsifying and suspending agents respectively must be suitably preserved because water and carbohydrates provide very good medium for the multiplication of bacteria and molds.

A preservative is unnecessary in multi-dose containers prepared by heating with bactericide because they already contain a lethal substance, nor they are necessary in preparations which contain medicaments having bactericidal properties.

Choice of preservative:
It is effective against a wide rage of microorganizms.
It should be compatible with other ingredients of the formation.
It should be soluble in aqueous phase when used in emulsion.
It should be non-toxic.
It should be free from odour and taste.
It should preserve the preparation and remain stable for the shelf life of the products.

No single preservative possess all the qualities, therefore it becomes necessary to use a combination of preservatives to prevent the growth of microorganizms. The most commonly used preservatives are as follows:-
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate 0.1 to 0.2%
Salicylic acid 0.1%
Phenol 0.2 – 0.5%
Chlorocresol 0.05 – 0.1%
Alcohol 15 – 20%
Chlorobutanol 0.5%
Phenylmercuric nitrate 0.002 – 0.005%
Scorbic acid & its salt 0.05 – 0.2%
Benzalkonium chloride 0.004 – 0.02%
Methyl paraben & propyl paraben 0.1 – 0.2%

Ayurvedic pharmacy

AYURVEDIC PHARMACY
In Ayurvedic pharmacology, pharmacy is a well advanced branch. Crude drugs are rarely administered, various formulations ranging from simple distallates (arka), decoctions (Kwatha), linctus (leha, avaleha) and poweders (churna) to elaborate pharmaceutical preparations like pills of different sizes and medicated oils are available. In liquid formulation too a wide range exists. These are swarara kwatha, phanta and alcoholic extracts. The potency is highest in fresh juice and lowest in cold water.

Before entering into the selection and processing of ausadhi for therapeutic purpose, it is necessary to get acquainted about the selection of place and construction of the pharmacy.

Construction

While selecting a place for the establishment of a pharmacy and during construction, following points should be kept in view:
It should be free from impediments – both man-made and providential.
Green & dried herbs should be available in the campus or nearby or they can be cultivated and stored inside.
It should look beautiful and be located near the sources of water like well, ponds and river.
The area should be surrounded by a boundary wall.
The statue of Rasa Bhairava should be located in the eastern side.
In agni kona (south-east direction) fire place should be located in the southern side.
Equipments for trituration, making paste, etc., should be located in the southern side.
Nairutya kona (place in the south-east direction) should be used for manufacturing and storing yantra (cooking equipments).
The place in western side should be used for washing.
Green herbs and freshly prepared medicines should be dried in the vayuvya kona.
The place in the northern side should be used for processing mercury and other metals as well as minerals.
Bhasma (processed fine powders of mercury, metals and minerals) tablets, medicated oils, medicated ghee, linctus should be stored in the house located in the isana kona (north eastern direction).

Equipments, raw drugs

The following equipment and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in the pharmaceutical laboratory:
Pestles & mortars of different size and shape. These are made of either stone or iron or crystals.
Bottles, pots, cups, plates, utensils & jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished products.
Equipments like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, scissors, sieves, crucibles & yantras.
Weighing machines and balances of different capacity & shape.
Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.
Mercury, other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poisons of vegetable origin, salts, alkalies, gems & jewels.

Plan for pharmacy

According to modern pharmaceutics, the pharmacy should be constructed near to hospital. The space and equipment required for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals depends on the number and type of products to be prepared and the processes involved in the production.

Since each dosage from required specilized production equipments and techniques, there may be separate areas of production for tablets, capsules, liquids, ointments and parenteral preparation, etc. In the manufacture of all sorts of preparations, various steps are involved which require space and special equipment.

The total pharmacy is planned in the form of square shape, it will be divided into two parts the space is allowed for the passage. In one part, the total area is divided into three divisions, first division is meant for sterilization purpose which is called aseptic section.

Second division contains different machines related with manufacturing of medicines. The next division is divided further into three parts in one part raw material is stored, in second part, the semi processed raw materials will be stored and on the third part the finished products will be stored.

The second major division of the pharmacy is again further divided into one small part and large part in small part the administrative unit is arranged , the large part contains different types of counters meant for dispense different types of medicines this part also includes reception.

Factory premises

Manufacturer should have adequate space –
Receiving & storing raw materials (it may be animal / herbal origin).
It should have adequate space for manufacturing process area.
eg. In Ayurveda pharmacy they prepare taila, Aasava, Arishta, etc. there are some particular places are mentioned for preparation of pisti there should be 100 sq.ft. for Churna, Asava, Arista – 200 sq.ft.
Kajjali – 100 sq.ft.
Syrups – 150 sq.ft.
All the section of these preparation should be separately made.

Each pharmacy / factory should have adequate space for quality control. Each and every batch of medicine should be experimented by giving to animals. This is known the efficacy of medicine.
Should have adequate space for finished good store. The finished product should be stored in well hygienic place.
Adequate space for rejected gods / drugs. By quality control some of the products of medicines are rejected. Even the breakage goods should be discarded. Even some of the raw materials also rejected.

Location & surroundings-
Medicine should be prevented by contamination products like –
Open sewage
Drainage
Public factory which produces some dust fumes or some chemical gases.

Buildings-
Some minimum standard of materials should be used to construct a building.
The building should have –
adequate light and ventilation
the walls should not be damped, i.e., moisture which may spoil the medicine.

Arrangement of section is done to avoid the mixation of some drugs contamination, etc. Thus the building should be like this where no step of manufacture should be missed.
Building should be constructed such a way that the insect, worms should not enter.
Flooring should be smooth and even, should not permit the accumulation of dust and waste product –
water supply
disposal of waste
workers health
some records should be maintained
record of market complaints.

In ancient day certain rules and regulations, to construct pharmacy, they constructed in such a way that they give importance to all things like raw drug collection, preservation and preparation. It is adopted in 1940 June 22.
The concept of ancient, modern pharmacy are same but techniques are different:
Water supply- Water used in manufacture of medicine should be pure and potable quality, adequate, provision of water supply.
Disposal of waste – There should be separate chamber for disposal of waste. To avoid the contamination of the medicine, the waste should be disposed in such a way that it should not hamper the environment.
Containers cleaning – In pharmacy some containers like bottle, jars, vessels, there should be adequate arrangement to wash clean and drying of the containers and such others.
Stores – Storage should have proper ventilation and free from dampness.
It should have adequate space for storage of raw material:
package material
finished products
Raw materials are of different category:
metallic origin
mineral origin
animal sources
fresh herbs & dry herbs
Packing materials:
Bottles, jars, capsules
All packing materials should be moist free.
Finished goods store: means the prepared medicine, packed labelled finished goods are dispatched from the production area and this is moved to approved goods store are and then it should be marketed. Along with this a minimum quality standard of equipments should be used in the preparation of medicine.
Batch manufacturing records:Record of market complaints through some medical representatives, the medicine is despatched. The medical representatives should consult with the physician and then it is dispatched to the market.

Quality control section

Quality control section shall verify all the raw materials, monitor in process quality checks and control the quality of finished product being released to finished good store. Preferable for such quality control there should be separate expert quality control section.
For identification of raw drugs, reference book and reference sample should maintain. Manufacturing record should maintain for various process.
To verify the finished product controlled sample of finished product of each batch will be kept for 3 years.
Manufacturers who are manufacturing patent proprietary ayurveda medicine shall provide their own specification and control references in respect of such formulatory drug.
The record of specific method and procedure of operation i.e., Bhasma, Mardana, Puta of every process carried out by the manufacture shall be maintained.
The standards for identity, purity and strength as given in respective pharmacopoeias of Ayurveda system of medicine published by Govt. of India shall be compiled with.
All the new material will be monitored for fungal, bacterial contamination with a view to minimize such contamination.
Quality control section will have minimum of 1 person with degree qualification in Ayurveda as per Schedule II of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1990 of a recognized university or Board provided the Bachelor of Pharmacy, Pharmocognacy & Chemistry may be associated with quality control section.

A site for the pharmacy is chosen where there is no obstacle of any kind where all medicinal herbs are available which is beneficial and beautiful to look at and consists of a well pharmacy building is built at the north position and north-west portion or eastern part of a site this Rasashala should be equipped with all kind of equipment and is beautiful to look at and should be surrounded with the compounds.

Rasa Bhairava is installed at the eastern side of the pharmacy all the instrument relating to fire work are assembled at the southern part grinding work is performed. An arrangement is made for the process using sharp instrument at the south west position of pharmacy.

In the western region, there should be facility for all kinds of cleaning, washing, etc. drying operation should be done at north western corners and the vedha karma is carried out at southern region of pharmacy. At north eastern part, arrangement is made for storage of prepared medicine as well as raw mineral drug.

Equipments & Raw Drugs:
All the equipments such as Kosti like Satava Pathana, Pathala Kosti, , water storage tank or conainer of different stage or Vastrika metalic and bamboo, pipes, vessels and utensils of gold, iron, copper, bronze, leather and many other useful instrument equipment as well as material drugs, etc. are collected and stored in the pharmacy.

Similarly, different type of Peshani, Droni, kinds of mortars and suitable pestles, the sieves consisting 1000 of tiny holes for filtering of liquid, knives and such other things are kept, ready in the pharmacy apart from these mud used for preparation of Musa, tula, cotton, cow-dung cakes, floor and all the 3 kind of drugs are stored also coal dried cow-dung powder, sand bottle made of glass mud, etc., should be preserved in the pharmacy various type of pot and vessels specially for heating, cooking the medicine and large knife for cutting are stored.

The following equipments and raw drugs which are frequently required should be stored in pharmacy:
Pestles & mortars of different size & shape – these are made of either stone or iron or crystals.
Bottles, pots, cups, blades, utensils and jars made of glass, mud, wood as well as metals for storing raw drugs and finished product.
Equipments like forceps, spatula, spoon, knife, sieves, yantras, weighing machines and balances of different capacity and shape.
Different types of fuel like wood, cow-dung cake, coal, charcoal & husk.
Hg other metals, minerals, drugs of vegetable origin, animal products, poison of vegeable / animal origin, salt, alkalies, gems & jewels.

References

Vagbhata Astangahrdaya, eg. Lal Chanda Varanasi; Motilal Banarasi Das 1963
Ragavana Arkaprakasa, ed. Mukundram; Bombay : Laxsmi Venkatesvar press, Kalyan, Samvat 2013; Saka 1878.
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Ayurvedic pharmacology & Therapeutic uses of medicinal plant, Author – Vaidya V.M.Gogte (1910-1987)
Translation – The Academic team of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s
Publisher – Swamy Prakashanada Ayurveda Research Centre (SPARC), Mumbai, General Editor- S.Ramakrishnan
Dravya Guna Vignana, Author – Dr. S.L.N.Sastry
Publisher – Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, Edition – 2004
Ayurvedia Rasasasthra, Author – Dr. Chandrabhushanja
Publisher – Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, Edition – 2000
Rasarathna Samuchchaya, Author – Dr. Indra Devatripathi
Publisher – Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, Edition – 1997
Ayurvedia Rasasasthra, Author – Dr. Siddhinandhan Mishra
Publisher – Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi Edition – 1981
Bhaisajya Kalpana Vignana, Author – Dr. Ramachandra Reddy
Publisher – Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi, Edition – 2001

2 thoughts on “Collection And Preservation Of Ayurvedic Herbs”

  1. Dr. Hebbar your and your team like Dr. Krishnamurthy articles are very much useful, you are doing excellent academic, therapeutic and research contribution to Ayurveda, best wishes.

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