By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Our body is made up of 7 tissues. They are – lymph / plasma, blood, muscles, fat, bones, bone marrow and semen. These tissues not only form the anatomical make of our body but also would provide the first and best line of defense. The healthier the tissues, the healthier are our body and mind. The health, structural and functional balance of our tissues also determines our immunity, fitness, compactness and endurance.
Sara = essence / richness / substance / strength / superlative quality
Pariksha = examination
Examination of the essence and quality of tissues is very important in the clinical examination of the patient. Sara pariksha is one among the tenfold patient examination explained by Master Charaka.
Read – 10 Factors Of Patient Examination – Dasha Vidha Atura Pareeksha
Table of Contents
Analysis of Sara pareeksha
When any particular tissue is rich in its essence and qualities they would show the signs of their richness. These signs are called sara lakshanas or signs of richness of that particular tissue. These signs are tissue specific and have been enlisted separately in our classics. They help the physician to find out which tissue is rich in its essence in which person.
Particular person enriched with the quality and quantity of a particular tissue will be declared to have the sara of that particular tissue. Example – if the blood tissue is rich in a given person it will be found out because of presence of signs of richness of essence of this particular tissue i.e. rakta sara lakshanas. Such a person will be called as raktasara purusha i.e. a person having richness of essence of blood tissue.
Read – Dhatu – 7 Body Tissues As Explained In Ayurveda
Do all people have a richness of all tissues?
No, all persons will not have richness of all tissues. There will be predominance of one or the other tissues over the other tissues and that will demarcate its richness in comparison to the other tissues.
Is richness of one tissue equal to increase in tissue?
Increase in tissue is a pathological condition (dhatu vriddhi). The richness of essence of tissue is totally different from increase of tissue and should not be confused with the same. Richness of the essence of tissue is physiological and may be genetic also. It indicates that one tissue is richer than the other. It doesn’t indicate dominance of that tissue over the other.
Similarly, when one tissue is richer, the other tissues are not poorer. The other tissues are also physiologically competent and anatomically enriched with their properties. Their richness is lesser than that of the richer tissue. Thus, the tissues which are not richer in a particular person do not denote pathological decrease. The question of relative imbalance too doesn’t come into the question.
Read – Difference Between The Terms Prasada And Sara
Importance of Sara Pariksha
Sometimes the physician just by considering the physical appearance of the patient may fall into a suspicion of considering – A well-built person as a strong individual and a lean person as weaker individual
The strength of a person cannot be generalized on physical appearance and build of the patient. This will put the physician in the wrong track in terms of diagnosing the diseases, analyzing the strength and endurance of the patient, to decide the prognosis of a disease and also to prescribe medications and therapies.
Clear analysis and study of the richness of the essence of tissue in a given person will help the physician in properly understanding the disease, strength and endurance of the patient and also will help in making proper prognosis, diagnosis and implementing suitable interventions without jumping into wrong conclusions.
Read – How To Make Prognosis Of Disease According To Ayurveda?
Master Charaka has stressed upon the examination of the richness of essence of the tissue to prevent the physician from making this mistake of ‘deciding the strength of the patient on the basis of physical appearance’.
Master Charaka further says that on many occasions we get to see a thin person who apparently looks weak will turn out to be stronger. On the other hand, we also see people who are well built and look healthy, fit and strong will actually be weaker persons. Therefore, the strength and tolerance of the patient does not depend on the built and physical appearance.
Master Charaka explains this with an example. We get to see that the ants and small insects in spite of having smaller bodies will carry or push food particles and things which weigh more than their body. Similarly, people with smaller and thinner body frames can be stronger and be capable of doing activities beyond their strength. On the other hand, people with bigger and larger body frames can be weaker and will not be capable of doing even the simplest of tasks which should otherwise be easier for them to do.
This is the reason the examination of sara should be conducted on the patient and necessarily included in the investigation protocol.
Read – Roga, Rogi Pareeksha: Examination Of Disease And Patient
Addition of Sattva Sara
The examination of richness of the essence of mind has also been included in the list of sara examination along with the examination of richness of tissues. Apart from this master Charaka has also included the examination of mind separately amongst the 10-fold examination of the patient. This shows the importance given to the mind and mind examination by our ancient seers and physicians.
Read – Personality Types And Features Based On Satva, Rajas, Tamas
Signs of richness of essence of tissues and mind
1. Twak Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of rasa tissue / enriched skin
a. Characteristic features of persons enriched with rasa tissue is measured on the basis of richness, quality and health of skin. The below mentioned are signs of high-quality rasa tissue in the body –
The skin of these persons is unctuous, smooth, soft, attractive, delicate and lustrous. Likewise, the hairs of these persons are also unctuous, smooth, soft, pleasant, delicate, minute, less distributed and deep rooted.
Read – Signs Of Good Skin Health (Twak Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched rasa tissue is endowed with the below mentioned signs / qualities –
|l No||Signs of richness of rasa tissue||Meaning|
|1||Sukha||Comfort and happiness|
|5||Buddhi||High level of intelligence|
|6||Vidya||Good education and wisdom|
2. Rakta Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of blood tissue / enriched blood
a. The below mentioned are signs of high-quality blood tissue in the body – The ears, eyes, face, tongue, nose, lips, palms, soles, nails, forehead and penis of the person are unctuous, red, beautiful and dazzling.
Read – Signs Of Person Having Enriched Blood (Rakta Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched blood tissue is endowed with the below mentioned signs / qualities –
|Sl No||Signs of richness of bood tissue||Meaning|
|1||Sukha||Comfort and happiness|
|3||Medha||Good grasping power|
|6||Anati balam||Less strength and endurance|
|7||Aklesha sahishnutvam||Inability ro face difficulties and hardships of life|
|8||Ushna asahishnutvam||Heat intolerance|
3. Mamsa Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of enriched muscles
a. The below mentioned are signs of high quality muscle tissue in the body – The temples, forehead, atlanto-occipital joint, eyes, cheek (upper jaw), lower jaw, neck, shoulder, axilla, chest and joints of the limbs are stable, heavy, good looking / attractive and well covered with muscles.
Read – Signs Of Person With Enriched Muscle Tissue (Mamsa Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched muscle tissue is endowed with the below mentioned signs / qualities –
|Sl No||Signs of enriched muscle tissue||Meaning|
|1||Kshama||Ability to forgive others|
4. Meda Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of enriched fat
a. The below mentioned are signs of high quality fat tissue in the body – The complexion voice, eyes, hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, lips, urine and feces have more unctuousness and look oily.
Read – Signs Of Person Having Enriched Fat Tissue (Medo Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched fat tissue is endowed with the below mentioned qualities –
|Sl No||Signs of enriched fat tissue||Meaning|
|7||Sukumara upacharata||Delicate nature and intolerance to strong treatments|
5. Asthi Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of bone tissue / enriched bone
a. The below mentioned are signs of high quality bone tissue in the body – The heels, ankles, knees, forearm, collarbones, chin, head, small joints of hands and feet, bones, nails and teeth are robust and big.
Read – Signs Of Person Having Enriched Bones (Asthi Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched bone tissue is endowed with the below mentioned signs
|Sl No||Quality endowed in those having enriched bone tissue||Meaning|
|3||Klesha Sahatva||Endurance / tolerance to hardships of life|
|4||Sara sharira||Well built body|
|5||Sthira Sharira||Strong and stable body|
6. Majja Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of bone marrow tissue / enriched bone marrow
a. The below mentioned are signs of high quality bone marrow tissue in the body – The person has strong body, soft body parts, unctuous complexion, melodious voice, prominent, long and rounded joints.
Read – Signs Of Person Having Enriched Bone Marrow Tissue (Majja Sara Purusha Lakshanas)
b. The person having enriched bone marrow tissue is endowed with the below mentioned signs / qualities –
|Sl No||Quality endowed in those having enriched bone marrow tissue||Meaning|
|5||Vijnanbhaj||Special knowledge of science|
7. Shukra Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of semen tissue / enriched semen
a. The below mentioned are signs of high quality semen tissue in the body – The person will have gentle look and will be identified with his gentleness, will have milky white eye, good sexual capacity and competence, unctuous – round – firm – even and compact teeth, teeth resemble Arabian jasmine, has pleasant – unctuous complexion and voice has lustrous appearance and will have prominent gluteal parts.
Read – Shukra Sara Purusha Lakshanas – Person With Enriched Reproductive Tissue
b. The person having enriched bone semen is endowed with the below mentioned signs / qualities –
|Sl No||Quality endowed in thosehaving enriched semen tissue||Meaning|
|1||Stri Priyatva||Liked by women|
|2||Stri Upabhogitva||Enjoyment in intercourse|
8. Sattva Sara Purusha Lakshana – Signs of richness of essence of mind / enriched mind qualities
The below mentioned are signs of high quality mind or enriched mind qualities –
|Sl No||Quality of enriched mind||Meaning|
|1||Smritimanta||Have good memory|
|5||Shuchi||Has pure body, mind and thoughts|
|9||Samara vikranta yodhina||Skilled in warfare, valiant in battlefield, great warriors|
|10||Tyakta vishada||Devoid of depression|
|11||Suvyavastitha gati||Movements and activities are well organized|
|12||Gambhira buddhi||Highly intellectuals|
|13||Suvyavasthita gambhira cheshta||Their works are immensely planned, organized and executed|
|14||Kalyana abhiniveshinah||Dedicate themselves for the wellbeing and welfare of other people|
Types of Sara based on the quantity of richness of essence of tissues and mind
1. Sarva Sara Purusha Lakshana – signs of richness of all tissues and mind
Below mentioned are the qualities and characteristic features of people having richness of all the tissues and mind –
|Sl No||Quality of enriched ‘all tissues and mind’||Meaning|
|1||Atibala||Immense strength and endurance|
|2||Parama sukha yuktah||Immense happiness and pleasure|
|3||Kleshasahah||Tolerates hardships of life|
|4||Sarva arambheshu atmani jata pratyayaah||They believe and are confident of achieving success in any and all works and tasks they uptake|
|5||Kalyana abhiniveshinah||They are always indulged in good and noble deeds|
|6||Sthira samahita sharirah||Have stable, strong and compact body|
|7||Susamahita gatayah||Their works and activities are well planned and organized|
|8||Sa anunada snigdha gambhira maha svarah||They have resonant, unctuous, deep and loud voice|
|9||Sukha Aishvarya Vitta Upabhoga||Enjoy pleasure, goodness and wealth|
|10||Sammana bhajo||They gain respect in the society|
|11||Manda Jarasoh||They age slowly|
|12||Manda vikarah||The diseases will not afflict them or even if they afflict their intensity will be mild, they will not be troubled by diseases|
|13||Prayah tulya guna vistirna apatyaya||They will have many children who are also adorned with similar qualities and features mentioned above|
|14||Chirajivinascha||Will enjoy longevity|
2. Asara Purusha Lakshana – qualities of persons devoid of essence of any / all tissues and mind
If the qualities of richness of any of the above-mentioned tissues and mind are not found in any person, that person will be considered as ‘devoid of sara’ or asara. These people are prone and susceptible for wide array of disorders and they are always unwell or unhealthy. They will not be bestowed by any good virtues found in people having good essence of particular or all tissues and their life span will be less.
Read – Strength And Immunity Of Person In Different Dosha Constitution
3. Madhya Sara Purusha Lakshana – qualities of persons having medium / moderate essence of tissues and mind
If the best essence of some tissues is available and some are absent, such persons are said to have moderate amounts of essence of tissues and mind. The diseases will also affect them in moderate proportions. Their health is not good in comparison to those having richness of all tissues but is far better than those who have poverty of essence of tissues. These people enjoy moderate virtues bestowed by the essence of tissues and will have moderate lifespan.
Thus, sara pariksha i.e. examination of the richness of the essence of tissues is very important for analyzing the quantity of strength and endurance of an individual / patient. The eight types of sara have been explained to help the physicians to make proper analysis of the strength of the patient and plan the treatment accordingly.