By – Dr Renita D’Souza
Kashyapa Samhitha is the ancient treatise which mainly describes child development, maternal and child health, disease and its treatment. This ancient paediatric book considers teeth health as one of the factor that determines the health and life span of a person. Lets explore these factors and know the right timings of teeth eruption, symptoms before its eruption and its treatment.
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In modern terms, teeth eruption occurs in 2 forms – primary dentition and secondary dentition.
Primary dentition – teeth erupted are called milk teeth. These are first teeth to erupt. These teeth are exfoliated at certain age as the new permanent teeth erupt. Primary dentition completes at around the age of two and half years.
Secondary dentition – These are permanent teeth that replace milk teeth. They are comprised of 32 teeth.
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According to Master Kashyapa there are total 32 teeth.
– 8 teeth are called Sakrjaatha – erupts only once (permanent teeth)
– 24 teeth are called dwija – erupts twice (milk teeth)
Samprapti of teeth eruption
Reference – Ashtanga Sangraha Uttara Sthana 2/15
Teeth eruption takes place mainly from two tissues, bone tissue and bone marrow. After few months these teeth fall off as they lack complete strength and later eruption of new teeth occurs. In old age eruption of new teeth will not occur due to inadequacy of bone tissue and bone marrow (majja Dhatu).
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Bone tissue and bone marrow undergoes ripening and localizes in gums. Due to this it causes slight swelling in gums, horripilation of the body due to rubbing of upper and lower gums, itching in the gums due to presence of kapha dosha and child bites the nipples of mother. When the child gets devoid of food, aggravated vata gets localised in roots of the teeth, accompanied by kapha it gets localized in bone tissue and bone marrow, move in the whole body along with pitta dosha, imbalances other dhatus (tissues) and mala (waste materials) to cause different secondary diseases.
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Ideal Teeth features
Reference – Kashyapa Samhitha Sutra Sthana 20/8
- Ashtame masi – Teeth erupted in the eighth month
- Sarvaguna sampanna – Possess all quality
- Purnatha – developed completely
- Samatha – evenness
- Ghanatha – compactness
- Shuklatha – white
- Snigdhatha – unctuous
- Shlaksnatha – smooth
- Nirmalatha – clean
- Niramayatha – not afflicted by any disease
- Kinchith utharunnatha – slight elevation of upper row
- Samatha danthabhandhana – set in proper alignment
Appearance of normal Gums
- Rakthatha – red
- Snigdhatha – unctuous
- Brihath – appear large
- Ghana – compact
- Sthira – stable
Unhealthy teeth eruption
Aprashatha Dantha – Unhealthy teeth eruption
Reference – Kashyapa Samhitha Sutra Sthana 20/6
Usually teeth eruption occurs 4th month onwards but in some cases the teeth eruption occurs before birth and child is born with teeth.
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- Sadanthajanma – teeth erupted before birth (natal teeth)
- Poorvamuttara dantajanma – first eruption of upper teeth
- Virala dantajanma – scattered teeth
- Heena dantha – less number of teeth
- Adhika dantata – more number of teeth
- Karaala dantata – terrible teeth like wide gaping and projecting teeth
- Vivarna dantata – discoloured teeth
- Sphutita dantata- cracked teeth
- Hina – less number of teeth
- Ulbana – more number of teeth
- Sitha – excess white colour
- Asitha – blackish Apravibaktha dantabandhana – eruption of two teeth in one socket
Timing of teeth eruption
Ideal time for teeth eruption is at eighth month. Teeth erupted during this month possess best qualities. Timings of tooth eruption can vary in male and female child.
Male and felame tooth
Female child tooth eruption
Female child show early and easy tooth eruption. This is because of porous (sushira) and soft (mrudu) teeth in female child.
Tooth eruption in male child
Tooth eruption in male child occurs late and with difficulty when compared to female child because of compactness (ghana) and stable (sthira) teeth in male child.
For how many months it requires for teeth origination, it takes so many days to erupt the teeth. Example, if teeth eruption occurs in 5th month, then it takes 5 days for teeth eruption. Similarly for many months it takes for teeth eruption, it takes so many years for its fall and reappearance. Example, if teeth eruption occurred at 6th month, then it falls and erupts again after 6 years.
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Eruption in different months
Teeth erupted at 4th month
- Durbala – weak
- Ashu kshahina – decay early
- Amaya bahula – afflicted with many diseases
Teeth erupted in 5th month
- Syandana – Teeth will be moving (syandana). Teeth will not be fixed firmly in its socket or due to early decaying, it starts shaking.
- Praharsha – high sensitivity of teeth
- Aamaya bahula – afflicted with diseases
Teeth erupted in 6th month
- Prathipa – inverted
- Malagrahina – food particles get stuck in between teeth
- Vivarna – discoloration of teeth
- Ghuna – low-quality teeth which are susceptible for dental carries.
Teeth erupted in 7th month
- Dwiputah – tooth will have two sockets
- Sphotinascha – teeth will have cracks or split tooth
- Raajemantha – teeth will have stripes on it
- Khanda – broken teeth
- Ruksha – dry teeth
- Vishama – alignment of teeth will be irregular
- Unnatha – teeth will be protuberant
Types of teeth according to Master Kashyapa
- Raajadantam (central incisors) – 4
- Bastadantam (lateral incisors) – 4
- Damshtraadantam (canines) – 4
- Swarudhadantam (premolars) – 8
- Haanavyadantam (molars) – 12
Types of dentition
Reference – Kashyapa Samhitha Sutra 20/7
- Saamudgam – impacted, misaligned, obstructed growth due to which the teeth falls off easily ‘Saamudgam shahi’.
- Samvritam – inverted, bent inwards or converged hence considered inauspicious as it does not look goo. The food particles get stuck in between and cleaning is difficult. ‘Samvritamadhanyam malishta’
- Vivritam – protruding out with wide gaping. Such teeth easily gets damaged and falls off early. Because of gaps between teeth, the saliva spits out. When the person is sleeping, because of protruded teeth he keeps his mouth open and saliva flows out. This is explained with the term laalopahatha. The concealed teeth get easily discoloured and afflicted with disease due to impacted food particles. ‘Vivritam vitamnithyalaalopahatham sanchanadanthathvath aashudanta vaivarnyakaramasannaabadhamithi’
- Danta sampat – Ideal dentition
Factors affecting teething, eruption and qualities
- Gender – female child show early eruption than a male child
- Jati vishesha – race specific
- Swabhavam – naturally based on body type
- Mathapittra anukaranam – hereditary
- Swakarma vishesha – based on a person’s habits
Prodromal symptoms of tooth eruption
These symptoms are seen before eruption of teeth.
- excess salivation
- swelling and pain in the gums
- baby develops tendency to bite every objects
Symptoms during teeth eruption
- Jwara – Fever
- Chardi – Vomiting
- Vidbhedha – Diarrhoea
- Kasa – Cough
- Shiroruja – Headache
- Abhishyandha – conjunctivitis
- Pothaki, Kukunaka (A.S) – painful eye disease with eruptions
- Visarpa – herpes
- Vertigo (Ashtanga Sangraha)
Treatment of symptoms teething
Reference – Ashtanga Hridaya Uttara Stana 2/ 29, 43, Kashyapa Samhitha 20
- Heavy treatment is not needed for symptoms originated during tooth eruption.
- These symptoms are usually self-limiting. After tooth eruption most of the diseases originated during teeth eruption are subsided by itself without treatment.
- If the disease is aggressive and does not get subsided after tooth eruption then treatment with utmost care should be given after analyzing – dosha predominance, type and stage of disease, the age of child, place, time etc
- Correcting the diet and maintaining digestive power in normal itself will help subsiding the disease of teeth eruption.
- Gums should be massaged either with powder of long pepper or Dhaataki flowers or gooseberry mixed with honey. (A.S.U. 2/22)
- During teeth eruption the diet of child should not be given in more quantity but can reduce the normal quantity of diet and the reduced quantity of diet should be replaced with pure water.
- Care should be taken so the child does not get constipation. Hence mild water infusions of herbs like raisins should be administered.
- Child should be given some hard eatable to chew so it helps the jaws develop completely.
- Ghrithapana – Vachaadi or samangaadi ghee is used specially to relieve diseases occurred during teeth eruption. (A.H.U 2/41-42)
- Powder of dried meat of laava, tittiri, vallura types of birds improve the appearance of teeth in children. (A.S.U.2/22)
- Symptomatic treatment should be given.