Dosha And Vikriti, The Pathology Of Diseases 

By Dr Raghuram Y. S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B. A. M. S

Vikriti means –Disturbance, Pathology, Deviation from prakriti i. e. basic birth constitution / body and mind types, alteration, modification.

Introduction

Prakriti is basic physical constitution one would beget right from moment one is conceived in his mother’s womb. This is also called as body and mind type which are particular and peculiar for a given person. Constitution will be a permutation and combination of vata, pitta and kapha as inherited from both father and mother in mixed proportions.
Read – Prakriti – Dosha Body Type Features As Per Master Charaka

Thus, constitution of a person is formed immediately after conception, after amalgamation of sperm and ovum. Some characteristics are acquired from father and some from mother. Thus, constitution is a mix up of paternal and maternal traits. It is a state of physical and mental balance, a pointer towards good health.
Read – Ovulation Time, Proper Time For Conception, Ayurvedic Perspective

Physical and mental makeup which constitutes an individual’s constitution is fixed and will remain same for whole life. But disturbances can be created in a normal constitution.

When a disturbance is created in constitution certain abnormalities are produced in body and mind. This deviation of constitution towards an abnormal manifestation is called vikruti or abnormality.
Read – Prakriti – Ayurveda Body Types, Importance In Treatment And Remedies

Manifestation of imbalance

Manifestation of imbalances in relation to doshas and one’s constitution

As already discussed, any abnormality happening in a constitution will cause abnormality in body.

We will understand these deviations with help of some examples.

 Tridoshas represent 3 vital forces of external nature in our body. Vata represents wind and air element. Pitta represents sun and fire element. Kapha represents moon and water element.
Read – Role of Doshas In the Causation of Disease

We will visit outer nature and see how imbalances occur in external forces!!

Air, in a state of balance supports life on Earth. When due to climatic variations if air takes form of cyclone and tornado, it creates destruction of all life.

Similarly, when sun which gives light and warmth to planet gets intense, it causes sunstrokes and death. Fire when goes out of balance, most essential tool for human life takes form of a volcano.

When moon which gives coolness to earth or water body which occupies major part of Earth loses its balance, it manifests itself in form of tsunamis. This disturbed form of water can wipe out large proportions of life in its vicinity.
Read – Nourishing, Depleting and Distributing Functions Of Tridosha (Visarga, Adana And Vikshepa)

Now let us translate this language of natural forces into the language of ‘natural forces of body’.

  • Aggravated vata = cyclone in body
  • Aggravated pitta = volcano in body
  • Aggravated kapha = tsunami in body

Vitiated vata – body’s cyclone

As long as vata is doing its normal activities in body, other doshas and elements of body it is said to be in a state of balance, in accordance to one’s body type. Once it gets vitiated it no longer supports body or does any beneficial functions. It becomes harmful, displaces other doshas, damages tissues, moves in abnormal directions, blocks channels of body, causes stagnation of toxins and excreta in body and leads to many mind and physical diseases.

Vata has lost balance here and has started behaving like disturbed natural force i. e. cyclone in body. This can even cause death because balanced vata is key for all activities of body and when it gets disturbed, every other element in body is disturbed.
Read – Top Foods To Promote Mental Health

Vitiated pitta – body’s volcano

Pitta will be in a state of balance in accordance to one’s body type serving its normal functions as long as it is not disturbed. Vitiated and displaced pitta encroaching other places of body no longer renders supportive functions in body. It damages all cells and organs and cause inflammatory changes in body and many diseases of heat origin.

In this context, pitta has lost balance here and would behave like an intense sun or aggravated fire. This volcanic makeover of pitta would seriously damage body and might even cause death in long term.

Vitiated kapha – body’s tsunami

Kapha, in its state of balance supports body, nourishes and enables proper growth and development. Kapha is said to be balanced as long as it doesn’t get vitiated, displaced from its places trespassing into other territories, gets stagnated and causes blocks in body depleting supply of nutrition and essential body building elements in body.

This sort of kapha which has got vitiated not only contaminates its own seats but also causes blocks anywhere it gets displaced. This kapha no longer serves in a beneficial way to body and becomes pathogenic.
Raed – Kapha test – How To Know About Kapha Imbalance In Your Body

Blocks caused by stagnation of kapha in channels and cells of body will hamper free movement of vata. This in turn makes vata to move in abnormal directions and cause serious disorders. It will make digestive fire and related pitta mild, cause indigestion, leads to formation of ama – a toxic byproduct of incomplete digestion and further supports pathological events happening in body.
Read – Kapha Increase Symptoms – Kapha Vruddhi Lakshana

Kapha thus takes form of tsunami, traverses in abnormal courses, cause blocks and serious metabolic disorders in body. These blocks can eventually lead to disturbance of all functions and death.

Points to remember about Vikruti

Vi = after, kriti = creation. Vikriti is something formed after creation. Thus, the term explains all abnormalities which occur in later part of fetal life.

It is a pathological deviation from normalcy. In this, inherent dosha balance bestowed with constitution is disturbed and deviated. This leads to manifestation of many diseases.

Imbalance may take place in physical doshas i. e. vata, pitta and kapha and cause physical ailments. Imbalance can also take place in the mental plane wherein balance of mental faculties i. e. satva, raja and tama is lost, raja and tama deviate from normalcy and cause many mental disorders.
Read – Effect of Body Constitution On Imbalanced Dosha

Likewise doshas at both physical and mental plane can be manifested together. A pathology related to physical entities may in due course of time impact mind to cause mind pathologies and vice versa.

With vikruti, person presents with physical, mental or psychosomatic diseases. Example, a vata constitution person who is basically supposed to be thin presents with overweight condition. Kapha type of person who is mentally serene and settled would come up for mood swings and aggressive behaviour, not quite natural to him.

Abnormalities in a constitution are set up due to erratic lifestyle practices, unwholesome diets with unhealthy combinations, stress, seasonal variations and lot more causative factors.
Read – Normal Vitiation of Doshas As Per Seasonal Variation

Identification of vikruti would help a physician to plan line of treatment accordingly. By proper understanding the abnormalities in relation to normal state of doshas and constitution of a given person a wise physician can comprehensively treat the ailment by proper interventions.

Click to Consult Dr Raghuram Y. S. MD (Ayu) – Email / Skype

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