Yogasana – Spiritual, Physical And Mental Benefits, Classification

By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
These days, Yoga is equated to Yogasanas. If someone says they are practising Yoga, they mean to say they are doing Asanas. But does Asana refer to Yoga in complete?

Introduction

Asana is one of the limbs / branches of Ashtanga Yoga i.e. eight limbs of Yoga practice. It is the third limb among the ‘eight branches of yoga’ enlisted by master Patanjali.
Read – Health Benefits Of Yoga: Mind And Body

Meaning and dimensions of Asana
Asana means body postures. Traditionally asana was limited to a sitting posture adopted during the process of meditation. In the later years of evolution of Yoga, the Hatha Yoga and the modern schools of Yoga included other poses. Therefore we can see all these poses included as part of modern day Yoga, which more or less defines Yoga as a comprehensive exercise for both body and mind.
Read – Yoga Darshana: Introduction, History, Definition, Shat Karma, Benefits

Etymology


The word Asana is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘asana’ wherein ‘asa’ means ‘to sit down’.
Thus, asana means –

  • Sitting down
  • Comfortable seating
  • A seat

In simple terms, Asanas are ‘Yoga poses or postures’.
Read – Yoga, Meditation and Pranayama for Vata Balance

Definition of Asana according to Patanjali Yoga Sutra
‘Asana is a position that is steady and comfortable, one’s ability to sit for extended periods of time’.

Definition of Aasana according to Hatha Yoga Pradipika
Asan is the first step of Hathayoga. It produces lightness in the body, enhances strength and health.
Read – Easy Rules For Practicing And Mastering Yoga

Number of Asanas

Number of Asanas and evolution of the concept of enumeration
Goraksha Shataka (10-11th century), Hatha Yoga Pradipika (15th century) and Hatha Ratnavali (17th century) – have mentioned 84 Asanas. Hatha Ratnavali has enumerated different asanas in comparison to the previous scriptures.

Gurus like Yogendra, Kuvalayananda and Krishnamacharya (20th century) taught and preached new system of asanas blending exercise with the traditional Hatha Yoga. Pattahbhi Jois (Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga) and B.K.S. Iyengar (Iyengar Yoga) were disciples of Krishnamacharya. These people expanded the number of Yogas and described more than 100 Yoga asanas. They were responsible for bringing Yoga and asanas into the light and attract the modern world. Iyengar’s book ‘Light on Yoga (1966)’ has described 200 Asanas. The number of Asanas has increased ever since and many have been added to the list by the modern day Yoga gurus. Thus, the concept of Asana has been in constant cycle of evolution.
Read – Meditation By Watching Mind: Stages, Method, Benefits

Number of Asanas in the timeline of evolution of Yoga

No Of Asanas Scripture Author Timeperiod Details
2 Goraksha Shataka Gorakshanatha 10th – 11th century 84 asanas claimed, describes only Siddhasana & Padmasana
4 Shiva Samhita 15th century 84 asanas claimed, 4 seated asanas described, 11 mudras
15 Hatha Yoga Pradipika Swami Swatmarama 15th century 15 asanas described, 4 asanas are mentioned to be important i.e. Siddhasana, Padmasana, Bhadrasana & Simhasana
32 Gheranda Samhita Gheranda 17th
century
32 seated, backbend, twist, balancing and inverted asanas described, 25 mudras
52 Hatha Ratnavali Srinivasa 17th century 84 asanas mentioned, 52 asanas described

84
Joga Pradipika Ramanandi Jayatarama 1830 84 asanas and 24 mudras illustrated
37 Yoga
Sopana
Yogi Ghamande 1905 Description and illustration of 37
asanas, 6 mudras, 5 bandhas
c.
200
Yoga Dipika B.K.S.
Iyengar
1966 Descriptions and photographs of each
asana
908 Maste
r
Yoga
Chart
Dharma
Mitra
1984 Photographs of each asana

Read – How To Do Pranayama – A Simple Pranayama Technique

Benefits of Yoga poses

  • They are helpful for physical and spiritual well being.
  • They promote health, strength, endurance, balance and flexibility.
  • They are stress busters, relax a person and cure stress related disorders.
  • They alleviate diseases like asthma and diabetes and play a supportive role in these diseases, when practised constantly. When clubbed with ideal medication and lifestyle, asanas form good remedies for wide array of disorders. 
    Read – 24 Stress Management Tips: Pranayama, Meditation, Lifestyle Changes

History and evolution of Aasana


Pashupati seal from Indus Valley Civilization (c. 2500 BC) –

Sir John Marshall in 1931 identified the central figure of Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilization as a prototype of Lord Shiva, in a yoga position, as a Maha Yogi, i.e. the God of Yoga. This could be the earliest evidence and record of asana. But there is no serious evidence to clarify the yoga pose depicted in the seal due to absence of proof of origin of Shiva in Indus Valley.

In Patanjali Yoga Sutras (c. 2nd to 4th century CE),- it is mentioned that Asana is the third among the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga / Raja Yoga. The Yoga Sutras do not mention a single asana by its name. It only specifies the characteristics of a good asana.
Read – Types Of Pranayama – Effect on Health – Through An Ayurveda View-Point

‘Asana means a steady and comfortable posture’ – Yoga Sutras 2:46

The Sutras embedded in the Bhasya commentary names 12 seated asanas including Padmasana, Virasana, Bhadrasana etc. Some opine that these might have been specified by master Patanjali himself.
Read – Padmasana Lotus Pose, How to do, Benefits, Side Effects, Ayurveda View

Vimanarcana kalpa (10th – 11th century) – It is the first manuscript to describe a non-seated asana i.e. Mayurasana, the peacock pose.
Read – Mayurasana Peacock Pose Method, Benefits, Side Effects, Ayurveda View

Goraksha Shataka / Goraksha Paddhati /Early Hatha Yogic system (10th – 11th century) – This text describes 84 asanas. They claim that these 84 asanas have their origin and are revealed by Lord Shiva. The text has not detailed all 84 asanas but has mentioned only 2 among them i.e. Padmasana and Siddhasana.

Hatha Yoga Pradipika (15th century) – This treatise enumerates 84 Asanas. At the same time they specify that 4 asanas out of those 84 are the most important ones i.e. Siddhasana, Padmasana, Bhadrasana and Simhasana. All these four are seated poses.
Read – Salabhasana Locust Pose or Grasshopper Pose, Method, Uses, Ayurveda View

Yogic postures on the pillars of Achyutaraya temple – Pillars of Achyutaraya temple (16th century), Hampi, Karnataka, South India, depict numerous statues of Yogis doing Asanas. Asanas like Siddhasana, Chakrasana, Yogapattasana, a hand-standing-inverted pose with a stick and many other unidentified poses can be seen depicted on these pillars. This shows the popularity and practice of Yoga at the time of Vijayanagara Empire.
Read – Chakrasana (Urdhwa Dhanurasana) Wheel Pose, Method, Benefits, Side Effects

Hatha Ratnavali (17th century) – The Hatha Ratnavali by Srinivasa listed 84 asanas. 4 out of these asanas cannot be translated to its meaning. At least 11 of those asanas are just mentioned and there is no description about them. By this time, asanas had become important component of Hatha Yoga practices. More non-seated poses had appeared in the scenario.

Gheranda Samhita (late 17th century)–This treatise too stresses that Lord Shiva had taught at least 84 lakh asanas. Out of these, 84 are prominent and 32 are useful in the world of mortals.
Read – Kati Chakrasana Standing Spinal Twist Pose Method, Benefits, Side Effects

1850s and beyond – In this period a culture of physical exercises developed in India.
Tiruka – taught exercises and unarmed combat techniques in the name of Yoga.
K.V. Iyer – combined Hatha Yoga with bodybuilding techniques.
Imported Asanas – Poses like Hanumanasana, Ganda Bherundasana, Durvasana were found in ‘Anatomy of a Contortionist’ article by Thomas Dwight (1889). Poses close to Warrior pose, downward looking dog, Uttha Padangushtasana, Supta Virasana etc were found described in Grundgymnastik eller primitive gymnastic, a Danish text written in 1924 by Niels Bukh. All these asanas were derived from a Scandinavian tradition of gymnastics from 19th century. The same asanas made their way into India and became part of Yoga practices in India by early 20th century.

Yogendra – Master Yogendra called as ‘the Father of Modern Yoga Renaissance’ was the one who in 1919 brought Yoga Asanas to the land of America.
Read – Pincha Mayurasana Forearm Stand Pose How to do, Benefits, Ayurved Details

Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research Center – This center was founded in 1924 by Swami Kuvalayananda in Maharashtra. He had combined the traditional asanas with Indian systems of exercise and modern European gymnastics. This had a profound effect on the evolution of Yoga.

Self Realization Fellowship (1925) – was set up in Los Angeles by Paramahansa Yogananda. They taught Yoga which included asanas, breathing, chanting and meditation to thousands of Americans. We can find the description of the same in ‘Autobiography of a Yogi’ (1946).
Read – Shavasana Corpse Pose, How to do, Dosha Effect, Benefits, Precaution

Tirumalai Krishnamacharya – the father of modern Yoga (1888-1989)–He created a unique blend of Hatha Yoga, wrestling exercises and modern gymnastic moment. This was never seen before in the tradition of Yoga practice. Most of his modern standing asanas resembled with Scandinavian gymnastics. Many of Krishnamacharya’s disciples went on to become influential Yoga teachers’ like Eugene V. Peterson or Indra Devi, Pattabhi Jois, B.K.S Iyengar, T.K.V. Deshikachar, Srivatsa Ramaswami etc. All these masters popularized Yoga in the modern and Western world.
Read – Right Time To Exercise, Benefits Of Workout As Per Ayurveda

Vishnudevananda Saraswati (1959) – published a compilation of 66 basic postures and 136 variants of these postures.
Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipika (1966) – published by Iyengar was a revolution. It came with more than 600 photographs of Iyengar demonstrating around 200 asanas. It was a bestseller Yoga book and was translated into 17 languages worldwide. Millions of copies were sold and revolutionized the trend of Yoga and asanas.

Dharma Mitra (1984) – He compiled about 1,300 asanas and their variants from various ancient and modern sources. It is said that he himself has created 300 asanas out of the lot.
Read – Adho Mukha Svanasana – Downward Facing Dog Pose, How to do, Benefits

Origin and spread of knowledge

Origin and distribution of Asanas in the timeline of evolution
All asanas have not been created at a time. They have been evolved at different time periods. Some of them are ancient, some are added in the medieval period and many asanas have been added to the list in the present day by the modern day Yoga Gurus.

Some asanas have their origin in India and some have been imported from other countries, getting an Indian touch in due time. Some are pure asanas described in the scriptures of Yoga while most asanas in the modern enlisting are a combination of exercise, asana and gymnastic poses. Thus, the asanas and the concept of asanas have undergone a wide transformation and evolution in the timeline of its emergence and popularity.
Read – Tittibhasana – Firefly Pose, How to do, Benefits, Ayurveda Details

The traditional asanas are named after –

Purposes of yogasanas

Spiritual purpose –
The asanas enumerated in Hatha Yoga originally had a spiritual purpose of attaining Samadhi (a state of meditative consciousness). The medieval Hatha Yoga was shared among various traditions, from Shaiva, Naths to Vaishnavas, from Jains to Sufis. According to Andrea Jain, a scholar of religion, the aim of yoga (and asanas) included spiritual goals involving ‘tantric manipulation of the subtle body’ and at a more physical level it aimed at destroying poisons (detoxification).
Read – Sufferings And Health Of Spiritual People – Ayurvedic Analysis

According to Singleton, Hatha Yoga’s purpose is – ‘transmutation of human body into a vessel immune from mortal decay’. Gheranda Samhita’s metaphor of an earthenware pot that requires the fire of Yoga to make it serviceable forms the backdrop of Singleton’s mention of the purpose.

Other purposes

  • To form a stable platform for Pranayama, Japa and meditation practices that in turn had spiritual goals (until 14th century)
  • To stop accumulation of karma and to acquire supernatural abilities (ascetic power, tapas)
  • To gain control of the breath, to enable Pranayama to work (purpose of Hatha Yoga mentioned by Theos Bernard)
  • Placing the physical body in positions that cultivate awareness, relaxation and concentration (Satyananda Saraswati)
  • ‘Asanas bring steadiness, health and lightness of the limb. A steady and pleasant posture produces mental equilibrium and prevents fickleness of mind. They bring agility, balance, endurance and great vitality, developing the body to a fine physique which is strong and elastic without being muscle bound. Their real importance is the way they train the mind, conquer the body and make it a fit vehicle for the spirit’ – Iyengar
  • Asanas are named after plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and quadrupeds, legendary heroes, sages and avatars (incarnations) of Hindu Gods. This shows the purpose of ‘illustrating spiritual evolution’ as related to asanas. While doing various poses, one identifies that he is a small part of the same creation and same Universal Spirit. When one masters the asanas, one gets devoid of dualities like gain and loss, fame and shame etc. (Iyengar)
  • Physical loosening (Yoga Sutras, 2:47 as quoted by Sjoman) – Physical loosening has everything to do with the mind’s letting go of restrictions, allowing the natural state of ‘unhindered perfect balance’ to emerge.
  • Exploring the conscious and un-conscious mind
    Read – Mind – Qualities And Functions As Per Ayurveda

Exercise – Yogasanas are used more as a form of physical activity, now a days.

Effects and Benefits of Asanas
2014 study – different asanas activate particular group of muscles, varying with skill of the practitioners, from beginner to instructor. The activation of 14 groups of muscles was measured with electrode on the skin over the muscles in beginners, advanced practitioners and instructors performing 11 asanas in Surya Namaskar sequences A and B (of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga).
Read – Impact of Cloth Colour And Material On Body And Mind

Hatha Yoga Pradipika (HYP) – This treatise praises the spiritual and physical benefits of asanas. They quote – ‘asanas give steadiness, good health and lightness to the limbs’ (HYP – 1.17). Some examples of benefits of asanas as proposed by HYP are as mentioned below –

  • Matsyendrasana – awakens Kundalini, makes semen steady
  • Shavasana – relieves fatigue, relaxes mind
  • Padmasana – destroys all diseases
  • Siddhasana – enables spiritual liberation
  • Paschimottasana – kindles the digestive fire, slims the belly, provides good health
    Read – How To Know That Your Digestion System Is Working Fine?

Yogashastra (written by Hemachandra, 1.8-9) – enlists the below mentioned benefits of asanas –

Benefits of asanas as per western world – Asanas have physical and psychological effects of exercise and stretching on the body.

Contraindications for Asanas


Yoga, especially asanas should not be practiced indiscriminately. They need to be practiced under guidance of an experienced Yoga tutor. Practice of asanas comes with their own set of restrictions. Yoga is said to be generally safe when done properly says the National Institutes of Health. People with some conditions, older people and pregnant woman may need to seek advice and take caution.
Read – How Long To Exercise? How Much Time To Workout?

Examples
People with glaucoma should not practice inverted postures.

Separate list of asanas which should be avoided or modified for each of the below mentioned conditions has been enlisted in ‘The Yoga Journal’. They are –

Rules, regulations and specifications while practising Asanas
The postures of the body should be steady and comfortable. The body is held poised with the practitioner experiencing no discomfort while doing asana. It is all about mastering the body control. When the person gains control over the body movements, the practitioner becomes free from dualities like heat and cold, hunger and satiety or joy and grief. This is the first step towards getting relieved from the sufferings by letting off the attachments. (Patanjali Yoga Sutras)
Read – 10 Exercise Tips To Get Fit Over 40

Asanas are best practiced with rested body, on empty stomach, after having bath. (Iyengar Yoga and The Yoga Institute)

Asanas as part of sports medicine – Asanas need to be performed equally on both sides of the body since they function as active stretches helping to protect muscles from injury from the point of view of sports medicine.

Iyengar Yoga – emphasizes precision and alignment and gives priority to correct movement over quantity. Here, postures are held for a relatively long period compared to other schools of Yoga. This enables relaxation and lengthening of muscles. It also encourages awareness of one in the pose being done. To work out the asanas in proper way, use of props like belts, blocks and blankets are encouraged. The beginners start with standing poses.
Read – Virasana – Hero Pose, How to do, Benefits, Side Effects, Precautions

Shivananda Yoga – practices asanas as part of Raja Yoga. The goal is to enable the practitioners of asana to sit in meditation for a long duration. Teachers follow the basic instructions given in the book by Shivananda. This school identifies 12 basic asanas. Trikonasana is the last of the 12 basic asanas.  Other schools use it as the first one, to loosen the hips as a part of preparation for other poses.

Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga – Vinyasa means flowing. The poses are executed rapidly, flowing continuously from one asana to the other using defined transitional movements. The asanas are grouped into 6 series. They include 1 primary, 1 intermediate and 4 advanced group. The practice of asanas begins and ends with chanting of mantras followed by multiple cycles of Sun Salutation, followed by one of the series of Vinyasa yoga. Other than asanas, this school focuses on drishti (focus points), bandhas (energy locks) and pranayama.
Read – Chakra – Kundalini: Introduction, Meaning, Types, Location, Ayurveda View

Kripalu Yoga – This school uses focus on mindfulness rather than using effort in the poses. The goal would be to use the asanas as a ‘path of transformation’.

Bikram Yoga (Bikram Choudhury) – In this school, there is a fixed sequence of 26 poses. (read)

Physical and mental benefits

By Dr Shilpa SN

  • Improves flexibility, strength and balance
  • Research work – A group of male athletes were studied with and without regular yoga practice. Results showed that it increased the flexibility and balance with enhanced athletic performances1.
  • Reduces lower back pain
    Research work – A randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews on noninvasive pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for low back pain had positive clinical outcomes with Yoga. There was reduction or elimination of low back pain, improvement in back-specific and overall function, improvement in health-related quality of life, reduction in work disability and return to work, global improvement, number of back pain episodes or time between episodes4.
    Read – Back Pain Relief Tips: How To Strengthen Lower Back
  • Effective in symptomatic relief in specific disease conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive airway diseases (COAD)
    Research work – A study done on 287 college students showed yoga practice increased the vital capacity of lungs and hence was beneficial to patients suffering from Chronic obstructive airway disease, asthma and other lung ailments5.
    Read – Chronic Asthma Causes, Diet, Natural Remedies
  • Helps to control Diabetes
    Research work – Study done on 842 participants suffering from Type 2 DM showed Yogasana had beneficial effects on glycemic control in comparison to physical exercise6.
  • Improves birth outcomes and physical health and quality of life measures in elderly
    Research work – A research conducted on 135 healthy men and women aged 65 – 85 years showed significant improvement in quality-of-life and physical measures7.
  • Reduces sleep disturbances
    Research work – A study done on 120 residents from an age old home showed that Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population8.
    Read – 20 Simple Ayurveda Tips For A Better Sleep
  • Effective to those suffering from Hypertension
    Research work – The impact of yoga as a complementary intervention for hypertension has been investigated in a number of randomized controlled trials; with an overall effect of about 10 mmHg reduction in systolic and about 8 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Yoga seems to be effective for hypertension as an adjunct to anti-hypertensive pharmacological treatment9.
    Read – Hypertension Causes, Types, Symptoms, Ayurvedic Treatment
  • Relieves neck pain (Iyengar Yoga)
    Research work – A randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga intervention on chronic neck pain showed that intensity and functional disability were significantly lower in the yoga groups than in the control groups10.

These are just few among enumerable health benefits of Asanas. Plenty of research works have been carried out to prove these benefits of Asanas.
Read – Stiff Neck Causes, Ayurvedic Treatment And Remedies

Conclusion, references

To conclude
The true meaning of Yoga is Union with God or the universe. The ultimate aim of Yoga is attaining Moksha (salvation). The 8 branches of Yoga are the steps through which one can attain this salvation. In order to be able to reach the last stage, the practitioner of Yoga requires enough physical stamina and stability. This stability is provided by the regular practice of Asanas. Hence Asanas are an essential part of Yoga practice.
Read – Garudasana Eagle Pose, How to do, Benefits, Ayurveda View

References

  1. M Jay Polsgrove, Brandon M Eggleston, and Roch J Lockyer,Impact of 10-weeks of yoga practice on flexibility and balance of college athletes, International Journal of Yoga. 2016 Jan-Jun; 9(1): 27–34.
  2. Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, Langhorst J, Lüdtke R, Esch T, Stefano GB, Dobos GJ. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program, Medical science monitor 2005 Dec;11(12):CR555-561. Epub 2005 Nov 24.
  3. Javnbakht M, Hejazi Kenari R, GhasemiM.Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2009 May;15(2):102-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.01.003. Epub 2009 Mar 20.
  4. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, McLean RM, Forciea MA; Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr 4;166(7):514-530. doi: 10.7326/M16-2367. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
  5. Birkel DA, Edgren L. Hatha yoga: improved vital capacity of college students, Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Nov;6(6):55-63.
  6. Ranil Jayawardhane, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Tharindu Chaturanga, Piyusha Milani Atapattu, Anoop Mishra, The benefits of yoga practice compared to physical exercise in the management of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome : Clinical Research & Reviews 2018 Sept 12 (5) :795-805.
  7. Oken BS, Zajdel D, Kishiyama S, Flegal K, Dehen C, Haas M, Kraemer DF, Lawrence J, Leyva J, Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: effects on cognition and quality of life, Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):40-7.
  8. Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):683-90.
  9. H. Cramer, The Efficacy and Safety of Yoga in Managing Hypertension, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2016; 124(02): 65-70
  10. Sang-Dol Kim, Effects of yoga on chronic neck pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Jul; 28(7): 2171–2174.

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