Charaka Vatavyadhi Chikitsa 28th Chapter

28th Chapter of Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana is called Vatavyadhi Chikitsa Adhyaya. It deals with treatment for various disorders caused due to Vata Imbalance.
We shall now expound the chapter on the “Treatment of Diseases caused by Vata”. Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]


Importance of Vata Dosha

Vata Dosha is the life, It is the strength, it is the sustainer of the body, it holds the body and life together.
Vata is all- pervasive, and Vata is the controller of everything in the universe [3]

Longevity and Vata Dosha:
If in a person Vata moves unimpaired, if Vata is located in its own site, and it is in its natural state, then the person lives for more than 100 years free from any disease. [4]

Types, location, functions

Five types of Vata Dosha:
With its 5 fold divisions, Viz,
Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana and Apana Vata appropriately controls and sustain the functions of the body by its unimpaired movement in the locations concerned. [5]

Location and function of Prana Vata:
Prana Vata is located in the-
Murdha – head
Ura – chest
Kantha – throat
Jihva – tongue
Aasya – mouth and
Nasa – nose
Its functions are:
Sthivana – spitting
Kshvathu – sneezing
Udgara – eructation
Shwasa – respiration
Aahara karma – deglutition of food. Etc. [6]

Location and function of Udana Vata:
Udana Vata Dosha is located in the
Nabhi – umbilicus
Ura – chest and
Kantha – throat.
Its functions are
Vak pravritti – manifestation of speech,
Prayatna – effort
Urja – enthusiasm
Bala – strength and
Varna – complexion. [7]

Location and Function of Samana Vayu:
Samana Vata is situated in
Sveda Vaha Srotas (channels carrying seat),
DoshaVaha Srotas (channels carrying Doshas) and
Ambu Vaha Srotas (channels carrying aqueous material)
It is located near to the Antaragni (digestive fire / enzymes). It promotes the power of digestion. [8]

Location and Function of Vyana Vayu:
The Vyana Vayu moves very swiftly throughout the entire body.
It always functions in the form of
Gati – motion
Prasarana – extension,
Aakshepa – sudden movements
Nimeshadi kriya – Blinking of the eyes and similar other movements (contractions, relaxation, etc). [9]

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Location and Function of Apana Vayu:
Apana Vata is located in the
Vrushana – two testicles
Basti – urinary bladder
Medhra – Phalus
Nabhi – umbilicus
Uru – thighs
Vankshana- groins
Guda – anus and Colon
Its functions are the
ejaculation of semen
voiding of urine and stool
elimination of menstrual blood and
Parturition of fetus.
These 5 types of Vata, located in their respective abodes in normal state, perform their functions properly in order to sustain the physique in a healthy state. [10- 11]

Functions of Impaired Vata Dosha:
These 5 types of Vata Dosha get located in a place which is different from the normal and then impaired, they afflict the body with diseases, specific to their locations and functions. This may also lead to instantaneous death. [12]

Vata imbalance importance

Number of Vata imbalance disorders:
Diseases caused by these 5 varieties of Vatadosa are innumerable. However, the principal ailments caused by them are 80 in number, viz, Nakha Bheda (cracking of nails) etc., which enumerated in the Sutra section (vide Charaka Sutrasthana 20/11).
Now, Listen! To the description of the synonyms, etiology and treatment of these ailments caused by Vata Dosha alone which are classified on the basis of their different locations, and those caused by the occlusion of Vata [by other Doshas] [13-14]

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Vata imbalance causes

Causes for Vata Dosha imbalance:
Vata gets aggravated by the following:
Intake of Ruksha(dryness), Sheeta (cold), Alpa (less quantity) and Laghu anna (light-to-digest food)
Ati vyavaya – Excessive sexual indulgence
Prajagara – Remaining awake at night in excess
Vishamat upachara – Inappropriate Panchakarma / other therapies
Ati Dosha Sravana – excess of Panchakarma therapies
Ati Asruk Sravana – excess Raktamokshana treatment or excess bleeding
Ati plavana – Excessive swimming
Ati langhana – Excessive fasting
Atyadhva – walking for long distance
Ati vyayama – Resorting to wayfaring, exercise and other physical activities in excess.
Dhatu Samkshayaat – depletion of body tissues, loss of Dhatus
Chinta Shoka karshana – weakening due to excess stress, grief and worries
Roga Ati karshana – Excessive emaciation because of affliction of diseases
Dukha Shayyasana – Sleeping over uncomfortable beds and sitting
Vega vidharana – suppression of natural urges
Krodha (Anger), Diwa swapna (sleep during day time), Bhaya (fear)
Formation of Ama (product of improper digestion and metabolism), suffering from trauma and abstention from food.
Marmaghata – Injuries to Marmas (vital spots) and riding over an elephant, camel, horse or fast moving vehicles, and vehicles.
Because of the above mentioned factors, the aggravated Vata, fills up the empty body channels (Srotas). Thus it produces different ailments affecting the whole body or a part of it. [15- ½ 19]

Vataroga purvaroopa

Vataroga Purvaroopa – Premonitory Signs:
Purva Rupa (premonitory signs):
Avyakta Lakshana – Indistinct manifestations of the signs and symptoms of these ailments
When these signs and symptoms get distinctly manifested, they are called Roopa (actual signs and symptoms).
Diminution (laghuta) of these signs and symptoms indicates that the diseases are going to be cured (Apaya) [19 ½ – ½ 20]

Vatavyadhi Lakshana

Signs and Symptoms of Vata imbalance disorders:
Aggravation of Vata gives rise to the following –
Sankocha – Contraction,
Parvanam stambha bheda – stiffness of joints and pain
Loma harsha – horripilation
Pralapa – irrevelant talk and
Pani prushta shiro graha – stiffness of of hands, back and head.
Khanjya Pangulya Kubjatva- Lameness of hands and feet, and hunch-back, shortness
Anganam sosha – Atrophy, emaciation of limbs,
Anidra – insomnia
Garbha shukra rajo nasha – Destruction of fetus, semen and periods (female reproductive system)
Spandanam gatra suptata – Twitching sensation and numbness in the body
Shiro nasa akshi jatrunam griva hundanam – Shrinking of the head, nose, eyes, clavicular region and neck
Bheda- Splitting pain,
Toda – pricking pain,
Arti- excruciating pain,
Aakshepa – convulsions,
Moha – unconsciousness and
Aayasa -excess tiredness and similar other signs and symptoms.
The aggravated Vata Dosha produces specific diseases because of the specific nature of the causative factors and the seats of manifestation. [20 ½ – ½ 24]

Koshtashrita Vata Dosha

Aggravation of Vata located in Kostha (abdominal and thoracic viscera) leads to –
Nigraha mutra varchasa – Retention of urine and feces (constipation)
Bradhna – prolapsed rectum and
Hrud roga – Heart diseases,
Gulma (tumour),
Arshas (Piles) and
Parshva Shula (pain in flanks). [24 ½ – ½ 25]

Sarvanga Kupita Vata Lakshana

Aggravation of Vayu all over the body causes
Gatra sphurana bhanjana – Twitching sensation and breaking pain in the body
Vedana – Affliction of the entire body with different types of pain and
Paritascha spuhtana – A feeling as if the joints are getting cracked.[25 ½ – ½ 26]

Gudagata Vata lakshana

Aggravation of the Vayu in rectum causes
Vit mutra vata graha – Retention of stool, urine and flatus
Shoola adhmana – Colic pain, flatulence, bloating
Ashma sharkara – Formation of stone and gravels in the urinary tract and
Jangha uru trika pat prstha sosha – emaciation and stiffness in calf-region, thighs, Trika (Sacro iliac joint), legs and back. [26 ½ – ½ 27]

Amashayagata Vata Lakshana

Aggravation of Vata in stomach leads to
Hrut nabhi parshva udara ruk – Pain in the cardiac region, umbilicus, sides of the chest and abdomen.
Trushna – Thirst,
Udgara – eructation and Visuchika – choleric diarrhoea and
Kasa – Cough,
Kanta aasya shosha – dryness of the throat as well as mouth and
Shvasa – dyspnoea. [27 ½ – ½ 28]

Pakvashayagata Vata

Aggravation Vata located in the colon causes:
Aantra kujana – rumbling sound in the intestine,
Shoola – colic pain
Aatopa – gurgling sound in stomach
Mutra krichra – dysuria,
Aanaha – flatulence and
Trika vedanam – pain in the lumbar region. [28 ½ – ½ 29]

Aggravation of Vata in sense organs:
Vayu, aggravated in the ears and other sense organs causes impairment (destruction) of the functions of the respective sense organs. [29 ½]

Tvak Gata Vata lakshana

Vata Dosha aggravated in skin causes
Tvak ruksha- Dryness, Sphutita – cracking,
Supta – numbness, Krusha – shriveling and Krushna – black coloration of the skin
Tudhyate – Pricking pain in the skin
Aatanyate -Stretching and Sa raga – redness of the skin and
Parva ruk – pain in the joints [30]

Raktagata Vata Lakshana

Aggravation of Vata Dosha in blood causes –
Teevra ruja – acute pain,
Santapa- burning sensation,
Vaivarnya – discoloration of skin,
Krushata – emaciation and Aruchi – anorexia.
Arumshi – Appearance of rashes on the body and
Bhuktasya stambha- Stiffness of the body after taking food. [31]

Mamsa Medogata Vata

Imbalance of Vata in muscles and fat tissues causes:
Anga gaurava – Heaviness of the body
Excessive pain in the body as if the person is been beaten with a stick or with fist,
Excessive fatigue along with pain. [32]

Asthi Majjagata Vata

Increase of Vayu in the bones and bone marrow causes
Asthi bheda – Cracking of the bones and joints
Parvanam sandhi shoola – Piercing pain in the joints
Bala kshaya – Diminution of muscle tissue and strength
Asvapna – Insomnia and
Santata ruk – Constant pain [33]

Shukragata Anila Lakshana

Aggravation of Vayu in the semen and ovum (Sukra) causes
Premature ejaculation and undue retention of the semen.
Premature expulsion and undue retention of the fetus and
disorders of the semen, ovum and fetus. [34]

Snayugata Vata

Aggravation of Vayu in tendons and ligaments causes
Bahya abhyanatara aayama- Opisthotonus and emprosthotonos- backward or forward bending of body
Khalli (neuralgic pain in feet, shoulders, etc)
Kubjatva – Hunchback and other Vatika diseases pertaining to the entire body or a part thereof. [35]

Siragata Vata Lakshana

Aggravation of Vata Dosha in Siras (vessels) gives rise to
Manda ruk – Mild pain
Sopham – oedema in the body
Shushyate spandayate- Emaciation and throbbing pain
Lack of pulsation in the vessels and
Thinness or excessive thickness of the vessels. [36]

Sandhivata Lakshana

Aggravation of Vata Dosha in the joints gives rise to –
Vata purna Druti sparsha shotha – Oedema of the joints which, on palpation, appears as if it is a leather bag inflated with air; and
Prasarana aakunchana pravritti vedana – Pain while making efforts for extensions and contraction of the joints.
Thus, the signs and symptoms caused by aggravated Vayu, on the basis of its location in different parts of the body, are described. [37]


Ardita – Facial paralysis:
When excessively aggravated Vayu afflicts half of the body, it dries up Rakta dhatu, and causes excessive contraction of the arm, foot and knee of that part.
It causes distortion in half of the face and curvature of the nose, eye brow, forehead, eye and mandible.
Because of this, ingested food moves tortuously to one side of the mouth, instead of going straight to the oesophagus.
While speaking, nose becomes curved and eyes remain fixed. There is suppression of sneezing.
His speech becomes faint, distorted, imperceptible and interrupted.
His teeth become loose, deafness, and hoarseness of voice.
There is pain in foot, hand, eye, calf, thigh, temple, ear and cheek.
These signs and symptoms appear in the half of his body or in the half of his face only. This ailment is called Ardita (Facial paralysis). [38-42]

Antarayama, Bahirayama

Antarayama (Emprosthotonous) – Forward bending:
When aggravated Vayu located in the sterno-mastoid area afflicts the internal channels (nerves) of this region, it causes
Manya Stambha – neck rigidness.
Neck becomes bent forward and the sterno-mastoid region becomes exceedingly stiff. There is
Dantanam damshanm – clenching of the teeth,
Lala Praseka – salivation, and
Prstha aayama – contraction of the back,
Shiro graha -stiffness of the head,
Jrumbha – yawning and
Vadana sangha – rigidity of the face.
This ailment is called Antarayanama. [43- ¾ 45]

Bahirayama (Opisthotonus): Backward bending:
The aggravated Vata located in the back side of the neck causes constriction of Siras (vessels or nerves) as a result of which the body bends like a bow which is called Bahirayama or opisthotonus.
While bending backwards like a bow, the head moves towards the back, the chest is protruded, the Manyas (Sterno- mastoid muscles) become rigid, the neck is squeezed, and the teeth become clenched.
There is yawning, salivation and aphasia (absence of speech). When the attack becomes acute, it either leads to the death of the patient or causes serious deformity in his body. [45 ¼ -48]

Hanugraha, Akshepaka, Dandaka

Hanu Graha (locked jaw)
The aggravated Vata located at the root of the jaw causes dislocation of jaw bones. It may cause
Vivuta Asya – constant opening of mouth with stiffness.
Alternatively, it may cause lock-jaw because of the stiffness of its joints when the mouth remains closed, and cannot be opened. [49- ½ 50]

Akshepaka (convulsions):
When the aggravated Vata causes frequent convulsions in different parts of the body, then ailment is caused by the constriction of hands and legs as well as vessels, ligament and tendons. Thus it causes Aksepaka. [50 ½- ½ 51]

Dandaka (staff-like Spasticity of the Body):
When the aggravated Vata causes rigidity of hands, legs, head, back and hips in a person resulting in stiffness of body like a stick, then the ailment is called Dandaka (stick-like stiffness). This condition is incurable. [51 ½ – ½ 52]

Specific features of Ardita Etc:
When the frequent Vega (affliction) of diseases like Ardita (Facial paralysis) subside, the patient becomes normal. However, if these paroxysms do not subside, the patient continuously remains afflicted with the signs and symptoms and of respective diseases, leading to incurability. The physicians should not treat such patients. [52 ½ -1/2 53]

Pakshavadha, Ekanga, Sarvanga Roga

Pakshavadha (Hemiplegia), Ekanga roga (Monoplegia) and Sarvanga Roga (Paralysis of the Entire Body):
When the aggravated Vata paralyzes one side of body, it causes immobility of that side along with pain, loss of speech. This condition is called Paksa Vadha.
By afflicting half of the body, the aggravated Vata may cause constriction of the vessels and ligaments as a result of which there will be contracture, either of one leg or one hand along with aching or piercing pain. This is called Ekanga Roga (monoplegia).
If, however, the above mentioned morbidity pervades the entire body, then the ailment is called Sarvanga Roga (Paralysis of the entire body). [53 ½- 55]

Gridhrasi, Khalli

Gridhrasi, caused by aggravated Vata Dosha, the hip is afflicted with
Stambha – stiffness,
pain and pricking sensation in the waist, back, thigh, knee and calf region.
All these organs get twitching sensation frequently.
If the ailment is caused by both, the aggravated Vata Dosha and Kapha, then the patient suffers from drowsiness, heaviness and anorexia in addition to the above symptoms. [56 – ½ 57]
Read more about sciatica and Ayurvedic treatment

Khali (Twisting Pain in Upper and lower Limbs):
Khalli is characterized by the twisting pain of the feet, calf regions, thighs and shoulders. [57 ½]

Other Vatika Diseases
Other Vatika diseases can be determined on the basis of the signs and symptoms commensurate with their locations. In all these ailments, the combination of aggravated Pitta, etc, may also be observed. [58]

Vata Avarana

Vata Avarana – obstruction of body channels by Vata Dosha:
Vata Dosha gets aggravated in 2 different ways, viz,
By Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of tissue elements and
Marga Avarana – Occlusion of its channel of circulation.
Vata, Pitta and Kapha move through all the channels of circulation. Because of its subtle nature, Vata Dosha provokes and pulls Pitta and Kapha Doshas. The aggravated Vata spreads Pitta and Kapha into different places of the body and obstructs the channels of circulation leading to the manifestation of various diseases, and drying up of tissue elements like Rasa Dhatu, Rakta Dhatu etc [59- ½ 61]

Pittavruta Vata Occlusion of Vata Dosha by Pitta
Occlusion of Vayu by Pitta causes:
Daha – Burning sensation, Trushna – morbid thirst, Shoolam – colic pain and Bhrama – giddiness
Tamas (a feeling as if entering into darkness)
Katu amla lavana ushna vidaha – Burning sensation by taking pungent, sour, saline and hot ingredients of food and
Shita kamita – Craving for cold things. [61 ½ – ½ 62]

Kaphavruta Vata – Occlusion of Vayu by Kapha
Occlusion of Vayu by Kapha gives rise to –
Shaitya – Feeling of cold and Gaurava – heaviness
Shoola – Colic pain
Katvadi upashayo adhikam – Considerable relief by the intake of pungent and such other ingredients and
Langhana, Aayasa, Ruksha ushna kamita – Desire for fasting, exercise and unctuous as well as hot ingredients. [62 ½ – ½ 63]

Raktavrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata Dosha by Rakta (Blood):
Occlusion of Vata Dosha by Rakta (blood) gives rise to –
Daha arti tvak mamsa antarajo – Excessive pain and burning sensation in the area between the skin and muscle tissue.
Sa raga Shyavathu – Oedema with redness and
Mandala (Circular type of rash – ring worm infection). [63 ½ – ½ 64]

Mamsavrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata Dosha by mamsa (Muscle Tissue):
Occlusion of Vata by mamsa (Muscle tissue) gives rise to –
Kathinascha vivarnascha pidaka – Appearance of hard and discoloured pimples and swellings
Harshah – horripilation and
Pipilikanam – Formiculation (a feeling as if ants are moving in the body) [64 ½- ½ 65]

Medavruta Vata – Occlusion of Vata by medas (fat):
Occlusion of Vata by Medas (fat) gives rise to –
Chala snigdha mrudu sheeta shopha – Appearance of oedema in the limbs which is mobile
Aruchi – Anorexia
This condition is called Adhya Vata which is difficult of cure. [65 ½ – ½ 66]

Asthi Avrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata Dosha by Bone Tissue:
Obstruction of Vata by the bone tissue gives rise –
Liking for hot touch, and pressure (kneading)
breaking type of pain and depression and
Soochibhiriva tudyate – A feeling as if pricked with needles. [66 ½ – ½ 67]

Majjavrita Vata – Vata obstructed by bone marrow:
Occlusion of Vata Dosha by bone marrow gives rise to –
Vinamah – Bending of the body
Jrumbha – Yawning
Pariveshtanam – Twisting pain
Shula – Colic pain and
Panibhyam labhate sukham – The patient gets relief if pressed with hand. [67 ½- ½ 68]

Shukravrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata by Shukra dhatu:
Occlusion of Vata by semen gives rise to –
Shukra vega -Non-ejaculation or Ati vega – excessive ejaculation (premature ejaculation) of semen and
Nishphalatvam – Sterility [68 ½ ]

Annavruta Vata – Occlusion of Vata by Food:
Occlusion of the Vata by food gives rise to –
Kuksha ruk jeerne – Pain in the pelvic region after the intake of food and
Alleviation of pain after the digestion of food. [1/2 69]

Mutravrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata by Urine:
Obstruction of Vata by urine results in –
Mutra apravritti – Retention of urine and
Adhmanam – Distension of urinary bladder [69 ½]

Pureesha avrita Vata – Occlusion of Vata by stool:
Occlusion of Vata by stool gives rise to –
Absolute constipation
Parikartana – Griping pain in the colon (abode of stool)
Instantaneous digestion of the ingested fat
Abdominal distension after the digestion of food
Because of the pressure of the [undigested] food, the patient voids after a long time. The voiding is painful and the stool is dry.
Shroni Vankshana prstha ruk – Pain in the hips, groin and back
Vilomascha maruta – Upward movement of Vata (flatus or gas) in the abdomen and
Asvastham hrdayam – Uncomfortable sensation in chest region. [70 – 1/ 72]


The following diseases (because of their deep-seated and chronic nature) may get cured only by careful treatment; otherwise these diseases cannot be cured at all:
Sandhi chyuti – Joint dislocation
Hanu stambha – Lock-jaw
Kunchanam -Contraction
Kubjata (Hunch-Back)
Ardita – Facial paralysis
Pakshaghata – Hemiplegia
Anga samsosha – Atrophy of limbs
Pangutva (inability to walk because of muscular dystrophy)
Khuda Vatata (affliction of the ankle joint by Vata Dosha or arthritis)
Stambha – Stiffness
Adhya Vata (an ailment caused by the occlusion of Vata Dosha by fat- vide verse no. 66) and
Majja asthi gata roga – Diseases located in the bone marrow and bones
The above mentioned diseases could be treated only under the following circumstances:
If these ailment are of recent origin
If the patient is strong and
If these are not associated with complications. [72 ½ – 74]

Vata Roga Chikitsa

Vata Roga Chikitsa: Snehana
Treatment for Vata imbalance:
Now, listen to the exposition on the effective line of treatment for the cure of the diseases caused by Vata, which will be described hereafter.

Snehana and Swedana

Snehana – oleation treatment:
If the diseases are cured by Vata exclusively, and if no Avarana (occlusion) is involved, then in the beginning, the patient is treated by oleation therapy for which ghee, muscle fat, oil and bone marrow are administrated.
Thereafter, when the patient gets disgusted or tired with the intake of oleation therapy, he is rested and again oleation therapy is administered with –
– milk,
vegetable soup and
Gramya, Ambuja, Anupa Mamsarasa – soup of the meat of domesticated (Gramya), aquatic (Ambuja) and marshy land inhabiting animals (Anupa) after adding fat.
He may be given Payasa (preparation of rice and milk) and Krishara (a preparation of rice, legumes, etc) added with sour ingredients as well as salt he may also be given Anuvasana type of medicated enema(basthi), inhalation therapy and refreshing food. [75- ¼ 78]

Swedana – Fomentation Therapy:
After the patient is properly oleated, he is given fomentation therapy before the administration of fomentation therapy, the body of treatment is properly oleated and thereafter, fomentation therapies viz Nadi Sveda, Prastara Sveda, Sankara Sveda as well as other types of appropriate fermentation therapies is administrated. [78 ¾ – ½ 7]

Effects of Snehana and Swedana in Vatavyadhi:
Oleation and Fomentation Therapies:
As a dry wood can be slowly bent, as desired by the application of oily substance and fomentation, similarly even a cured or stiff limb can be slowly brought back to health by the administration of oleation and fomentation therapies.
Swedana – Fomentation therapy immediately relieves – Harsha (tingling sensation), Toda (pricking pain), Ruk (ache), Aayama(contracture), Sotha (oedema), Stambha(stiffness), Graha (spasticity), etc.
Snehana – Oleation therapy, when administered, instantaneously provides nourishment to the emaciated tissue elements. Snehana promotes strength, Agni (digestion strength), nourishment, and Prana (Vital force).
The patient is given repeated Sneha and Sweda treatment, as a result of which the Kostha (Viscera in the abdomen and thorax) becomes soft and the diseases of Vayu do not get an opportunity to get lodged there permanently. [79 ½ – ½ 83]


Shodhana treatment for Vata:
Elimination Therapy for Vata disorders:
If because of inappropriate administration of [the above mentioned] therapies (oleation and fomentation) the ailments [caused by Vayu] do not subside, then the patient is given elimination therapy with the help of mild herbs added with oily (unctuous) ingredients.
For this purpose, the patient should take medicated ghee prepared by boiling, either with Tilvaka or Saptala – Hibiscus cannibus or he may take castor oil with milk. They help in the elimination of morbid material, and produce beneficial effects.
Because of intake of food which is unctuous, sour, salt, hot etc the morbid material gets accumulated and it obstructs the channels of circulation leading to obstruction of Vata movement. Therefore, the patient is given Anulomana – mild purgation treatment.
If the patient is weak, and is therefore, unsuitable for Anulomana Virechana treatment, then he is given Niruha Basti (decoction enema) with Pachana (carminative) and Deepana (digestion promoting) herbs.
He should also be given food added with ingredients which are Pachana (carminative) and Dipana (digestive stimulants).
After elimination of morbid matters and stimulation of Agni (enzymes), it is beneficial to administer oleation and fomentation therapies again.
In addition, all the patients suffering from diseases caused by Vayu is continuously given diet containing ingredients which are sweet, sour, saline and unctuous. All of them should also be treated with inhalation (Navana) and Dhumapana – smoking therapies.
Thus, the general line of treatment for Vata imbalance disorders is explained. [83 ½ – ½ 89]

Specific treatment of Gata Vata

Treatment for specific Ailments
Koshtagata Vata Chikitsa:
Treatment of Vata Located in Gastro- intestinal Tract
If Vata is located in the Kostha (digestive tract), then
Kshara medicines such as Yavakshara is administered.
Mala Pachana – digestion and elimination of waste products is done with the help of medicines having – Pachana (carminative), Deepana (digestive) and sour properties. [89 ½ – ½ 90]

Guda Pakvashayagata Vata:
If the vitiation Vayu is located in the anus or colon, then therapies prescribed for the treatment of Udavarta (upward movement of wind in the abdomen) are to be used. [90 ½]

Amashaya Gata Vata Chikitsa:
If the Vitiated Vayu is located in stomach, then –
Shodhana – Vamana Virechana treatments are administered, based on predominant Dosha. [1/2 91]

Sarvanga Vata Chikitsa:
If the whole body is afflicted by vitiated Vayu, then
Abhyanga – oil massage and
Niruha and Anuvasana Basti are administered. [91 ½]

Twak Gata Vata Chikitsa:
If the vitiated Vayu is located in skin, then
Sweda – fomentation,
Abhyanga – massage and
Avagaha medicated bath
Hurdya Anna – food pleasing to the heart are administered. [1/2 92]

Rakta Gata Vata Chikitsa:
If the vitiated Vata is located in the blood, then
Sheeta Pradeha – coolant ointments
Vireka – purgation and
Rakta mokshana (blood-letting) therapies are administered. [92 ½]

Mamsa Medogata Vata Chikitsa:
If the vitiated Vata is located in the muscle and fat tissues, then
Vireka (purgation) and
Niruha Basti treatment
Shamana – Vata alleviating medicines are administered. [1/2 93]

Asthi Majjagata Vata Chikitsa:
If the vitiated Vayu is located in the bone and bone marrow, then
Bahya Abhyantara Sneha – internal and external oleation therapies are administered. [93 ½]

Shukragata Vata Chikitsa:
If the vitiated Vayu is located in the semen, then
Harsha Annapana – aphrodisiac foods and drinks are administered.
If there is obstruction in then seminal channel, then Virechana – purgation therapy is administered. After Virechana, the patient is given food, and thereafter, the earlier mentioned therapies (for sexual excitement and promotion of strength as well as semen) is administered (Charaka Chikitsa -2nd chapter) [94- ½ 95]

Garbhagata Vata Chikitsa:
Treatment of fetal afflictions by Vayu:
If the fetus or the child (after delivery) gets emaciated by Vata Dosha, then
Milk is boiled with sugar candy, Kashmarya – Gmelina arborea and Madhuka– Licorice is administered for the restoration of normal growth. [95 ½ – ½ 96]

Hrudayagata Vata Chikitsa:
If the Vata is aggravated in the heart, then milk boiled by adding Amsumati (Shalaparni) is useful. [96 ½]

Nabhigata Vata Chikitsa:
If Vayu is aggravated in umbilical region, then the patient is given fish prepared with slices of Bilva (bael).

Treatment of cramps and contractures

If there are cramps because of aggravated Vayu, then
Upanaha – hot poultice [prepared of Vayu-alleviating herbs] is applied all over the body.
If there are contractures because of Vata, then
Abhyanga with medicated oil or ghee prepared with black gram and rock salt is done.
Treatment of Vayu Located in Arms, Head Etc:
If arms and head get afflicted by aggravated Vayu, then
Nasya – nasal drops treatment with the medicated oil prepared by boiling it with black gram and rock salt.
The same medicated oil is administered internally after the intake of food (Uttara Bhaktika).
If the abdomen below the umbilical region is afflicted by the aggravated Vayu, then the above mentioned oil prepared by boiling with Masha and rock-salt is used for medicated enema. This oil is given internally just before the intake of food (avapidaka). [98 ½ – ½ 99]

Ardita treatment

Treatment of Ardita (Facial Paralysis):
For the treatment of facial paralysis,
Navana – nourishing type of nasal drops
Murdhni Taila – head is anointed with medicated oil.
Tarpana – nourishing treatment
Nadi Sveda (a type of fomentation therapy) and
Upanaha (application of hot ointment or poultice) prepared with the meat of animals inhabiting marshy lands (Anupa) are useful. [99 ½ – ½ 100]

Treatment of Ardhanga Vata (Hemiplegia):
Fomentation accompanied with oleation and purgation therapy is useful for the treatment of hemiplegia. [100 ½]

Gridhrasi treatment

Treatment of Gridhrasi (Sciatica):
For sciatica, Siravyadha – venesection is performed over the Antara Kandara Gulpha Sira – vein located between the tendo- Achilles and ankle joint (medical side).
The patient is given
Basti – enema treatment and
Agni – cauterization therapies [3/4 101]

Khalli, Hanugraha treatment

Treatment of Khalli
For Khalli (twisting pain of the feet, calf regions, thighs and shoulders), hot poultice prepared of milk pudding, Krshara (a preparation of rice and pulses) and meat added with oil and ghee are beneficial. [101 ¼ – ½ 102]

Treatment of Hanu Graha (Lock Jaw)
In Lock-Jaw, if the mouth remains open, the mandibular joints is fomented (Swedana) thereafter, with the help of thumbs inserted into the mouth.
The mandibular joints is pressed, and with the help of index fingers (kept outside) the mandibles and chin is elevated the dislocated mandibular bone will then slide into its normal position. If there is stiffness of the mandibular joint, then it is fomented, and then pressed downwards to ensure mobility of the joint. [102 ½ – 103]

Therapies for Hanu Graha:
Depending upon the location of Vata (in stomach etc), tissue elements vitiated by Vata and such other factors (occlusion of Vata etc) each patient is given specific therapies. [1/2 104]

Vataroga Samanya Chikitsa Sutra

General line of treatment for Vata imbalance disorders:
Ghee, oil, muscle fat, marrow,
Swedana, Abhyanga (massage) ,
Basti – medicated enema,
Residing in windless pace, covering the body with blankets, meat soup, different types of milk, food ingredients which are sweet, sour and saline, and such other measures which are nourishing- all these are beneficial for the patient suffering from diseases caused by the aggravated Vata. [104 ½ – ½ 106]

Meat soup, upanaha, snana, seka

Meat Soup for Vatika Diseases
Soup of meat of head of a goat or meat of aquatic (ambuja), marshy land (Anupa) or carnivorous (Pishita) animals is prepared separately by boiling it with the decoctions of
Bala – Country mallow (root) or Pancha Mula or Dasha Mula.
These soups is added with fat (ghee), and sizzled with yogurt, sour ingredients and Trikatu (Ginger, pepper and long pepper fruit). Added with small quantities of Salt, these soups are given to the patient suffering from diseases caused by Vata. [106 ½ – ½ 108]

Upanaha – Hot Poultice
The above mentioned types of meat is made free from bones, cut into small pieces, steam- boiled and added with ghee, oil and sour ingredients. These recipes are applied in the form of hot poultice for the cure of diseases caused by Vata Dosha. [108 ½- ½ 109]

Medicated Bath:
The patient suffering from Vataroga should take bath in a bath-tub filled with the decoction of Vata-alleviating leaves, milk and oil. [109 ½]

Seka – Affusion:
For the patient suffering from Vatika diseases, affusion (dripping) after proper oleation is useful. [1/2 110]

Nadi Sveda and Upanaha
In a pot, the meat of marshy land- inhabiting (Anupa) and aquatic animals (Varija), Dasha Mula, Satavari –Asparagus racemosus,
Kulattha – Horse gram,
Badara – Zizyphus jujuba,
Masha – Black gram
Tila – Sesame indicum,
Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata),
Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and
Bala – Sida cordifolia is cooked by adding muscle fat, yogurt and sour vinegar(Amla Aranala).
Nadi sveda is given with this decoction.
Upanaha (hot poultice) is applied with the paste of the above mentioned ingredients. Medicated ghee and medicated oil prepared by boiling with the above mentioned ingredients may be used for massage and Pana (internal intake). [110 ½- 112]

Recipes for Upanaha (hot Poultice):
Musta-(Cyperus rotundus),
Kinva – sour enzymes,
Kushta – Saussurea lappa,
Surahva – Devadaru, Salt and Nata (Valeriana wallicii) is cooled with yogurt, milk and 4 types of fat (oil, ghee, muscle fat and bone narrow). This recipe is used as hot poultice. [113]

Alepa, Pradeha

Application of Thick paste – Alepana
Utkarika (pan-cake), Veshavara(a type of meat preparation with hot spices), milk, Masha – black gram, , Tila – Sesame, boiled rice, seeds of castor, wheat, barley, Kola, Sthira , etc. is added with fat, [and made to a paste] the physician should apply a thick layer of this paste over the painful art of the body at night. It is bandaged with castor leaves.
In the next morning, the bandage, along with the paste, is removed. Thereafter, the affected part is sprinkled with milk and after. Again, during the day time, hot poultice is applied and bandaged by leather containing fur. This bandage [along with the paste] is removed at night. [114-116]

Pradeha and Upanaha:
Oil bearing fruits (seeds) – such as castor, sesame seeds, mustard seeds, is made to a paste by triturating them with sour ingredients, and be allowed to cool down before application. This paste is applied in the form of a Pradeha (thin poultice).
Vata balancing aromatic herbs like Aguru, cardamom, camphor etc), milk pudding (Payasa) and Krishara (a preparation of rice and pulses is added with fat are applied in the form of Upanaha (thick poultice).- these are used to prepare an ointment is applied over affected area. [117- ½ 118]

Medicated ghee

Medicated Ghee for Vatika Diseases:
For the treatment of different diseases caused by Vayu alone, we shall now describe preparations of medicated fat which are like Amruta – ambrosia:
In 1 Drona of water, 4 Palas of Dasha Mula, and 1 Prastha of each of Yava – Barley, Kola- ber and Kulattha – horsegram is boiled till 1/4th of after remains.
To this decoction, the paste of the herbs belonging to Jivaniya group, sugar, Kharjura – dates, Kashmarya – Gmelina arborea, Draksha – Raisin, Badara – Zizyphus jujuba and Phalgu – Bauhinia tomentosa is cooked.
This medicated ghee cures diseases caused by Vayu alone (not associated with other Doshas). This medicated ghee has no adverse effects. It is taken internally and used for massage as well as medicated enema. [118 ½ – ½ 122]

Chitrakadi ghrita, Bilva ghrita

Chitrakadi Ghrita for Vata roga:
Ghee cooked with the paste of Chitraka – Leadword – Plumbago zeylanica, nagara – Zingiber officinale, Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata), Puskara Mula, Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum, and Sati – Hedychium spicatum cures Vata vyadhis. [122 ½ -1/2 123]

Bala-Bilva ghrita for Nasya:
Milk boiled by adding Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia and Bilva – Aegle marmelos. Ghrita Manda (upper Part of the ghee) is cooked by adding this milk to it. 1 Sukti (1/2 Pala) or Prakuncha (1 Pala) of this medicated ghee is used for inhalation therapy which cures diseases caused by the aggravated Vayu afflicting the head. [123 ½- ½ 124]

Medicated Bone Marrow

Bones of the domesticated (Gramya), Marshy-land (Anupa) and aquatic animals is crushed and cooked by adding Dashamoola Kashaya the paste of
Jivaka – Malaxis acuminata,
Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra,
Asphota – Jasminum angustifolium,
Vidari (Ipomoea paniculata / Pueraria tuberosa),
Kapikacchu – Mucuna pruriens, group of Vata-alleviating herbs (vide Vimanasthana 8th chapter) and jeevaneeya gana herbs, and double the quantity of milk.
This medicated enema, and taken internally which instantaneously cures diseases of vessels, joints, bone and gastro intestinal tract caused by their affliction with aggravated Vata.
This medicated bone marrow should is used for
Nasya – inhalation,
Abhyanga – massage and
Basti – medicated enema, and
Taken internally which instantaneously cures diseases of vessels, joints, bone and gastro internal tract caused by their affliction with aggravated Vata.
In the patients having diminished bone narrow, semen and Ojas (elan Vitae), this recipe promotes strength and nourishment like ambrosia. [123 -127]

Medicated Vasa

Siddha Vasa – medicated muscle fat
In the same, above method, the Vasa – muscle fat of Nakra – crocodile, fish, tortoise and owl are cooked and used for Nasya and oral administration. [128]

Maha Sneha

Maha sneha – combination of medicated oil, fat, ghee and bone marrow.


In 1 Drona of water,
1 Prastha of Triphala,
2 Kudavas of Kulattha – horse gram,
5 Palas of each of bark of Krishna Gandha (sobhanjana) and Adhaki,
2 Palas of each Rasna and Chitraka – Plumbago zeylanica , and
1 Pala of Dashamula is cooked till 1/4th after remains to this decoction,
1 prastha of each of Sura (alcohol), Aranala (preparation of sour gruel), sour Yoghurt, Sauviraka (Vinegar), Tushodaka (a sour preparation of paddy),
juice of Kola, Dadima – Pomegranate and
oil, muscle fat, ghee, bone marrow and milk,
and the paste of 6 palas of herbs of Jeevaniya group is added and properly cooked.
This Maha Sneha (Preparation of ghee, oil, muscle fat and bone marrow taken together) is used for massage which cures diseases caused by the affliction of Vessels, bones and bone marrow by aggravated Vata, Sarvanga roga. Ekanga roga, tremors, convulsions and colic pain. [129 ½ – ½ 134]

Nirgundi Taila

Oil is cooked by adding equal quantities of –
juice of the roots and leaves of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo).
Oral administration of this taila and massage and as ear drops is useful in fistua, Kushta – skin diseases, diseases caused by Vata, Scabies and Apachi (adenitis in the submandibular and axillary regions). 134 ½ – 135]
Oil cooked with the decoction of cotton seed and Kulattha cures diseases caused by the aggravated Vata. [½ 136]

Mulaka Taila

1 Prastha of the juice of Mulaka – radish and
1 prastha of milk is added with 1 Prastha of Yogurt and kept for 3 days.
One Prastha of oil is prepared by adding 3 prasthas of this sour preparation, and the fine paste of 1 Pala of each of
Yashtimadhu – Glycyhrriza glabra, Sugar, Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata), Salt, fresh ginger (Ardraka) and dry ginger.
This medicated oil taken internally, and used for massage to treat Vata disorders. [136 ½- ½ 138]

Panchamuladi taila

In the decoction of Pancha Mula many-years-old pinyaka (oil cake of paste of seed from which oil has been extracted) is cooked and the decoction is strained.
In this decoction, 1 Prastha of oil is cooked by adding 8 times of milk. This medicated oil cures all the Vatik diseases.This oil is especially useful when Vayu is associated with vitiated Kapha to produce the ailment. [138 ½ – ½ 140]

Yava Koladi taila

1 Anjali of each of Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Kola- ber, Kulattha – horse gram, Sreyasi (Gaja pippali), dry Radish – Raphanus sativus and Bilva – Aegle marmelos is cooked by adding sour liquids (like sour gruel and curd) when this decoction, oil is cooked by adding the paste of sour fruits (like pomegranate, etc) and pungent ingredients. This medicated oil, while cool, is used for the treatment of patients suffering from serious types of Vatika diseases. [140 ½ – ½ 142]

Sahachara Taila

Now listen to the description of other types of medicated oil useful for the treatment of all varieties of Vatika diseases. These oils can be used in 4 different modes (viz., oral intake, massage, nasya and enema).
They promote longevity, strength and completion they cure morbidities of menstruations (ovulation) and semen, and help in the procreation of offspring’s these are harmless, therapeutically effective and alleviators of all the [3] Doshas.
1 Adhaka of oil is cooked by adding the decoction of 1 Tula of whole plant of Sahachara, the paste of 10 Palas of the root of Sahachar and 4 Adhakas of milk after the oil is cooked, 18 palas of sugar-powder is added to it by the physician. This medicated oil is useful for serious types of Vatika diseases. [142 ½- ½ 146]

Svadamshtradi Taila

1 Prastha of oil is cooked by adding 2 Prasthas of each of the juice (decoction) of Svadamstra – Tribulus and milk, 6 palas of Sringavera- fresh ginger, and 8 palas of Jaggery.
This medicated oil can be used for the types of Vatika diseases when the oil is digested after its intake, the patient is given Peya (thin gruel) reared by adding milk. [146 ½ – ½ 148]

Baladi taila

100 Adhakas of water is boiled by adding 100 palas of
Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia, 25 Palas of guduchi – Tinospora cordifolia and 12 ½ Palas of Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata) till 1/10th (ten Adhakas) of water remains.
1 Adhaka of oil is cooked by adding the above mentioned decoction, 10 Adhakas of each of
sugar- cane juice and
5 Adhakas of goat milk, and the paste of 1 pala of each of
Sati – Hedychium spicatum,
Devadaru (Cedrus deodara),
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) ,
Manjistha – Rubia cordifolia,
Aguru – Aquallaria agallocha,
Chandana (Sandalwood – Santalum album),
Padmaka – Prunus cerasoides,
Ativisa – Aconitum heterophyllum,
Musta (Cyperus rotundus),
Suraparni (Masa parni – Teramnus labialis and mudga Parni – Phaseolus trilobus),
Harenu – Pisum sativum,
Yasti Madhu – Glycyhrrhiza glabra,
Surasa – Cinnamonum zeylanica,
Vyaghra Nakha – Capparis zeylanica,
Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra,
Jivaka – Malaxis acuminata,
Juice of Palasa – Butea monosperma,
Kasturi, Nalika, JatiKosa (Mace),
Sprikka, Kunkuma, Shaileya,
Jatiphala – Myristica fragrans,
Katu Phala(Lata Kasturi),
Ambu – pavonia odorata Willd. (Netra Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia),
Tvak – cinnamon
Kunduru – Cassia fistula
Karura, Turaska (Silhaka),
Lavanga – Syzygium aromaticum,
Nakha (Svalpa Nakhi), Kakkola,
Kushta – Saussurea lappa,
priyangu—Callicarpa macrophylla,
Sthauneya – Clerodendrum viscosum,
Tagara – Valerian walichii,
Dhyama – Cymbopogon martinii,
Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn.),
leaves of madana – Randia dumetorum and
Naga Kesara – Mesua ferrea.
When the oil is fully cooked, the container (oil an) is taken out of the fire, and the oil is added with Patra Kalka (Paste of aromatic herbs) and filtered.

Shvasa – Bronchial asthma,
Kasa – bronchitis,
Jwara – fever,
Hikka – hiccup,
Chardi – vomiting,
Gulma (Phantom tumor),
Sosha – consumption,
Pliha – splenic disorders,
epilepsy and
This called BalaTaila which is the best for curing Vatika diseases. This recipe was taught to Agnivesha by his preceptor Krsnatreya.
Thus, ends the description of Bala Taila. [148 ½ – ½ 157]

Amrtadya Taila

Ingredients and Method:
8 Dronas of water is boiled by adding
5 Tulas of Amrta (Guduchi – Tonospora cordifolia) till 1/4th of water remains.
2 Adhakas of oil is cooked by adding this decoction ,
2 Dronas of milk and the paste of 1 Karsa of each of
ela (brhadela) – Elattaria cardamum
Mamsi – Nardostachys jatamamsi,
Nata (Valeriana wallicii),
Ushira – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus,
kustha – Saussera lappa,
Chandana (Sandalwood – Santalum album),
Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia,
Tamalaki – Phyllanthus niruri,
Meda – Polygonatum cirrhifolium,
Satapuspa – Anethum sowa,
Jivaka – Malaxis acuminata,
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei,
Ksira Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei,
Atibala – Abutilon indicum,
maha sravani, (maha Munditika),
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata,
Vidari (Ipomoea paniculata / Pueraria tuberosa),
Kapikacchu – Mucuna pruriens
Satavari – Asparagus racemosus
Mahameda – Polygonatum verticillatum,
Harenu – Pisum sativum
Vacha – Acorus calamus
Goksuraka – Tribulus terrestris
Eranda – Ricinus communis
Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata)
Kala (Kalanusariva)
Sahacara – Casearis esculanta
Sallaki – Boswellia serrate
Musta (Cyperus rotundus),
Tvak – cinnamon
Patra – Cinnamomum tamala,
Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra,
Sprkka and
TriDashahva(deva Daru – Cedrus deodara)
3 Karsas of Manjistha –Rubia cordifolia and
8 palas of Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra (yasti Madhu)
This medicated oil cause’s restoration of normal health of patients has less of potency, less of digestion, less of strength, less of potency, less power of digestion, less of strength, less of intelligence, and those suffering from insanity, depression (Arati), and epilepsy. It is the foremost among the medicated oils used for curing Vatika diseases. This is called Amrta Taila which is held in high esteem by physicians. It was propounded by the preceptor Krsnatreya.
Thus ends description of Amrtadya Taila. [157 ½ – 164]

Rasna Taila

1 Drona of oil is cooked by adding the decoction of 1000 Palas of Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata), and the paste of aromatic herbs available in the Himalayas (like Aguru – Aquallaria agallocha, Kushta – Saussurea lappa and Ksemaka) and Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) , etc. this medicated oil cures Vatika diseases.
Following the above mentioned procedure, medicated oil is prepared of Ashwagandha – Winter Cherry / Indian ginseng (root) or Prasarani – Paederia foetida or 2 types of Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia.
Similarly, medicated oil can be prepared of Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia, Prasarani – Paedaria foetida and Ashwagandha – Withania somnifera separetely by adding the decoction and Paste of these herbs along with milk.
Thus, ends the description of Rasna Taila. [165- 166]

Mulakadya Taila

Ingredients and Method of preparing:
Juice of Mulaka – Raphanus sativus,
Ksiram – milk,
Tailam -oil,
Dadhi – curd and
sour Kanji (a preparation of sour gruel) taken in equal quantities is cooked by adding the paste of
bala – Sida cordifolia,
Chitraka – Plumbago zeylanica,
saindhava – rock salt
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Ativisa – Aconitum heterophyllum,
Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata),
Cavika –Piper chaba,
Aguru – Aquallaria agallocha,
Sigru – Moringa oleifera,
Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.),
Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Kushta – Saussurea lappa,
Svadamstra – Tribulus terrestris
Visva Bhesaja,
Puskara Mula – Inula racemosa ,
Sati – Hedychium spicatum,
Bilva – Aegle marmelos,
Nata (Valeriana wallicii) and
Deva daru – Cedrus deodara.
Internal intake of this medicated oil cures even serious types of Vatika diseases. Thus, ends the description of Mulakadya Taila. [167- 169]

Vrusgamuladi Taila

One Adhaka of oil is cooked by adding the decoction of 200 Palas of each of the root of Vasaka –Adhatoda vasaka and Guduchi – Tinospora cordifolia, and 100 palas of Chitraka – Plumbago zeylanica and Ashwagandha – Withania somnifera (taken together), and milk this medicated oil is used for the treatment of bone fracture and osteoporosis caused by Vayu
If this medicated oil is cooked by adding the Paste of ingredients mentioned in connection with the medicated oils described before, then it becomes very effective
Thus, ends the descriptions of Vrsa Mulakadya Taila [170-171]

Moolaka Taila

Decoction is prepared of 10 Palas of each of the (root of)
Rasna (Vanda roxburghi / Pluchea lanceolata),
Sirisha (Albizzi lebbeck Benth.),
Yasti Madhu – Glycyhrrhiza glabra
Sunthi – Zingiber officnale
Sahacara – Barleria prionitis
Amrta – Tinospora cordifolia
Syonaka – Orchis mascula
Deva daru – Cedrus deodara
Haya Gandha(Asvagandha – Withania somnifera)and
Tri Kantaka – Tribulus terrestris
1 prastha of oil is cooked by adding this decoction, 1 Prastha of each of Yogurt, Aranala (sour gruel), decoction of Masa, juice of radish and sugar-cane juice, and [the paste of] 1 Karsa of each of Sarva Gandha (group of aromatic herbs).
This medicated oil cures
Pliha (splenic disorders),
Mutra krchrra – retention of urine,
Shvasa – asthma,
Kasa – bronchitis, and
diseases caused by Vayu
This is called Mulaka Taila. It promotes complexion, longevity and strength.
Thus, ends the descriptions of Mulaka Taila [172-175]

Yavadi taila

Oil is cooked with the decoction of Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Kola, Kulattha –horse gram, fish, Sigru – Moringa oliefera, Bilva – Aegle marmelos and radish by adding yogurt and milk. The physician should administer this medicated oil for the cure of all Vatika diseases.
These medicated oils is administered internally after the purificatory bath on the cessation of menstruation, by drinking these medicated oils, even a sterile woman becomes capable of giving birth to a son [176-178]

Agurvadi Taila

Agurvadya Taila described for the treatment of Sita – white variety of Cynodon dactylon-Jvara or cold fever (vide Chikitsa 3: 267) is cooked 100 of times (by using the same ingredient and same method) this medicated oil cures Vatika diseases.
Medicated oils to be described in the next chapter dealing with the treatment of Vayu Rakta or gout (vide Chikitsa 29: 88-129) may also be used for the alleviation of Vayu by a physician desirous of professional excellence. [179-180]

Importance of Oil in curing Vatika diseases
There is no medication which excels oil in curing Vatika diseases because of its Vyavayi (which pervades the body before going through the Process of digestion), hot heavy and unctuous properties. When cooked or processed with other herbs, it becomes more powerful therapeutically.
Therefore, oil is cooked for 100 and 1000 times with the group of herbs which all alleviate Vayu. Such medicated oils cure diseases located in the minutest channels of the body quickly. [181-182]

Treatment of diseases caused by Vayu in association with other Doshas:
All the general therapies described above (for the treatment of diseases caused by Vata alone) are also useful when Vata is associated with other Doshas, and especially when it is occluded by Pitta, etc., in the channels of circulation [183]

Pittavrita Vata treatment

Treatment of Pittavruta Vata (Vata Occluded by Pitta)
If the ailment is caused by the aggravated Vayu occluded by Pitta, then the patient is specially given cooling and heating therapies alternatively administration of Jeevaniya Ghrita (ghee cooked by adding Jivaniya group of herbs).
The patient is given the meat of animals inhabiting arid one, barley and Shali type of rice as food. He is give Yapana Basti, Ksira Basti (2 types of medicated enema to be described later- vide Siddhi 12: 16), purgation therapy and milk boiled by adding Pancha Mula as well as Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia to drink.
His body is sprinkled with the oil, ghee or milk boiled by adding the decoction of Yasti Madhu, Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia or Pancha Mula, or by simple cold water. [184- 186]
Related: How to balance Vata and Pitta Dosha

Kaphavrita Vata treatment

Treatment of Vata Occluded by Kapha:
If the ailment is caused by the occlusion of Vayu by Kapha then the patient is given barley and meat of the animals as well as birds inhabiting arid one as food.
He is given strong Swedana (fomentation), Niruha Basti and Vamana as well as Virechana therapies. Old ghee, sesame oil and mustard oil are useful in this condition. [187- ½ 188]
Read related: How to balance Vata and Kapha Dosha

Association of Kapha and Pitta:
If Kapha and Pitta both are associated with Vata to cause the disease, then in the beginning, therapies is given for the alleviation of Pitta [and Kapha is subdued latter]. [188 ½]

Treatment of Vata Associated with Kapha and Pitta:
If the aggravated Vata, in association with Kapha gets located in the stomach, then the patient is given emetic therapy.
If they are located in the colon, then the patient is given purgation therapy.
If Vata, in association with Pitta, pervades the entire body (including the stomach and colon), then also purgation therapy is given.
If Kapha liquefied by fomentation therapy gets located in the colon or if the signs and symptoms of Pitta are manifested, then both these morbidities are to be eliminated by enema therapy.
If Vata is associated with Kapha, then Niruha type of medicated enema is administered with a recipe added with cow’s urine.
If Vayu is associated with Pitta, then Niruha Basti is administered with a recipe added with milk.
To such a patient (Vayu associated with Pitta), Anuvasana Basti prepared by boiling with the group of sweet herbs is used.
If Vayu associated with Kapha gets located in the head, then the patient is given Dhuma (fumigation therapy) and inhalation therapies
If after the elimination of Pitta and Kapha, the residual Vayu gets located in the channels of the chest, then therapies prescribed for Vayu alone is administered [189- ½ 194]

Raktavrita, Amavata Chikitsa

If Vata is occluded by Rakta (blood), then the therapies prescribed for the treatment of vata Rakta or gout (in the next chapter) are to be administered. [194 ½]

Amavata Chikitsa: Treatment of Vata Associated with Ama:
If Vata is associated with Ama (uncooked product of digestion and metabolism), then therapies prescribed for Prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), Vatika disorders and adiposity are to be administered. [1/2 195]

Mamsa, Majja Sukravrita Vata treatment

Treatment of Mamsavruta Vata Dosha – Vata Occluded by Muscle tissue:
If Vayu is occluded by Mamsa (muscle tissue), then fomentation, massage, meat-soup, milk and fat are useful [195]

Occlusion of Vayu by Bone marrow and Semen:
If Vayu is occluded by bone and bone marrow, then the patient is given Maha Sneha (vide description in verse nos. [129 ½ – 133]
If Vayu is located by semen, then the therapies prescribed earlier for the treatment of affliction of semen by Vayu (vide verse no. 94) Is given [½ 196]

Anna, Mutra, Pureeshavrita Vata treatment

Occlusion of Vayu by Food:
If Vayu is located by food, then emesis, Pachana (carminative) Dipana (digestive Stimulant) and light diet is given. [196 ½]

Occlusion of Vayu by Urine:
If Vata is occluded by urine then diuretics, fomentation and Uttara Basti (urethral Douches) is given. [½ 197]

Occlusion of Vata by Feces:
If Vata is occluded by feces, then castor oil and oleation therapy as indicated for Udavarta (upward movement of wind in the abdomen – vide Chikitsa 26: 11-44) is given. [197 ½]

Treatment of Doshas Located in Their Own Habitat:
A morbid Dosha located in its own habitat becomes more powerful. Therefore, first of all such Doshas is subdued by the administration of appropriate therapies like emesis, purgation, medicated enema and alleviation therapies.
Thus, ends the treatment of diseases caused by Vata being occluded by Pitta, etc. [198- ½ 199]

Mutual occlusion of Vata subtypes

Mutual Occlusion of Five Varieties of Vata:
The signs and symptoms of the mutual occlusion of 5 varieties of Vata will be described hereafter in extensor as well as in brief. O! Sinless one (addressed to the disciple Agnivesha), Listen to these descriptions.
Prana Vata occludes other 4 varieties of Vayu, Viz.., Udana Vayu, etc.., and they in turn occlude Prana Vayu. These 4 types of Vayu (viz. Udana, Samana, Vyana and Apana) also occlude each other. These 5 types of Vayu, when aggravated occlude each other, thus resulting in 20 types of occlusion. The physician should properly understand these conditions. [199 ½ – ½ 202]

Pranavrita Vyana vata –
Signs and treatment of Vyana Vayu Occluded by Prana Vayu:
If Vyana Vayu is occluded by Prana Vayu, then there will be loss of the functions of all the senses, and there will be loss of memory as well as strength. This condition is treated by the administration of therapies prescribed for supra clavicular diseases. [202 ½ – ½ 203]

Vyanavrita Prana –
Signs and Treatment of Prana Vayu Occluded by Vyana Vayu:
If Prana Vayu is occluded by Vyana Vayu, then there will be
Ati sveda – excessive sweating,
Loma harsha – horripilation,
Tvak dosha – skin- diseases and
Supta gatrata – Numbness in the body.
To such patients, purgation therapy with medicated oil is administered. [203 ½- ½ 204]

Pranavrita Samana Vata:
Signs and treatment of Samana Vayu Occluded by PranaVata

If Samana Vata is occluded by Prana Vata, then there will be differently in speech, slurring speech and even dumbness.
For such patients, Yapana Basti (a type of medicated enema) and administration of medicated fat in 4 different ways are beneficial. [204 ½- ½ 205]

Samanavrita Apana –
Signs and Treatment of Apana Vayu Occluded by Samana Vayu:
If Apana Vayu is occluded by Samana Vayu, then there will be diseases of
Grahani (duodenum),
Parshva hrud gadah – sides of the chest and heart, and
Aamshaya shoolam – colic Pain in the stomach.
To such patients, Dipana Sarpis (medicated ghee prepared by boiling it with digestive stimulants) is given [205 ½ – ½ 206]

Pranavrita Udana:                                                                                               Signs and Treatment of Udana Vata occluded by Prana Vata:
If Udana Vata is located by Prana Vata, then there will be
Shiro graha – stiffness of the head,
Pratishyaya – rhinitis,
Nihshvasa ucchshvasa – obstruction to inspiration and expiration,
Hrud roga – heart- diseases and
Mukha sosha – dryness of the mouth.
For such patients prescribed for the treatment of the diseases of head and neck is given, and the patient is comforted [206 ½ – 207]

Udanavrita Prana:                                                                                                   Signs and Treatment of Prana Vayu Occluded by Udana Vayu:
If Prana Vayu is occluded by Udana Vata, then there will be loss of the functions (of Different parts of the body). Ojas (vital essence), strength and complexion, there may even be the death of the patient. He is slowly sprinkled with cold water, consoled and comforted. [208- ½ 209]

Udanavrita Apana:                                                                                                   Signs and Treatment of Apana Occluded By Udana Vata:
If Apana Vayu is occluded by Udana Vata, then there will be vomiting and diseases like Asthma. To such patients, medicated enema and such food that would cause downward movement of Vata is given. [209 ½ – ½ 210]

Apanavrita udana:                                                                                               Signs and treatment of Udana Vata Occluded by Apana Vayu
If Udana Vata is occluded by Apana Vata, then there will be-
Moho – unconsciousness
Alpa agni – suppression of the power of digestion and
Atisara – diarrhea.
To such patients, emetic therapy, digestive stimulants and astringent ingredients are giving for the downward movement of the wind in the stomach. [210 ½ – ½ 211]

Vyanavrita Apana:                                                                                                        Signs and Treatment of Apana Vata Occluded by Vyana Vata:
If Apana Vata is occluded by Vyana Vata, then there will be
Vamya – vomiting
Aadhmana – abdominal distension
Udavarta – upward movement of Vata
Gulma – phantom tumor and
Parikartika – sawing pain in the abdomen [211 ½ – ½ 212]

Apanavrita Vyana: Signs and Treatment of Vyana Vata Occluded By Apana Vata
If Vyana Vata is occluded by Apana Vayu, then there will be excessive discharge of stool, urine and semen
For such patients, all types of astringents are given. [212 ½- ½ 213]

Samanavrita Vyana:                                                                                                    Signs and Treatment of Vyana Vayu Occluded by Samana Vata:
If Vayu –Vata is occluded by Apana Vata, then there will be excessive discharge of stool, urine and semen
For such patients, all types of astringent therapies are given. [213 ½ – ½ 214]

Udanavrita Vyana:                                                                                                  Signs and treatment of Vyana Vata Occluded by Udana Vata
If Vyana Vata is occluded by Udana Vayu, then there will be
Stabdhata – stiffness,
Alpa agni – less of Agni (digestive enzymes),
Alpa sweda – less of sweating,
Alpa chesta – lack of efforts and
Nirmilinam – closure of the eyes
To such patients, wholesome and light diet is given in limited quantity. [214 ½ – ½ 215]

Effects of Occlusion

Thus, mutual occlusions of 5 types of Vata is diagnosed from their signs and symptoms in the event of such an occlusion, there is either increase or decreases in occlusion, there is either increase or decrease of the functions (actions) of the particular type of Vayu.
These 8 types of occlusion along with their signs and treatment are described for the proper understanding of intelligent physicians. [215 ½ – ½ 217]

Remaining Twelve Types of Occlusions:
After examining the locations and increase as well as decrease of the functions, the remaining 12 types of occlusions are ascertained. For their treatment, massage, drinking of unctuous potions, medicated enema, etc., is used in their entirety. Hot and cold therapies are administered to such patients alternatively. [217 ½ – ½ 219]

Line of treatment

General line of treatment of five types of Vata Dosha:
For the morbidity of Udana Vata, upward moving therapy (emesis) is administered.
For the morbidity of Apana Vata, downward moving therapy (purgation and medicated enema) is employed.
For the morbidity of Samana Vata, the therapy which causes stability in the abdomen (by alleviation) is used.
For the morbidity of Vyana Vata, all the above mentioned 3 categories of therapies is employed.
Prana Vata is more important than these 4 types of Vata; hence it is protected with priority. Its state of equilibrium helps in the sustence of life.
These Vayus, when occluded, go Astray (move in different channels). There fore, they are brought to their own habitat. [219 ½ – ½ 221]

Occlusion of Prana Vata by Pitta:
If Prana Vayu is occluded by Pitta, then this gives rise to
Murcha – fainting
Daha – burning sensation
Bhrama – giddiness
Shoola – colic pain
Vidaha – indigestion,
Sheeta kamita – desire for cold things and
Vidagdha chardana – vomiting of undigested food. [221 ½ – ½ 222]

Occlusion of Prana Vayu by Kapha:
If Prana Vayu is occluded by Kapha, then there will be
Sthivanam – excessive spitting of Saliva
Kshavathu – sneezing
Udgara – eructation
Nihshvasa ucchvasa nigraha – obstruction to inspiration and expiration,
Aruchi – anorexia and
Chardi – vomiting [222 ½- ½ 223]

Occlusion of Udana Vata by Pitta
If Udana Vayu is occluded by Pitta, then there will be fainting etc, (was described in verse no 221 ½ above), burning sensation in the umbilical region and chest, exhaustion, loss of Ojas (vital essence) and prostration. [223 ½ – ½ 224]

Occlusion of Udana Vata by Kapha:
If Udana Vayu is occluded by Kapha, then there will be
Vaivarnyam – discoloration of the skin,
Vak svara graha – obstruction to speech and voice,
Daurbala – weakness and
Guru gatratva – heaviness of the body and
Aruchi – anorexia.

Occlusion of Samana Vata by Pitta:
If Samana Vata is occluded by Pitta, then there will be
Ati sveda – excessive sweating
Ati trsha – thirst,
Daha – burning sensation
Murchha – fainting,
Aruchi – anorexia and
loss of body- heat. [225 ½ – ½ 226]

Occlusion of Samana Vayu by Kapha:
If Samana Vayu gets occlude by Kapha, then there will be
Asveda – absence of sweating
Vahni mandya – suppression of the power of digestion
Loma harsha – horriplation and
Ati shitata – feeling of excessive cold in the body. [226 ½ – 227]

Obstruction of Vyana Vayu by Pitta
If Vyana Vata is occluded by Pitta, then there is
Sarvanga daha – burning sensation all over the body,
Klamah – exhaustion and
Gatra vikshepa – arrest of the mobility in different parts of the body accompanied with burning sensation and pain. [227 ½ – ½ 228]

Obstruction of Vyana Vata by Kapha:
If Vyana Vayu is located by Pitta, then there is
Guru gatra – heaviness all over the body and
arrest of the mobility in different parts of the body accompanied with burning sensation and pain.[228 ½- ½ 229]

Occlusion of Apana Vayu by Pitta:
If Apana Vayu is occluded by Pitta, then there is yellow coloration of the urine and stool, sensation of heart in the anus and phallus, and menorrhagia. [229 ½- ½ 230]
Occlusion of Apana Vayu by Kapha
If Apana Vata is occluded by Kapha, then the patient will void stool which is loose, mixed with Ama (mucus or undigested food) and heavy.There will be Kaphaja Meha (obstinate urinary disorders caused by Kapha). [230 ½ – ½ 231]

Occlusion by Both Pitta and Kapha:
When any one of these varieties of Vata is occluded by both Pitta and Kapha together, then the wise physician should ascertain this condition from the signs and symptoms of both Pitta and Kapha as described before. [231 ½ -1/2 232]

Location of Pitta and Kapha in the Habitat of Vata:
If Pitta and Kapha get located in the habitats of Vata, then this causes manifestation of various disorders, characteristic of each one or both of them. [232 ½ – ½ 233]

Avarana Upashaya

Prognosis of Occlusions: Avarana Upashaya:
Expert physicians view the obstruction (occlusion) of Prana Vata and Udana Vata by both Kapha and Pitta as a serious condition. Therefore, these occlusions lead to loss of life and vitality.
If undiagnosed or if diagnosed correctly but not treated properly or if the treatment is neglected for more than a year, then all these ailments becomes incurable or difficult of cure. [233 ½- ½ 236]

Avarana complications

Complications of Avarana – Occlusion:
Neglect of these occlusions leads to complications like
Hrud roga – heart disease
Vidradhi – abscesses
Pliha – splenic disorders
Gulma (phantom tumor) and
Atisara – diarrhea.
Therefore, the physician should properly examine and ascertain the occlusion of these 5 Varieties of Vayu by other varieties of Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. [236 ½- ½ 238]

Avarana Chikitsa Sutra

Avarana Chikitsa Sutra: Line of Treatment of Occlusion:
After proper examination, the patient is treated with therapies which are Anabhisyandi (do not cause obstruction to the channels of circulation), which are unctuous and which help in the cleansing of the channels of circulation.
If Vayu is occluded in all its locations, then prompt administration of therapies which are not antagonistic of Kapha and Pitta, but which causes downward movement of Vata is beneficial.
Yapana Basti prepared of sweet herbs accompanied with Anuvasana type of medicated enema is generally useful. If the patient is strong, then mild laxative is beneficial.
Administration of all types of rejuvating recipes, Shilajatu and Guggulu (Commifora mukul Engl.) along with milk is useful in this ailment.
The patient should take Chyavana Prasa (described in Chikitsa 1:1:62-74) prepared with 100 Palas of Sugar, regularly along with milk as food.
If the occlusion occurs due to Apana Vata, then all therapies which are stimulant of digestion, which are astringent, which cause downward movement of Vata, and which cleanse the colon are given.
Thus, in brief, the treatment of various types of occlusions by Prana Vayu, etc. is described. The physician himself should use his own discretion to find out the details of the relevant therapeutic measures.
If there is occlusion of Vata by Pitta, then therapy which alleviates Pitta does not work against Vayu. If the occlusion of vayu by Kapha takes place, then therapies which alleviate Kapha and one which cause downward movement of Vata is administered. [238 ½ -245]

Need for Proper Examination

As the movements of the wind, sun and moon in the macrocosm are difficult of comprehension, similarly, the activities of Vata, Pitta and Kapha in the body (microcosm) are difficult to ascertain.
The physician, who after ascertaining the states of diminution, aggravation, equilibrium and occlusion of these Doshas, administers [appropriate] therapies, never fails to be successful in his efforts. [246-247]


In this chapter, in view of contextual property, the following aspects of the sustainer of life, i.e Vata with its 5 varieties are described:
The locations and functions
Cause of their aggravation
The diseases caused in living beings by these aggravated varieties of Vata in their own locations or in other locations, and while being occluded or otherwise (not being occluded) and
Details of the therapeutic measures for the treatment of these diseases.
For the treatment of these diseases, the physician should administer appropriate therapies guided by the description in ayurvedic scriptures after examining the habitat, wholesomeness, seasonal effects and the strength of the patient. [248-249]

Thus, ends the 28th chapter dealing with the “Treatment of Vatika Diseases” in the Chikitsa section of the text by Agnivesha, redacted by Charaka and supplemented by Dridhabala.

6 comments on “Charaka Vatavyadhi Chikitsa 28th Chapter

  • Raghavendra

    13/01/2017 - 6:00 pm

    Hir Sir,for samana vayu what are the medicines used.Please prescribe medicine for samana vayu imbalance,medicine administration time and dosage.

    Reply to comment
  • Amit Singh

    07/09/2017 - 4:32 pm

    This man is misleading every by his false translation.
    Ayurveda always supported vegetarian food and meat eating is strictly prohibited in ayurvedic texts .

    Reply to comment
  • Rahul

    02/03/2018 - 7:56 am

    Please prescribe medicines for koshtagata vata and gudagata vata.age 27 male .constipation with urine retention 61cc and left lower abdominal pain

    Reply to comment
  • Ranjith Welikala

    16/09/2022 - 11:15 pm

    Dear Sir;
    I think you translate Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana’s 28th full Chapter to English, highly appreciated work to beginners of Ayurveda, especially very helpful in foreign countries students, and doctors. If you have any possibilities trans late types of pain described in Ayurveda, like Toda, Shoola, Bheda …. etc. its very helpful to beginners.
    Thank You,
    Wish You all the best.

    Reply to comment
  • Sudheesh pc

    09/12/2023 - 10:58 am

    Wow,what an amazing study about vata dosha has been done by our ancient yogic masters.
    I bow down to them ,for their unimaginable intelligence and wisdom.

    Reply to comment

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