Charak Samhita Sutrasthana 4 – Shad Virechana Shatashriteeya Adhyaya

The 4th chapter of Charak Samhita deals with 50 different group of 10 herbs each with a common action. It also deals with five basic Ayurvedic dosage forms like Swarasa (juice extract), Kalka (paste), Kashaya (decoction) etc.

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Shad Virechana

There are 600 purgatives;
six different parts of the plant useful for purgation (Virechana Ashraya) (Virechana means purgation treatment, it is one among Panchakarma treatments.)
five varieties of drugs for the preparation of decoction (Kashaya),
five basic dosage forms,
fifty important decoctions
and five hundred decoctions. This is, in brief, the subject matter of this chapter. [3]

600 Virechana formulations

There are 133 purgatives (Virechana formulations) with Madana Phala (Randia dumetorum Lam.),
39 with Jimuta (Luffa echinata Roxb.),
45 with Ikhsvaku (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.),
60 with Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.),
18 with Kutaja – Connessi (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.)
60 with Kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula Roxb.),
110 with black variety of Trivirt (Operculina turpethum R. B.),
12 with Chaturangula (Cassia fistula Linn.),
16 with Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa),
20 with Mahavruksha (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.),
39 with Saptala (Acacia concinna DC.) and Shankini – Canscora decussata,
48 with Danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.) and Dravanti (Fatropha glandulifera Roxb.).
These are the six hundred varieties of purgatives including emetics. [4]

6 plant parts used for purgation

The six different parts of the plant useful for purgation are latex, root, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits. [5]

Five varieties of decoctions

Five varieties of decoctions as found in the work are sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. [6]

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Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana

Five Basic Dosage Forms Of Ayurveda – Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana

Five basic dosage forms of Ayurveda are –
Swarasa – juice extract of an herb. – Juice extracted from a drug pressed by a machine is known as Svarasa;
Kalka – paste or bolus prepared with an herb – when a fresh herb is converted into paste form, with the juice intact, in a spherical shape, it is called as Kalka.
Shruta – Kashayam or herbal decoction of  herb – Medicine prepared by boiling a drug on fire is called Shruta (Kashaya)
Sheeta – cold infusion – cold infusion prepared by putting the coarsely ground drug in boiled water and stored over night is known as Sheeta;
Phanta – hot infusion – When a medicine is prepared by putting the drug in boiled water and then squeezed, the filtrate out of it is known as Phanta.

Among these five, Phanta is most light to digest and has least strength and Swarasa is hardest to digest and is the strongest.
These preparations should be prescribed with due regard to the strength of the patient and seriousness of the disease. All these preparations are not equally useful in all cases. [7]

50 main decoctions

Panchashat Mahakashaya – 50 main decoctions  / group of herbs –
Now we shall expound the 50 important varieties of decoctions mentioned before.
First six are –
Jeevaneeya – Enlivening, Invigorating
Bruhmaneeya – Nourishing, increasing weight
Lekhaneeya – Scraping, decreasing weight
Bhedaneeya – Cathartic, Piercing deep
Sandhaneeya – wound healing and bone healing
Deepaneeya – improving digestion strength

Next four are –
Balya – improving strength
Varnya – improving skin complexion
Kanthya – improving quality of voice
Hrudya – improving heart strength

Next six are –
Truptighna – relieving pseudo-satiation
Arshoghna – curing piles
Kushtaghna – relieving skin diseases
Kandughna – relieving itching sensation
Krimighna – relieving worm infestation
Vishaghna – anti toxic

Next four are –
Stanyajanana – improving breast milk
Stanyashodhana – cleansing and detoxifying breast milk
Shukrajanana -improving quality of semen and ovum
Shukrashodhana – cleansing and detoxifying semen and ovum

Next seven are –
Snehopaga – adjuvants of Snehana (oleation treatment)
Svedopaga -adjuvants of Swedana (sweating treatment)
Vamanopaga – adjuvant to Vamana (vomiting therapy)
Virechanopaga – adjuvant to Virechana (purgation therapy)
Asthapanopaga – adjuvant to Kashaya Basti – decoction enema
Anuvasanopaga – adjuvant to Snehabasti – oil enema
Shirovirechanopaga – adjuvants useful in Nasya treatment

Next three are –
Chardi Nigrahana – relieving vomiting
Trushna Nigrahana – relieving thirst
Hikka Nigrahana – relieving hiccups

Next five are –
Purisha Sangrahaneeya – bowel binders, which helps to improve the bulk of stools
Purisha Virajaneeya – which helps to bring back proper colour of stools
Mutra Sangrahaneeya – which helps to restore normal quantity of urine
Mutra Virajaneeya -which helps to restore proper colour of urine
Mutra Virechaneeya – which helps to cleanse urine (and bladder)

Next 5 are –
Kasahara – relieving cough, cold
Shwasahara – relieving asthma, difficulty in breathing
Shothahara – relieving inflammation
Jwarahara – relieving fever
Shramahara – relieving tiredness

Next 5 are –
Daha Prashamana – relieving burning sensation
Sheeta Prashamana – relieving cold sensation
Udarda Prashamana – relieving allergic skin rashes
Angamarda Prashamana – relieving body pain
Shula Prashamana – relieving abdominal colic pain

Next 5 are –
Shonitasthapana – stopping bleeding, restoring proper quantity of blood
Vedanasthapana – relieving pain
Sanjnasthapana – restoring consciousness
Prajasthapana – procreative, useful in begetting child
Vayaha Sthapana -rejuvenating, anti ageing.

Jeevaneeya, Bruhmaneeya

Jeevaneeya Gana

1. Jeevaneeya Gana – Enlivening, anti ageing group of herbs

Jeevaka – Malaxis acuminata
Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra
Meda – Polygonatum cirrhifolium
Mahameda – Polygonatum verticillatum
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei
Kshira Kakoli – Roscoea purpurea / Lilium polyphyllum
Mudgaparni – Phaseolus trilobus,
Mashaparni – Teramnus labialis,
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata and
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Bruhmaneeya Gana

2. Bruhmaneeya Gana – Nourishing, increasing weight

Ksheerini – Mimosops hexandra Roxb.)
Rajakshavaka – Euphorbia microphylla,
Ashwagandha – Winter Cherry / Indian ginseng (root) – Withania somnifera,
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei,
Ksheerakakoli – Roscoea purpurea / Lilium polyphyllum,
Vatyayani – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia,
Bhadraudani (Sida cordifolia Linn.),
Bharadvaji – Thespesia lampas,
Payasya – Impomoea paniculata and
Rushyagandha (?)

Lekhaneeya Gana

3. Lekhaneeya Gana – Scraping, decreasing weight
Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.),
Kushta – Saussurea lappa,
Haridra (turmeric – Curcuma longa),
Daru Haridra – Tree Turmeric (stem) – Berberis aristata,
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Ativisa (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.),
Katurohini – Picrorhiza kurroa,
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Chirabilva – Holoptelia integrifolia and
Haimavati – Iris versicolor

Bhedaneeya Gana

4. Bhedaneeya – Cathartics, Piercing deep
Suvaha (Operculina turpethum R.B.),
Arka – Calotropis gigantean,
Urubuka – Castor – Ricinus communis
Agnimukhi – Gloriosa superba,
Chitra – Baliospermum montanum,
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Chirabilva – Holoptelia integrifolia,
Shankini – Canscora decussata,
Shakuladani – Picrorhiza kurroa and
Svarnaksheerini – Argemone mexicana Linn

Sandhaneeya Gana

5. Sandhaneeya – wound healing and bone healing
Madhuka – Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.),
Madhuparni – Indian tinospora (stem) – Tinospora cordifolia,
Prishnaparni – Uraria picta,
Ambasthaki (Cissampelos pareria Linn.),
Samanga – Rubia cordifolia,
Mocharasa (Salmania malabarica Schott & Endl.),
Dhataki – Woodfordia fruticosa,
Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa),
Priyangu (Callicara macrophylla) and
Katphala – Myrica nagi

Deepaneeya Gana

6. Deepaneeya – improving digestion strength
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Pippalimoola  – Long pepper root – Piper longum,
Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter.),
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Shringavera – Ginger – Zingiber officinale,
Amlavetasa – Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. / Rheum emodi Wall.,
Maricha – Black pepper fruit – Piper nigrum,
Ajamoda – Celery fruit – Trachyspermum roxburghianum,
stone of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) and
Hingu Niryasa – Asafoetida 

Balya, Varnya, Kanthya, Hrudya

Balya Gana

7. Balya Gana – improving strength
Aindri (Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.),
Rishabhi – Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra
Atirasa – Asparagus root – Asparagus racemosus,
Rishyaprokta – Teramnus labialis,
Payasya – Impomoea paniculata,
Ashwagandha – Winter Cherry / Indian ginseng (root) – Withania somnifera,
Sthira – Desmodium gangeticum,
Katukarohini – Picrorhiza kurroa,
Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia, and
Atibala – Abutilon indicum

Varnya Gana

8. Varnya Gana – improving skin complexion
Chandana (Santalum album Linn.),
Tunga (Calophyllum inophyllum),
Padmaka – Prunus cerasoides,
Ushira – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.),
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus,
Payasya – Impomoea paniculata,
Sita – white variety of Cynodon dactylon and
Lata – black variety of Cynodon dactylon Pers.

Kanthya Gana

9. Kanthya Gana – improving quality of voice
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus,
Iksumula – Sugarcane root – Saccharum officinarum,
Madhuka – Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Darksha – Raisin – Vitis vinifera,
Vidari (Ipomoea paniculata / Pueraria tuberosa),
Kaitarya – Myrica nagi,
Hamsapadi – Adiantum lunulatum,
Brihati – Solanum indicum and
Kantakarika – Solanum xanthocarpum – these ten drugs are useful for the throat.

Hrudya Gana

10. Hrudya – improving heart strength
Amra – mango – Mangifera indica,
Amrataka – Spondias pinnata,
Lakucha – Artocarpus lakoocha,
Karamarda – Carissa carandes,
Urksamla (Tamarindus indica Linn.),
Amlavetasa – Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. / Rheum emodi Wall.,
Kuvala – Zizyphus sativa,
Badara – Zizyphus jujube,
Dadima – Pomegranate – Punica granatum, and
Matulunga – Lemon variety – Citrus decumana / Citrus limon

Truptighna, Arshoghna

Truptigna Gana

11. Truptighna Gana- relieving pseudo-satiation
Nagara – Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.),
Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter.),
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm f.),
Murva (Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) / Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth.),
Guduci (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.),
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Musta (Cyperus rotundus),
Pippali – Long pepper fruit and
Patola – Pointed gourd  (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.)

Disease- Treatment Of Charaka Samhita Made Easy

Arshogna Gana

12. Arshoghna Gana- curing piles
Kutaja – Connessi (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.),
Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.),
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rosc.),
Ativisa (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.),
Abhaya – Terminalia chebula,
Dhanvayasaka (Fagonia cretica Linn.),
Daru Haridra – Tree Turmeric (stem) – Berberis aristata,
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), and
Chavya (Pipper chaba Hunter.)

Disease- Treatment Of Charaka Samhita Made Easy

Kushtagna Gana

13. Kushtaghna Gana – relieving skin diseases
Khadira (Acacia catechu Willd.),
Abhaya – Haritaki – Terminalia chebula,
Amalaka – Amla – (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.),
Haridra (turmeric – Curcuma longa),
Arushkara (Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.),
Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R, Br.),
Aragvadha (Cassia fistula),
Karavira (Nerium indicum Mill.),
Vidanga (Embelia ribes Brum. f.) and
Jatipravala (tender shoots of Jasminum officinale Linn. var. grandiflorum Bailey.)

Kandugna Gana

14. Kandughna Gana – relieving itching sensation
Chandana – Sandalwood – Santalum album,
Nalada (Nardostachys jatamamsi DC.),
Krtamala (Cassia fistula Linn.),
Naktamala – Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Merr.),
Nimba – Neem (Azadirachta indica),
Kutaja – Connessi (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.),
Sarshapa – Mustard – (Brassica nigra Koch.),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Daru Haridra – Tree Turmeric (stem) – Berberis aristata and
Musta (Cyperus rotundus)

Krimighna Gana

15. Krimighna Gana – relieving worm infestation
Aksheeva (Moringa oleifera Lam.),
Maricha – Black pepper fruit – piper nigrum,
Gandira (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.),
Kebuka – Costus speciosus
Vidanga – False Black Pepper (Embelia ribes Burm. f.),
Nirgundi (Vitex negundo),
Kinihi (Achyranthes aspera Linn.),
Shwadamstra Gokshura – (Tribulus terrestris Linn.),
Vrsaparnika (a variety of Ipomoea reniformis Chois) and
Akhuparnika (Ipomoea reniformis Chois)

Vishaghna Gana

16. Vishaghna Gana – anti toxic
Haridra (turmeric – Curcuma longa),
Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.),
Suvaha– Operculina turpethum,
Sukshma Ela  – Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.),
Palindi – Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. / Operculina turpethum
Chandana – Sandalwood – Santalum album,
Kathaka (Strychnos potatorium Linn. f.),
Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.),
Sindhuvara (Vitex negundo) and
Shleshmataka (Cordia dichotama Forst. f.)

Stanya janana

Stanyajanana Gana

17. Stanyajanana – improving breast milk
Virana (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash.),
Shali – Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.),
Shastika (a variety of rice – Oryza sativa Linn.),
Ikhsuvalika (Asteracantha longifolia Nees),
Darbha (Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.),
Kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata),
Kasha (Saccharum spontaneum Linn.),
Gundra (Saccharum sara),
Itkata – Sesbania bispinosa and
Katruna (Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng.)

Stanyashodhana Gana

18. Stanyashodhana – cleansing and detoxifying breast milk
Patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn.),
Mahausadha – Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.),
Suradaru (Cedrus deodara),
Musta (Cyperus rotundus),
Murva (Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth.),
Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.),
Fruit of Vatsaka – Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.),
Kiratatikta (Swertia chirata Buch-Ham.),
Katurohini – Picrorhiza kurroa and
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus

Shukrajanana Gana

19. Shukrajanana -improving quality of semen and ovum
Jeevaka – Malaxis acuminata
Rishabhaka – Manilkara hexandra
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei
Kshira Kakoli – Roscoea purpurea / Lilium polyphyllum
Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus Ait.),
Mashaparni – Teramnus labialis,
Meda – Polygonatum cirrhifolium,
Vriddharuha (Asparagus racemosus Willd.),
Jatila (Nardostachys jatamamsi D C.) and
Kulinga – Rhus acuminata

Shukrashodhana Gana

20. Shukrashodhana – cleansing and detoxifying semen and ovum
Kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke.),
Elavaluka (Brunus cerasus Linn.),
Katphala – Myrica nagi,
Samudraphena (Internal-cell of Sepia officinalis.),
Gum of Kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich.),
Ikshu – Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.),
Kandeksu (Saccharum spontaneum Linn.),
Ikhsuraka (Asteracantha longifolia Nees.),
Vasuka (Indigofera enneaphylla Linn.) and
Ushira – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides

Snehopaga Swedopaga

Snehopaga Gana

21. Snehopaga – adjuvants of Snehana (oleation treatment)
Mrudvika (Vitis vinifera Linn.),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Madhuparni – Indian tinospora (stem) – Tinospora cordifolia,
Meda – Polygonatum cirrhifolium,
Vidari (Ipomoea paniculata / Pueraria tuberosa),
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei,
Ksheerakakoli – Lilium polyphyllum,
Jivaka – Malaxis acuminata,
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata and
Shalaparni – Desmodium gangeticum D C.

Svedopaga Gana

22. Svedopaga -adjuvants of Swedana (sweating treatment)
Shobhanjanaka – Moringa seed (Moringa oleifera Lam.),
Erandaka – Castor (Ricinus communis Linn.),
Arka – Calotropis gigantica,
Vrischira (white variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.),
Punarnava (red variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.),
Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare),
Tila – Sesame (Sesamum indicum),
Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.),
Masha (Phaseolus mungo L.) and
Badara – Zizyphus jujuba

Vamanopaga Gana

23. Vamanopaga – adjuvant to Vamana (vomiting therapy)
Madhu (honey),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Kovidara (red variety of Bauhinia variegata Linn.),
Karbudara (white variety of Bauhina variegata Linn.),
Neepa (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich.),
Vidula (Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn.),
Bimbi (Coccinia indica W. &  A.),
Shanapushpi (Crotalaria verrucosa Linn.),
Sadapushpa (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. Ait.) and
Pratyakpushpa (Archyranthes aspera Linn.) 

Virechanopaga Gana

24. Virechanopaga – adjuvant to Virechana (purgation therapy)
Draksha – Raisin – Vitis vinifera,
Kashmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.),
Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.),
Abhaya – Haritaki – Terminalia chebula,
Amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.),
Bibhitaka (Terminalia bellerica Roxb.),
Kuvala – Zizyphus sativa,
Badara – Zizyphus jujube,
Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia W. & A.) and
Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.) 

Asthapanopaga Gana

25. Asthapanopaga – adjuvant to Kashaya Basti – decoction enema
Trivrt (Operculina turpethum R. B.),
Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.),
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Kushta – Saussurea lappa,
Sarshapa (Brassica nigra Koch.),
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Fruit of Vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.),
Shatapushpa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra and
fruits of Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum Lam.)

Anuvasanopaga Gana

26. Anuvasanopaga -adjuvant to Snehabasti – oil enema
Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern.),
Suradaru (Cedrus deodara),
Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.),
Madana (Randia dumetorum Lam.),
Shatapushpa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.),
Vruscheera (white variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.),
Punarnava (red variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.),
Shvadamstra (Tribulus terrestris Linn.),
Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.),
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.)

Shiro Virechanopaga Gana

27. Shiro Virechanopaga – Group of herbs useful in Nasya treatment (nasal drops)
Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.),
Kshavaka (Centipeda minima A. Br. Et. Aschers.),
Maricha – Black pepper fruit – Piper nigrum,
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Vidanga – False Black Pepper (Embelia ribes Burm. f.),
Shigru – Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam.),
Sarshapa (Brassica nigra Koch.),
Seed of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera Linn.),
Shveta (white variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn.) and
Mahashveta (a variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn.)

hikka nigrahana

Chardi Nigrahana Gana

28. Chardi Nigrahana – anti emetic – relieving vomiting
Jambu – Jamun (Syzygium cumini Skeels.),
Tender leaves of Amra – mango – Mangifera indica,
Matulunga – Lemon variety – Citrus decumana / Citrus limon,
Badara – Zizyphus jujuba of sour variety,
Dadima – Pomegranate – Punica granatum,
Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare),
Yashtika (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.),
Ushira – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Mrit (earth) and
Laja (fried paddy)

Trushna Nigrahana Gana

29. Trushna Nigrahana – relieving thirst
Nagara – Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.),
Dhanvayasaka (Fagonia cretica Linn.),
Musta (Cyperus rotundus),
Parpataka (Fumaria parviflora Lam.),
Chandana – Sandalwood – Santalum album,
Kiratatikta (Swertia chirata Buch. – Ham.),
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.),
Hrivera (Pavonia odorata Willd.),
Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.) and
Patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.)

Hikka Nigrahana Gana

30. Hikka Nigrahana Gana – herbs relieving hiccups
Shati (Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Smith.),
Pushkaramula (Inula racemosa Hook. f.),
Stone of Badara – Zizyphus jujube,
Kantakarika – Solanum xanthocarpum,
Brihati – Solanum indicum,
Vruksharuha (Dendrophthoe falcata Linn. f.),
Abhaya – Terminalia chebula,
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.) and
Kulirashrungi (Rhus succedenea Linn.)

mutra virechaneeya

Pureesha Sangrahaneeya Gana

31. Pureesha Sangrahaneeya – bowel binders, which helps to improve the bulk of stools
Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla),
Ananta (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.),
Seed of Amra – Mango seed – Mangifera indica,
Katvanga (Oroxylum indicum Vent.),
Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa),
Mocharasa (Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.),
Samanga – Rubia cordifolia,
flower of Dhataki – Woodfordia fruticosa,
Padma – Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and
Filaments of Padma – Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Pureesha Virajaneeya Gana

32. Pureesha Virajaneeya – which helps to bring back proper colour of stools
Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels.),
Bark of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb.),
Kacchura – Curcuma zeodaria,
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Shalmali (Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.),
Shriveshtaka (extract of Pinus roxburghii Sargent.),
fried earth (mud) – purified red ochre
Payasya – Impomoea paniculata,
Utpala (Nymphaea alba) and
grains of Tila – Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum)

Mutra Sangrahaneeya Gana

33. Mutra Sangrahaneeya – which helps to restore normal quantity of urine – anti-diuretics
Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels),
Amra – mango – Mangifera indica,
Plaksha (Ficus lacor Buch-Ham.),
Vata (Ficus benghalensis Linn.),
Kapeetana (Albizia lebbeck Benth.),
Udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.)
Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.),
Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.),
Ashmantaka (Ficus rumphii) and
Somavalka (Acacia catechu Willd.),

Mutra Virajaneeya Gana

34. Mutra Virajaneeya -which helps to restore proper colour of urine
Padma – Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera),
Utpala (Nymphaea alba),
Nalina (a variety of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.),
Kumuda (Nymphaea alba Linn.),
Saugandhika (?),
Pundarika (red variety of Nymphaea lotus Linn.),
Shatapatra (a variety of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Priyangu (Callicara macrophylla) and
flowers of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.)

Mutra Virechaneeya Gana

35. Mutra Virechaneeya – which helps to cleanse urine (and bladder)
Vrukshadani (Dendrophthoe falcata Linn. f.),
Shvadamstra (Tribulus terrestris Linn.),
Vasuka (Indigofera enneaphylla Linn.),
Vasira (Gynandropsis gynandra Briquet),
Pashanabheda (Bergenia ligulata Engl.),
Darbha (a variety of Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.),
Kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata)
Kasa (Saccharum spontaneum Linn.),
Gundra (Saccharum Sara), and
root of Itkata – Sesbania bispinosa

kasahara shwasahara

Kasahara Gana

36. Kasahara – relieving cough, cold
Darksha – Raisin – Vitis vinifera,
Abhaya – Terminalia chebula,
Amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.),
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.),
Shrungi (Rhus succedanea Linn.),
Kantakarika – Solanum xanthocarpum,
Vrushchira (white variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.),
Punarnava (red variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.) and
Tamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.)

Shwasahara Gana

37. Shwasahara – relieving asthma, difficulty in breathing
Shati (Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Smith.),
Puskaramula (Inula racemosa Hook. f.),
Amlavetasa – Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. / Rheum emodi Wall. ,
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton),
Hingu – Asa foetida,
Aguru (Acquilaria agallocha Roxb.),
Surasa  – Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.),
Tamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.),
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata and
Chanda (?)

Shothahara Gana

38. Shothahara – relieving inflammation
Patala (Stereospermum suaveolens DC.),
Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.),
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.),
Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.),
Kashmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.).,
Kantakarika – Solanum xanthocarpum,
Brihati – Solanum indicum,
Shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum DC.),
Prishnaparni – Uraria picta and
Goksuraka (Tribulus terrestris Linn.)

Jwarahara Gana

39. Jwarahara – relieving fever
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus,
Sharkara – sugar,
Patha (Cissampelos pareria Linn.),
Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.),
Draksha – Raisin – Vitis vinifera,
Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.),
Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.),
Abhaya – Terminalia chebula,
Amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and
Vibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.),

Shramahara Gana

40. Shramahara – relieving tiredness
Darksha – Raisin – Vitis vinifera,
Kharjura – Dates – (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.),
Priyala (Buchanania lanzan),
Badara – Zizyphus jujube,
Dadima – Pomegranate – Punica granatum,
Phalgu (Ficus hispida Linn. f.),
Parushaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.),
Ikshu – Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.),
Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and
Shashtika ( a variety of rice – Oryza Sativa Linn.),

Daha Prashamana

Daha Prashamana Gana

41. Daha Prashamana – relieving burning sensation
Laja (fried paddy),
Chandana – Sandalwood – Santalum album,
fruit of Kashmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.),
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Sharkara – Sugar,
Nilotpala (Nymphaea stellata Willd.),
Usheera – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Sariva – Indian Sarsaparilla – Hemidesmus indicus,
Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.) and
Hribera (Pavonia odorata Willd.)

Sheeta Prashamana Gana

42. Sheeta Prashamana – relieving cold sensation
Tagara (Valeriana wallichi DC.),
Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.),
Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.),
Shringavera – Ginger – Zingiber officinale,
Bhutika (Trachysperum ammi Sprague.),
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Kantakari – Solanum xanthocarpum,
Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.),
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicus Vent.) and
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum 

Udarda Prashamana Gana

43. Udarda Prashamana – relieving allergic skin rashes
Tinduka (Diospyros peregrina Gurke.),
Priyala (Buchanania lanzan),
Badara – Zizyphus jujube,
Khadira (Acacia catechu),
Kadara (a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.)
Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br.),
Ashvakarna (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.),
Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna),
Asana (Terminalia tomentosa W. & A.) and
Arimeda (a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.)

Angamarda Prashamana Gana

44. Angamarda Prashamana – relieving body pain
Vidarigandha (Desmodium gangeticum DC.),
Prushniparni (Uraria picta Desv.),
Brihati – Solanum indicum,
Kantakarika – Solanum xanthocarpum,
Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.),
Kakoli – Fritillaria roylei,
Chandana – Sandalwood – Santalum album,
Ushira – Vetiver – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra

Shula Prashamana Gana

45. Shula Prashamana -relieving abdominal colic pain
Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
Pippali moola – root of pippali,
Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter),
Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica,
Shringavera – Ginger – Zingiber officinale,
Maricha – Black pepper fruit – Piper nigrum,
Ajamoda – Ajowan (fruit) – Trachyspermum roxburghianum,
Ajagandha (Gynandropsis gynandra Briquet.),
Ajaji (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) and
Gandira (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.)

Vaya sthapana

Shonitasthapana Gana

46. Shonitasthapana – stopping bleeding, restoring proper quantity of blood
Honey,
Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Rudhika (Crocus Sativa Linn.),
Mocharasa (resin of Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.),
Earthen pot pieces,
Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa),
Gairika (Ferrum haematite),
Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla),
sugar and
fried paddy

Vedanasthapana Gana

47. Vedanasthapana – relieving pain
Shala (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.),
Katphala – Myrica nagi,
Kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich.),
Padmaka – Prunus cerasoides,
Tumba (Xanthoxylon alatum Roxb.),
Mocharasa (resin of Salmalia malabarica Schott and Endl.),
Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.),
Vanjula (Salix caprea Linn.),
Elavaluka (Brunus cerasus Linn.) and
Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn.),

Sanjnasthapana Gana

48. Sanjnasthapana – restoring consciousness
Hingu – Asa foetida,
Kaitarya – Myrica nagi,
Arimeda (a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.),
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.),
Choraka (Angelica glauca),
Vayastha – Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Pennel.),
Golomi (a variety of Acorus calamus Linn.),
Jatila (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.),
Palankasha (Commiphora mukula Engl.) and
Ashokarohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.)

Prajasthapana Gana

49. Prajasthapana – procreative, useful in begetting child
Aindri – Colocynth – Citrullus colocynthis,
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Pennel.),
Shatavirya (Cynodon dactylon Pers.),
Sahasravirya (a variety of Cynodon dactylon Pers.),
Amogha (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.),
Avyatha (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.),
Shiva (Terminalia chebula Linn.),
Arishta (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.),
Vatyapuspi (Sida rhombifolia Linn.) and
Visvaksenakanta (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.)

Vayaha Sthapana Gana

50. Vayaha Sthapana -rejuvenating, anti ageing.
Amruta (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.),
Abhaya – Terminalia chebula,
Dhatri (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.),
Mukta (pearl),
Shveta (white variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn.),
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata,
Atirasa – Asparagus root – Asparagaus racemosus,
Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Urban),
Sthira – Desmodium gangeticum and
Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.)

Thus 500 herbs, grouped in 10 each, based on therapeutic action have been classified.  [19]

Brief explanation of a wide concept

purpose of explanation

The grouping of medicines, as done above and explanation of benefits of each group etc can be done very elaborately. But as per the context, the grouping has been explained, in neither-too-short nor-too-elaborate manner, so as to make both the fool and intelligent understand the concepts. An intelligent scholar would understand the hidden concepts with his intelligence, observation, assumptions and his experience. [20]

While Lord Atreya was explaining (about these drugs), Agnivesa enquired,” Respected Sir! To say that there are five hundred decoctives does not seem to be correct because the same drug is repeated in a number of groups of decoctives?” [21]

Lord Atreya -“A wise man like yourself should not view things like that. Even one and the same person performing different acts, is called by different names. For example, a person who is capable of performing many acts gets different designations according to the act performed, nature of acts and the means adopted. Similar is the case with drugs as well. So if we could find one single drug possessing many curative properties to such an extent that it will be effective in curing all diseases, then who will care to enumerate or advise the use of any other drug to his disciples?” [22]

Kashaya Gana of Charaka

Summing up the contents

All the six hundred purgatives along with their ingredients, various preparations of each one of them have been explained here in brief; and so their six sources have been explained.
Drugs of all tastes except salt can be made into water decoction (Kashayam). Thus there are five-fold sources of decoctives. Again five-fold pharmaceutical preparations of all the decoctives and fifty important groups of decoctives have been enumerated.
These 50 important groups of decoctives are further divided into ten each thereby constituting 500 decoctives – such grouping is for the convenience of description;
There is no limit to the detailed description of these decoctions. Again, too much of brevity will not be conducive to the understanding of disciples of lower intelligence; so the description of decoction presented in this chapter is neither too brief nor too elaborate.
With a view to guiding the disciples of lower intelligence and also to stimulate the imaginative power of the wise, these fifty groups of decoctives have been explained.
The one who is acquainted with the internal use as well as external application and prescription by combination of all these drugs, alone is the real physician. [23-29]
Thus ends the fourth chapter on “the Six Hundred Purgatives”.

7 thoughts on “Charak Samhita Sutrasthana 4 – Shad Virechana Shatashriteeya Adhyaya”

  1. I will try to learn the sanskrit name of each categorization av herb. Then you got a good view. Thank you!

    Reply
    • Congratulations for your efforts. I will further take up difficult concepts of each chapter and will explain them for easy understanding.

      Reply
  2. But why Aacharya Charak gives these 50 Mahakashay…what is the importance behind this concept…why he includes only 10 drugs in each Mahakashaya group?

    Reply
    • Hi, Dr MS Krishnamurthy has covered each of these kashayas separately. search for their names in google and you will come across those articles, with detailed analysis.

      Reply
  3. Dear Sir,
    Charaka Samhita mentions “Sharkara” at various places. What is Sharkara? – Mishri/ bhura/ jaggery powder or something else? Can you name a quality manufacturer whose Sharkara can be purchased?

    Reply

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