The second quarter of Charaka Chikitsa Sthana 1st chapter deals with Rasayana – rejuvenation, anti ageing. This sub-chapter is called Prana Kameeya Rasayana Pada.
Prana means life. Kameeya means desirous. So, it deals with 37 Ayurvedic medicines designed to improve life expectancy and quality.
We shall now explore the second quarter of the Chapter on rejuvenation therapy (Rasayana) beginning with the term Pranakama (desirous for vitality).
Thus said lord Atreya.[1-2]
Importance of Rejuvenation Therapy
Lord Punarvasu Atreya said, “Listen to me, O! Persons desirous for vitality: the revitalisation therapy is like ambrosia and is beneficial to the Gods, the sons of Aditi.
Effects of Rasayana treatment (anti ageing Therapy):
It has unimaginable and wonderful effects.
Ayushya – It promotes life
Arogyakara – Maintains positive health
Vayasa Sthapanam – anti ageing,
Nidra – morbid sleep,
Tandra – Drowsiness
Shrama, Klama – Physical as well as mental fatigue
Alasya Laziness and
Dourbalya – weakness
It maintains proper balance among Vata, Pitta and Kapha;
Sthairyakara – It produces stability,
Cures slothness, wasting of muscles
Agni Sandhukshana – Stimulates digestive fire (enzymes responsible for digestion and metabolism) and
Prabha Varna Swarottamakara – Brings about excellence in lustre, complexion as well as voice
The great sages like Chyavana etc., regained their youth and were liked most by the women.
Their muscles and bodies became compact, even and well proportioned.
They were endowed with
Excellence of strength, complexion and senses.
Unchallengebel prowess everywhere.
And developed powers of resistance to hardships
Causes for body defects (Shareera Dosha)
Gramya Ahara – substandard diet
Amla, Lavana, Katuka, Kshara, Shushka Shaka – green vegetables with sour, saline, pungent and alkaline tastes, dry vegetables,
meat, sesame seeds, paste of sesame seeds and pastries.
Viruda Nava Shooka Shami Dhanya – Germinated cereals and pulses, freshly harvested corns with bristles and pulses
Viruddha – intake of wrong food combinations
Asathmya – uncongenial foods
Klinna, Guru, Pooti Paryushita Bhojana – softened, moist, heavy, putrid and stale food
Vishamashana – eating at random times
Adhyashana – eating before previously food getting digested
Bad habits that cause illness :
Divasvapna, Stree Madya Nitya – daily indulgence in day-sleep, sex and alcohol
Vishama, Ati Vyayama – irregular, excessive exercise,
Bhaya, Krodha, Shoka, Lobha, Moha, Ayasa Bahula – excessive fear, anger, grief, greed, infatuation and over-work.
Effect of bad food, physical and mental habits
Shithilee Bhavati Mamsani – muscles become flabby, fragile
Vimuchyante Sandhayaha – Joints become vitiated, weak
Vidahyate Raktam – blood becomes vitiated, burnt out
Vishyandate cha analpam medaha – The fat which is accumulated in excess gets liquefied, vitiated
Na sandheeyate asthishu majja – The marrow does not remain intact inside the (hollow part) bones,
Shukram na pravartate – Impairment in the ejaculation of semen and
Kshayamupaiti Ojaha – The Ojas (vital fluid, responsible for immunity) undergoes diminution.
Such a person suffers from-
Glayati, Seedati, Nidra, Tandra, Alasya, Nirutsaha – Feels exhausted, languid, sleepy, drowsy and lazy, lack of enthusiasm
Shwasa – dyspnea
Becomes incapable of physical and mental work,
Loses his memory, intellect and complexion and
Becomes an abode of diseases.
Thus he fails to enjoy the full span of his life.
In view of all these miseries, one should give up all types of unwholesome diet and regimens and should undergo revitalisation treatment. Lord Punarvasu Atreya continued his discourse as follows 
Amalaka ghrita – Ghee prepared with Amla:
Method of preparation of Amalaka Ghritam:
One Adhaka (3.072 litres) of ghee is boiled with
- The paste of Punarnava (Spreading Hogweed – Boerhavia diffusa) and
- Juice of Amalaki (Indian gooseberry fruit – Emblica officinalis Gaertn).
The Amalaki fruits should be –
Subhoomija – collected from trees which are grown in good soil, good place and
Kaalaja – seasonal
Anupahata Gandha Varna – Their smell, colour and taste should not have been impaired and heavy
Aapoorna Rasa Pramana Veerya – Should be full in juice, size and potency.
Thus obtained ghee is filtered.
Thereafter, this ghee is again boiled with the
- juice of Vidari (Pueraria tuberosa) and
- the paste of Jivanti ( Leptadenia reticulata).
Then the obtained herbal ghee is filtered.
Thereafter, it the obtained herbal ghee is boiled with 4 parts of milk milk and Decoction of:
- Bala – Country mallow (root) – Sida cordifolia
- Atibala (Abution indicum) and
- The paste of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosa)
In this manner, this ghee should be boiled consecutively for 100 times or 1000 times.
- one fourth of it should be mixed with sugar and honey,
- And kept in a clean, strong and ghee smeared jar made of gold, silver or mud.
Following the prescribed procedure and taking into consideration the digestive power, this medicine should be administered in proper qualities, every morning
And after digestion of Amalaka ghrita,
- The individual should be advised Shali or Shashtika types of rice, to take with milk and ghee.
Benefits of Amalaki Ghrita:
- The person lives for 100 years free from old age.
- Shrutam Avatishtate – He remembers whatever he hears
- he is cured of all diseases.
- Acquires an unimpaired sexual potency and is blessed with progeny.
Thus it is said:
A Robust physique, strong like iron, stability and sharpness of sense organs, invincibility, exceeding charm, respect, honour, mental happiness, enormous strength, bright complexion, very sound voice resembling that of a thunderous cloud and healthy children in plenty- these are the outcomes of this therapy. [4-6]
Ingredients and procedure: 1000 fruits each of Amalaki (Amla, Indian gooseberry) and Pippali (Long pepper fruit – Piper longum)
are impregnated with Palasha Ksharodaka – the water of Palasha Kshara.
The fruits are then de-seeded and dried in shade and powdered.
To this powder, four times of honey and ghee are added and 1/4th of powdered sugar is mixed.
The recipe, thus prepared is kept inside a ghee-smeared jar and should be stored underground for 6 months.
It should be administered based on
Kala – season
Agni – digestion strength of the patient
Bala – strength and immunity.
Wholesome diet should be given to the patient.
This also caries the benefits explained in relation to the previous recipe. (Amalaka ghrita) .
Procedure and the ingredients:
Amalaki (Indian gooseberry) Powder – 1 Adhaka – 3.072 kg, is impregnated with and Gooseberry (Amalki) for 21 nights
To this one Adhaka (3.072 Liter) of honey and ghee each should be added.
The whole thing should be mixed properly, and to this,
- 1/8th powder of Pippali – Long pepper fruit and
- 1/4th powder of sugar is added and mixed.
This powder mix is kept inside a ghee-smeared jar and stored inside a heap of ash during rainy season (Pravrushi).
After the rains, it is administered to the patient who has wholesome diet.
Administration of this recipe makes a person to live for 100 years, free from old age. 
Ingredients and procedure:
One Adhaka (3.072 kg) of the powder of the
- grains of Vidanga – Embelia ribes and
- Pippali – Long pepper fruit – Piper longum,
1.5 Adhaka (4.608 Gm) of sugar,
6 Adhakas (18.432kg) of ghee, Sesame oil and honey, taken together, should be mixed well and kept inside a ghee- smeared jar.
This jar should be stored inside a heap of ashes during the rainy season and given to the patient on the lines suggested above.
It produces all the therapeutic effects mentioned in the preceding paragraph and verses 
Amalaki Avaleh – different version:
Procedure and ingredients:
1000 fruits of Amalaki having the attributes described earlier (in paragraph 4) is kept inside a drum prepared of a green Palasha – Butea monosperma tree. (Sapidhaana Palasha Droni)
It is covered air-tight and is ensured that the steam from inside does not go out through any opening.
This drum is put on fire of the forest cow dung cake.
When these fruits are fully baked, it is allowed to cool down, and then, their seeds are removed.
Pulp is made to a paste and taken in the quantity of one Adhaka (3.072 kg)
- 1 Adhaka (3.072kg) of Pippali Choorna (Long pepper fruit powder)
- 1.5 Adhaka (4.608 kg) of the powder of Vidanga (False black pepper – Embelia ribes fruit),
- 2 Adhakas (6.144 kg) each of sugar, til oil, honey and ghee should be added.
The recipe is kept inside a clean, strong ghee-smeared jar for 21 nights. Thereafter, it is administered.
By the use of these recipes, one lives 100 years free from old age and gets such other benefits as are described in Para 4 and verses 5 and 6 above.
The herbs – Grewia populifolia, Sida spinosa, Urena lobata, Grewia hirsuta – all these are identified with the name Nagabala. Read more about it
Roots of Nagabala should be collected from a field having the following characteristics:
It should be located in Jangala Desa (arid)
Kusha plants – Desmostachya bipinnata should have thickly grown in this field
The earth of the field should be unctuous, black and sweet or it should be golden in colour
The field should be free from poisons, wild animals and the faults of wind, water and fire
- should not be a cultivated land;
- should not have anthill;
- should not be a crematorium;
- should not have a Chattya (sacred temple);
- should not be grown in Usara (saline) land and
- should not have residential houses and
This land should have been exposed to wind, water and sun according to different seasons.
The plants of Nagabala should have the following characteristics:-
It should not have been injured
There should not be any big tree by their side (Adhyarudha) to afflict them
It should neither be too young, nor too old
It should be full of Veerya (potency).
Collection of the herb – Nagabala:
- Nagabala is to be uprooted in the month of Tapas or Magha (January- February) and Tapasya or Phalaguna (February-March)
- By a person, who is clean, Prayata (devoted) who has offered prayer to the Gods
- Persons who are Dvijatis (Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas) have recited Swasti – auspicious chants namely, the Chala or Indra Muhurta.
- The roots are made to a thin paste or powder and taken with milk or honey in the morning.
Pathya: The person is advised food consisting of Shali or Shashtika type of rice mixed with milk and ghee.
If this recipe is taken for one year, then the person lives for one hundred years, free from old age and he will get such other benefits as are described in para 4 and verses 5 and 6 above
Other anti ageing recipes
The juice of
Bala – Sida cordifolia Linn.
Atibala – Abution indicum linn
Chandana – Santalum album
Aguru – Aquilaria agallocha
Dhava – Anogeissus latifolia
Tinisha – Lagerstroemia speciosa, Ougeinia dalbergioides Benth./ oojeinensis
Khadira – Acacia catechu
Simshapa – Dalbergia latifolia and
Asana – Pterocarpus marsupium
And the ten drugs ending with Punarnava viz.
Amra – Mango – Mangifera indica
Abhaya – Harad – Terminalia chebula
Dhatri – Amalaki (Indian gooseberry fruit – Emblica officinalis Gaertn)
Mukta-Rasna – Pluchea lanceolata
Shreyasi – Scindapsus officinalis, Terminalia Corr, Piper chaba
Shveta Punarnava (Spreading Hogweed – Boerhavia diffusa)
Mandukaparni – Gotu Kola
Sthira – Desmodium gangeticum and
Punarnava (Spreading Hogweed – Boerhavia diffusa)
should be used according to the method described for Nagabala.
If the juice of the above mentioned plants is not available, then for the preparation of their juice the following special methods should be adopted:
- One Adhaka (3.072kg) of the plant powder is taken and to this one Adhaka(3.072 lit) of water is added
- And kept for 24 hours.
- Thereafter, it should be squeezed by hand filtered.
- The liquid that comes out after filtration should be used like juice.
Bhallataka is Marking Nut – Semecarpus anacardium. Read more about Bhallataka
Collection of fruits of Bhallataka:
- which are not damaged,
- free from physical defects,
- full of Rasa (taste),
- having full size,
- ripe in potency (veerya) and
- which resemble ripe fruits of Jambu (Jamun fruit)
Time when it is to be collected:
In the months of Suchi or Jyestha (May-June) and Shukra or Ashadha (June-July)
- It is stored for 4 months inside a heap of Yava – Barley (Hordeum vulgare) or Masha (Black gram)
Method of Administration of Bhallatak Rasayan:
- Is done in the month of Sahas or Agrahayana (November-December) or Sahasya, i.e Pushya (December-January),
- It is administered to a patient after his body has been smeared with the cooling, unctuous and sweet herbs. (This is because, Bhallataka is very hot in nature and may cause excessive burning sensation in the patient).
- In the beginning, 10 fruits of Bhallataka should be well boiled in 8 parts of water.
- After boiling, when 1/8th of water remains, it is filtered, added with milk and given to the patient after his mouth has been smeared with ghee.
- Ten fruits should be added every day by one fruit till the number becomes thirty and thereafter, it should be decreased by one fruit per day till it reaches the original number – ten.
- It should not be further increased because thirty fruits of Bhallataka is the maximum dose.
- Following this procedure, one thousand Bhallatakas can be administered.
- After digestion, the person should take the rice of Shali or Shashtika along with milk and ghee.
- After administration for a few days, the person should take milk only twice per day. (Milk acts as coolant and will take away hot effects of Bhallataka).
By the use of this recipe, one lives for one hundred years and gains such other excellent results as are described in paragraph 4, 5 and 6 above.
- Fruits of Bhallataka are slightly crushed and kept inside Pishta Svedana.
- It is kept inside a strong earthen jar which is smeared inside with Sneha (ghee or oil).
- This earthen jar is kept inside a hole dug in the earth.
- The mouth of the jar is sealed by smearing with black coloured mud.
- Over this jar, the fire of cow dung cake should be ignited for heating.
- By this heat, the Swarasa (liquid fraction) of these fruits will percolate and get accumulated at the bottom of the earthen jar.
- This liquid is collected and taken by adding 1/8th honey and double quantity of ghee.
- Person attains longevity.
- Free from old age and gets such other benefits as are mentioned in paragraph 4, 5 and 6 above. 
One adhaka (3.072) of the oil of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) is boiled along with milk and one Aksha (12 g) of the paste of Madhuka– Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra. This process is repeated for 100 times.
By taking this, a person lives for one hundred years and gets such other benefits as are described in paragraph 4 and verses 5 and 6 above
Different recipes of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.):
Following are the ten recipes prepared out of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.):-
- Bhallataka sarpi – medicated ghee prepared by boiling with Bhallataka.
- Bhallataka Ksheera – medicated milk of Bhallataka.
- Bhallataka Kshaudra or the preparation of bhallataka mixed with honey.
- Guda Bhallataka or the preparation of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) by adding or by boiling with Guda – Jaggery.
- Bhallataka Yusha – soup prepared by boiling other drugs with Bhallataka.
- Bhalataka Taila – medicated oil prepared by boiling with Bhallataka.
- Bhalataka Palala – preparation of Bhalataka by adding with meat.
- Bhallataka Saktu – preparation of Bhallataka by adding with roasted corn flour.
- Bhallataka Lavana – Medicine of Bhallataka prepared by adding salt. This can be prepared by taking Bhallataka and salt in equal quantity and making Paka by Antardhuma method (heating in closed container)
- Bhallataka Tarpana – the preparation of Bhallataka by adding tarpana (roasted corn flour mixed with large quantity of water)
Thus ends the description of different methods of preparation of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.).
The constituents of Bhallataka:
Fruits of Bhallataka (Semecarpus Anacardium Linn.) are
Paaki (corrosive) and
Agni Sama (like agni)
But when prepared according to the prescribed methods, they work like Amrita (ambrosia).
The ten recipes said above should administered by a physician who is expert in the knowledge of
Prakrti (physical constitutions) and
It cures diseases of Kapha and Vibandha (constipation) instantaneously
Bhallataka promotes Medha(intellect) and Agni(power of digestion and metabolism).
In the days of yore, the old Maharishis, viz, Chyavana etc. desirous of attaining vitality, used these auspicious recipes for rejuvenation and succeeded in attaining a long life.
Benefits of taking these recipes:
They were able to pursue their religious studies, Tapas (Penance), Brahmacharya (celibacy), spiritual knowledge and meditation and also attained heaven.
Therefore, persons desirous of attaining long life vitality and happiness should practice rejuvenation therapy with complete devotion according to the prescribed procedure.[17-22]
To sum up:
Thirty seven different recipes for rejuvenation therapy which are extremely effective are described for the welfare of the living being by the great sage in this quarter on the desire for vitality.
Here ends the second quarter called Pranakameeya Rasayana Pada of the chapter on Rasayana of the Chikistsa Section in Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka.