Matrashiteeya Adhyaya: Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana 8th Chapter

The 8th chapter of Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana is known as Matrashiteeya Adhyaya. It includes information about – right quantity of food to take, right time to take food, types of indigestion and their treatment, qualities and types of after drinks, right method of food intake etc.

Pledge by the author(s)

अथातो मात्राशितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः।
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः।(गद्यसूत्रे॥२॥)
athāto mātrāśitīyamadhyāyaṃ  vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|
iti ha smāhurātreyādayo maharṣayaḥ|(gadyasūtre||2||)

अथा अतो मात्राशितीयम् अध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः – athā ato mātrāshitēyam adhyāyam vyākhyāsyāmah – after having offered prayers to the God, henceforth we are going to explain the chapter pertaining to food habits and indigestion,

इति ह स्माहुः आत्रेयादयो महर्षयः – iti ha smāhuh ātreyādayo maharshayah – thus say (pledge) atreya and other sages

Atreya and other sages pledge that after annaraksha vidhi adhyaya (protection of food), they would henceforth be explaining the chapter named matrashiteeya adhyaya (food habits and indigestion).

Shloka Recitation Video

Aharamatra Apeksha

AH Su 8.1
मात्राशी सर्वकालं स्यान्मात्रा ह्यग्नेः प्रवर्तिका।
मात्रां द्रव्याण्यपेक्षन्ते गुरूण्यपि लघून्यपि॥१॥
mātrāśī sarvakālaṃ  syānmātrā hyagneḥ pravartikā|
mātrāṃ  dravyāṇyapekṣante gurūṇyapi laghūnyapi||1||

मात्राशी – mātrāśī – proper quantity of food should be consumed
सर्वकालं स्यात् – sarvakālaṃ   syān – at all times (in all conditions)  
मात्रा हि अग्नेः प्रवर्तिका – mātrā hy agneḥ pravartikā – because right quantity of food always activates (kindles) the agni (digestion power of an individual)
मात्रां द्रव्याणि अपेक्षन्ते – mātrāṃ   dravyāṇy apekṣante – the food substances (in order to get properly digested) depend on the specified quantity of consumption
गुरूणि अपि लघूनि अपि – gurūṇy api laghūny api – including the foods that are heavy to digest (guru) and also the foods that are light to digest (laghu).

One should always consume proper quantity of food. Right amount of food activates Agni – digestion power (which is compared to fire, in Ayurveda).
Food that are light to digest (Laghu) and those that are hard to digest (Guru) both require a specified quantity for proper digestion.

Matra pramana

AH Su 8.2
गुरूणामर्धसौहित्य लघूनां नातितृप्तता।
मात्राप्रमाणं निर्दिष्टं सुख यावद्विजीर्यति॥२॥
gurūṇāmardhasauhitya laghūnāṃ  nātitṛptatā|
mātrāpramāṇaṃ  nirdiṣṭaṃ  sukha yāvadvijīryati||2||

गुरूणाम् अर्ध सौहित्य – gurūṇām ardhasauhitya – foods which are heavy (hard) to digest should be consumed only till half of satiation level (half of one’s maximum capacity) is achieved
लघूना न अतितृप्तता – laghūnā nātitṛptatā – the foods which are light to digest should be consumed till one is not totally satiated
मात्राप्रमाणं निर्दिष्टं – mātrāpramāṇaṃ   nirdiṣṭaṃ   – the matra pramana or right quantity of food can be defined as that quantity of food
सुख यावद् विजीर्यति – sukhaṃ   yāvad vijīryati – which undergoes digestion easily.


As a general rule, if the food is heavy to digest (such as oily food, non veg, sweets etc), it should be consumed till half of the satiation level is achieved. (Ardha Sauhitya).
If the food is light to digest, it should be consumed till one is not overly satiated. (Na Ati Truptata).
The right amount of food is that, which undergoes digestion easily.

Effect Heena and Ati matra ahara

Consequence of Heena Matra Ahara (food taken in excessive quantity)

AH Su 8.3
भोजनं हीनमात्रं तु न बलोपचयौजसे।
सर्वेषां वातरोगाणां हेतूतां च प्रपद्यते॥३॥
bhojanaṃ   hīnamātraṃ   tu na balopacayaujase|
sarveṣāṃ   vātarogāṇāṃ   hetūtāṃ   ca prapadyate||3||

भोजनं हीनमात्रं तु – bhojanaṃ   hīnamātraṃ  tu – food consumed in less quantity
न बल उपचय ओजसे – na bala upacaya ojase – does not increase strength, nourishment or radiance (charm, lustre)
सर्व एषां वात रोगाणां हेतुतां च प्रपद्यते – sarveṣāṃ  vātarogāṇāṃ  hetutāṃ  ca prapadyate – gradually it becomes a reason (causative factor) for all diseases of Vata origin

Consequence of Ati Matra Ahara (food taken in excessive quantity)

AH Su 8.4.a
अतिमात्र पुनः सर्वानाशु दोषान् प्रकोपयेत्।
atimātra punaḥ sarvānāśu doṣān prakopayet|
अतिमात्र पुनः – atimātraṃ  punaḥ – consumption of food in excess
सर्वान् आशु दोषान् प्रकोपयेत् – sarvān āśu doṣān prakopayet – vitiates all the three doshas quickly

Consuming less quantity of food does not increase strength,  ojus (immunity). The body will not be nourished properly. Over a period of time, it leads to Vata imbalance disorders. Excessive quantity of food is again not desirable. It causes quick increase of Doshas.  3 – 3½.

Effects of over eating

AH Su 8.4.b-6.a
पीड्यमाना हि वाताद्या युगपत्तेन कोपिताः॥४॥
आमेनान्नेन दुष्टेन तदेवाविश्य कुर्वते।
विष्टम्भयन्तोऽलसकं च्यावयन्तो विसूचिकाम्॥५॥
अधरोत्तरमार्गाभ्यां सहसैवाजितात्मनः।
pīḍyamānā hi vātādyā yugapattena kopitāḥ||4||
āmenānnena duṣṭena tadevāviśya kurvate|
viṣṭambhayanto’lasakaṃ  cyāvayanto visūcikām||5||
adharottaramārgābhyāṃ  sahasaivājitātmanaḥ|

पीड्यमाना हि वाताद्या युगपत्तेन कोपिताः – pīḍyamānā hi vātādyā yugapat tena kopitāḥ – being obstructed by the indigested food, the vata and other doshas get vitiated at a time,
आमेन अन्नेन दुष्टेन – āmenānnena duṣṭena – the vitiated doshas are once again contaminated by ama (caused due to indigested food) and
तदेव आविश्य कुर्वते – tad evāviśya kurvate – being embedded in the ama, the vitiated doshas
विष्टम्भयन्तो अलसकं – viṣṭambhayanto alasakaṃ  – cause alasaka due to the blockage of the channels of the body caused by the contaminated food,
च्यावयन्तो विसूचिकाम् – cyāvayanto visūcikām – and cause visuchika by causing the indigested food to flow (move / expel)
अधर उत्तर मार्गाभ्यां सहसा एव – adhara uttara mārgābhyāṃ  sahasaiva – repeatedly from lower (anal) and upper (mouth) passages and these conditions (alasaka and visuchika) occur mainly in
अजितात्मनः – ajitātmanaḥ – people who are not self controlled.

Due to eating excess quantity of food, Vata and other Doshas suddenly get increased together and associating with the undigested and vitiated food (Ama) , produce diseases.
It causes Alasaka disease by  blocking the movement of food inside the alimentary tract and
Visuchika (gastro enteritis) by expelling out the undigested food in both downward and upward directions (diarrhoea and vomiting) simultaneously.
This is seen in persons who are not self controlled and who can not control their food cravings. 4-5.

Alasaka

AH Su 8.6.b-7.a
प्रयाति नोर्ध्वं नाधस्तादाहारो न च पच्यते॥६॥
आमाशयेऽलसीभूतस्तेन सोऽलसकः स्मृतः।
prayāti nordhvaṃ  nādhastādāhāro na ca pacyate||6||
āmāśaye’lasībhūtastena so’lasakaḥ smṛtaḥ|

प्रयाति न ऊर्ध्वं न अधस्ताद् आहारो – prayāti na urdhvaṃ  na adhastād āhāro – the food which neither comes out in the upper route (in the form of vomiting) nor from the downward route (in the form of purgation, feces),
न च पच्यते – na ca pacyate – nor does it undergo digestion (in the stomach),
आमाशये अलसीभूतः तेन – āmāśaye alasībhūtah tena – in fact stays stagnated in the stomach lazily
सो अलसकः स्मृतः – so alasakaḥ smṛtaḥ – is called Alasaka

Alasaka – indigestion + constipation
Food neither comes out in the upper route by vomiting nor from the downward route by purgation. Nor does it undergo digestion in the stomach. It stays in the stomach lazily (=Alasya). Such a disease condition is called as Alasaka.  6.

Visuchika

AH Su 8.7.b-8.a
विविधैर्वेदनोद्भेदैर्वाय्वादिभृशकोपतः॥७॥
सूचीभिरिव गात्राणि विध्यतीति विसूचिका।
vividhairvedanodbhedairvāyvādibhṛśakopataḥ||7||
sūcībhiriva gātrāṇi vidhyatīti visūcikā|

विविधैः वेदनोद्भेदैः – vividhair vedanodbhedair – various types of pain get manifested (all over the body) due to
वायु आदि भृश कोपतः – vāyvādibhṛśakopataḥ – sudden and profound aggravation of Vayu and other doshas (pitta and kapha also),
सूचिभिः इव गात्राणि विध्यति – sūcībhir iva gātrāṇi vidhyatīti – (with pain appearing) as though the body is being pricked by many needles and such a condition is called
इति विसूचिका – visūcikā Visuchika

Visuchika ~ Gastro enteritis
Due to sudden and profound aggravation of Vata, along with other Doshas, the person experiences pain in entire body, as though being pricked by needles, hence this disease is called Visuchika. (Suchi means needle).

Dosha influence Visuchika

AH Su 8.8.b-9
तत्र शूलभ्रमानाहकम्पस्तम्भादयोऽनिलात्॥८॥
पित्ताज्ज्वरातिसारान्तर्दाहतृट्प्रलयादयः।
कफाच्छर्द्यङ्गगुरुतावाक्सङ्गष्ठीवनादयः॥९॥
tatra śūlabhramānāhakampastambhādayo’nilāt||8||
pittājjvarātisārāntardāhatṛṭpralayādayaḥ|
kaphācchardyaṅgagurutāvāksaṅgaṣṭhīvanādayaḥ||9||

तत्र शूल भ्रम आनाह कम्प स्तम्भ आदयो अनिलात् – tatra śūla bhrama ānāha kampa stambhādayo ‘nilāt – when Vata is predominantly aggravated in visuchika, it causes abdominal (tummy) pain, delusion (giddiness), bloating of abdomen (feel of fullness), stiffness etc symptoms
पित्तात् ज्वर अतिसार अन्तर्दाह तृट् प्रलयादयः – pittāj jvara atisāra antardāha tṛṭ pralayādayaḥ – when Pitta is predominantly aggravated in visuchika, it causes fever, diarrhoea, internal burning sensation (in the body), excessive thirst, panic (unconsciousness) etc symptoms.
कफात् छर्दि अङ्ग गुरुता वाक्सङ्ग ष्ठीवनादयः – kaphāc chardy aṅgagurutā vāksaṅga ṣṭhīvanādayaḥ – when Kapha is predominantly aggravated in visuchika, it causes vomiting, heaviness in the body, difficulty to speak, excessive salivation (expectoration, spitting, throwing up of phlegm) etc symptoms.

Influence of different Doshas in Alasaka and Visuchika –
In Alasaka and Visuchika,
If Vata is aggravated, it causes
Shoola – abdominal pain
Bhrama – Delusion
Anaha – bloating, fullness
Kampa – tremors
Stambha – stiffness etc symptoms.

If Pitta is aggravated, it causes
Jvara – fever
Atisara – diarrhoea, dysentery
Antardaha – internal burning sensation
Trut – excessive thirst
Pralaya – panic, unconsciousness

If Kapha is aggravated, it causes
Chardi – Vomiting
Angaguruta – heaviness of the body
Vak Sangha – Difficulty to speak
Shteevana – excessive salivation, expectoration and spitting

Manifestation of Alasaka symptoms

AH Su 8.10-11
विशेषाद्दुर्बलस्याल्पवह्नेर्वेगविधारिणः।
पीडितं मारुतेनान्नं श्लेष्मणा रुद्धमन्तरा॥१०॥
अलसं क्षोभितं दोषैः शल्यत्वेनैव सस्थितम्।
शूलादीन् कुरुते तीव्रांश्छर्द्यतीसारवर्जितान्॥११॥
सोऽलसः
viśeṣāddubalasyālpavahnervegavidhāriṇaḥ|
pīḍitaṃ  mārutenānnaṃ  śleṣmaṇā ruddhamantarā||10||
alasaṃ  kṣobhitaṃ  doṣaiḥ śalyatvenaiva sasthitam|
śūlādīn kurute tīvrāṃ śchardyatīsāravarjitān||11||
so’lasaḥ

विशेषात् – viśeṣāt – specifically in visuchika manifesting in people
दुर्बलस्य अल्प वह्नेः वेगविधारिणः – durbalasya alpavahner  vegavidhāriṇaḥ – are weak, have low digestion and are habituated to suppressing the urges of the body,
पीडितं मारुतेन अन्नं – pīḍitaṃ  mārutenānnaṃ  – the food afflicted (pressed) by vata (whose movements have been blocked by the food) (and hence not getting expelled in upward or downward direction),
श्लेष्मणा रुद्धमन्तरा – śleṣmaṇā ruddham antarā – further gets obstructed in the stomach by the vitiated kapha, and becomes
अलसं – alasaṃ  – lazy and inactivated (in the stomach itself),
क्षोभितं दोषैः – kṣobhitaṃ  doṣaiḥ – and later getting further agitated (irritated, violently shaken, tossed up) by vata, pitta and kapha
शल्यत्वेन एव सस्थितम् – śalyatvenaiva saṃ sthitam – stays in the stomach itself in the form of a foreign body
शूलादीन् कुरुते तीव्रान् – śūlādīn kurute tīvrāṃ – leading to severe abdominal colic and many such serious symptoms, but
छर्दि अतीसार वर्जितान् – chardyatīsāravarjitān – without vomiting and diarrhea,
सो अलसः – so alaso – this condition is called alasa or alasaka

Alasaka occurs especially in those who are weak, who have low digestion strength and who suppress urges of the body, habitually. In them, Vata gets increased, gets associated with Kapha to obstruct the movement of undigested food in the digestive tract. It causes the food to stay inside the stomach, as a foreign body. It leads to abdominal colic and such other symptoms, but without vomiting and diarrhea.  10 – 11.

Dandalasaka

AH Su 8.12-13.a
अत्यर्थदुष्टास्तु दोषा दुष्टामबद्धखाः।
यान्तस्तिर्यक्तनुं सर्वां दण्डवत्स्तम्भयन्ति चेत्॥१२॥
दण्डकालसकं नाम तं त्यजेदाशुकारिणम्।
atyarthaduṣṭāstu doṣā duṣṭāmabaddhakhāḥ|
yāntastiryaktanuṃ  sarvāṃ  daṇḍavatstambhayanti cet||12||
daṇḍakālasakaṃ  nāma taṃ  tyajedāśukāriṇam|

अत्यर्थ दुष्टाः तु दोषा – atyartha duṣṭās tu doṣā – Severely vitiated doshas,
दुष्टामबद्धखाः – duṣṭāmabaddhakhāḥ – being blocked in the channels of the body which are filled and contaminated by ama,
यान्तः तिर्यक् – yāntas tiryak – move obliquely in abnormal pathways in the body,
तनुं सर्वा दण्डवत् स्तम्भयन्ति चेत् – tanuṃ  sarvāṃ  daṇḍavat stambhayanti cet – afflicts the entire body making it stiff like a log of wood and hence
दण्डकालसकं नाम – daṇḍakālasakaṃ  nāma – will be called as Dandakalasaka,
तं त्यजेत् आशुकारिणम् – taṃ  tyajet āśukāriṇam – this condition should be denied treatment (rejected) since it tends to quickly cause death

Highly vitiated Doshas, move into vitiated and obstructed channels by accumulation of undigested food. Thus Doshas get obstructed in the GI tract, and begin to move in other unnatural channels. Thus Doshas spread throughout the body and make it stiff like a log of wood. This disease is called Dandakalasaka, which should be rejected for treatment as it is quick in causing death. 12.

Ama Dosha

AH Su 8.13.b-14
विरुद्धाध्यशनाजीर्णशीलिनो विषलक्षणम्॥१३॥
आमदोषं महाघोरं वर्जयेद्विषसंज्ञकम्।
विषरूपाशुकारित्वाद्विरुद्धोपक्रमत्वतः॥१४॥
viruddhādhyaśanājīrṇaśīlino viṣalakṣaṇam||13||
āmadoṣaṃ  mahāghoraṃ  varjayedviṣasaṃ jñakam|
viṣarūpāśukāritvādviruddhopakramatvataḥ||14||

विरुद्ध अध्यशन अजीर्ण शीलिनो विष लक्षणम् आमदोषं – viruddha adhyaśana ajīrṇaśīlino viṣalakṣaṇam āmadoṣaṃ  – people who are regularly indulged in taking incompatible foods, excessive foods and eating food in spite of prevailing indigestion develop amadosa which is similar to poison in nature,
महाघोरं वर्जयेत् विषसंज्ञकम् – mahāghoraṃ  varjayet viṣasañjñakam – and is called as amavisha (undigested food poison), in this condition, treatment should be refused since the condition is dreadful
विष रूप – viṣarūpa – has similarity with poison
आशुकारित्वात् – āśukāritvāt – tends to cause death quickly
विरुद्ध उपक्रमत्वतः – viruddhopakramatvataḥ – and requires treatments of opposite nature (treatment of poison and ama are opposite and mutually contradicting)

Persons who indulges in
Viruddha Ashana – taking incompatible foods,
Adhyashana – taking excess food
Ajeerna Ashana – Eating over undigested food,
develops the dreaded Amadosa which is similar to poison. Hence it is also called as Amavisha (undigested food poison).

Such a person should be refused for treatment because of its similarity with poison, quickness in causing death and requiring treatments of opposite nature to one another Doshas and qualities. 13 – 14.

Saadhya alasaka chikitsa

AH Su 8.15.16

अथाममलसीभूत साध्यं त्वरितमुल्लिखेत्।
पीत्वा सोग्रापटुफलं वार्युष्णं योजयेत्ततः॥१५॥
स्वेदनं फलवर्तिं च मलवातानुलोमनीम्।
नाम्यमानानि चाङ्गानि भृशं स्विन्नानि वेष्टयेत्॥१६॥
athāmamalasībhūta sādhyaṃ  tvaritamullikhet|
pītvā sogrāpaṭuphalaṃ  vāryuṣṇaṃ  yojayettataḥ||15||
svedanaṃ  phalavartiṃ  ca malavātānulomanīm|
nāmyamānāni cāṅgāni bhṛśaṃ  svinnāni veṣṭayet||16||

अथ आमम् अलसीभूत साध्यं – atha āmam alasībhūtaṃ  sādhyaṃ  – after deciding that the given condition of alasaka can be treated easily, the undigested food which has been lazily placed (stagnated) in the stomach,
त्वरितम् उल्लिखेत् – tvaritam ullikhet – should be quickly expelled by administering emesis by making the person to
पीत्वा सोग्रा पट्टुफलं वारि उष्णं योजयेत्ततः – pītvā sogrāpaṭuphalaṃ  vāry uṣṇaṃ  yojayet tataḥ – drink hot water mixed with powder of Acorus calamus, black salt and Randia dumetorum (Emetic Nut), this causes vomiting, following which should be administered  
स्वेदनं – svedanaṃ  – sudation therapy (steaming) and
फलवर्तिं च – phalavartiṃ  ca – suppositories prepared from medicines which help in
मल वातानुलोमनीम् – malavātānulomanīm – downward movement of feces and flatus,
नाम्यमानानि च अङ्गानि भृशं स्विन्ननि वेष्टयेत् – nāmyamānāni cāṅgāni bhṛśaṃ  svinnāni veṣṭayet – the parts of the body which have become rigid (constricted) due to the effect of ama, should be well fomented and then wrapped with clothes


Ama – undigested food stagnating inside the Gastro intestinal tract should be removed quickly after deciding the conditions of easy management.

The person is made to drink warm water mixed with powder of Ugra (Vacha – Acorus calamus), Patu (Saindhava – Black Salt) and Phala (Madanaphala); This will cause vomiting;

This therapy is followed up with Swedana (sudation therapy)

Next, Phalavarti (rectal suppositories) prepared from fruits which help in downward movement of faeces and flatus should be administered,

The parts of the body which are rigid should be well fomented and then wrapped using cloth. 15 – 16.

Visuchika Chikitsa

AH Su 8.17
विसूच्यामतिवृद्धायां पार्ष्ण्योर्दाहः प्रशस्यते।
तदहश्चोपवास्यैनं विरिक्तवदुपाचरेत्॥१७॥
visūcyāmativṛddhāyāṃ  pārṣṇyordāhaḥ praśasyate|
tadahaścopavāsyainaṃ  viriktavadupācaret||17||

विसूच्याम् अतिवृद्धायां – viṣūcyām ativṛddhāyāṃ  – in advanced stage of vishucika,
पार्ष्ण्योः दाहः प्रशस्यते – pārṣṇyor dāhaḥ praśasyate – branding by fire (cauterization) over the heel is recommended
तदहश्च उपवास्यैनं – tadahaś copavāsyainaṃ  – on the same day, the patient is made to fast and विरिक्तवत् उपाचरेत् – viriktavat upācaret – should be taken care of as the one who has undergone purgation therapy

In advanced stage of Visucika, branding by fire over the heel, is recommended. The patient should be made to fast on that day and taken care of as the one who has undergone purgation therapy. All the post Virechana procedure and treatment should be given to the patient.  17.

Contradiction of medicines in Ajirna

AH Su 8.18-19.a
तीव्रार्तिरपि नाजीर्णी पिबेच्छूलघ्नमौषधम्।
आमसन्नोऽनलो नालं पक्तुं दोषौषधाशनम्॥१८॥
निहन्यादपि चैतेषां विभ्रमः सहसाऽऽतुरम्।
tīvrārtirapi nājīrṇī pibecchūlaghnamauṣadham|
āmasanno’nalo nālaṃ  paktuṃ  doṣauṣadhāśanam||18||
nihanyādapi caiteṣāṃ  vibhramaḥ sahasā”turam|

तीव्रार्तिः अपि – tīvrārtir api – in spite of presence of severe pain,
न अजीर्णी पिबेत् – nājīrṇī pibec – the patient of indigestion should not consume
शूलघ्नम् औषधम् – chūlaghnam auṣadham – pain killing medicines because
आमसन्नो अनलो – āmasanno ‘nalo – the digestive fire debilitated by the ama (improperly processed metabolites)
नालं पक्तुं – nālaṃ  paktuṃ  – will not be capable enough of digesting the
दोष औषधाशनम् – doṣauṣadhāśanam – doshas, pain killing medicines and food (undigested food)
निहन्त्यादपि च एतेषां विभ्रमः सहसा आतुरम् – nihanyād api caiteṣāṃ  vibhramaḥ sahasāturam – the severe troubles arising from these three (doshas, medicines and food) will quickly kill the patient

The patient of indigestion though having severe abdominal pain should not take pain killing drugs; the Agni – digestive fire which is associated with Ama – improperly processed metabolites will not be able to digest the Doshas, drugs and food; the severe troubles arising from these three will soon kill the patient. 18.

After the food is found digested, if stiffness and heaviness of the abdomen persists, then medicines should be given to digest the residual Doshas and to stimulate the Agni – digestive power. 19.

Indication of medicines in the presence of proper digestion

AH Su 8.19.b-20a
जीर्णाशने तु भैषज्यं युञ्जात् स्तब्धगुरूदरे॥१९॥
दोषशेषस्य पाकार्थमग्नेः सन्धुक्षणाय च।
jīrṇāśane tu bhaiṣajyaṃ  yuñjāt stabdhagurūdare||19||
doṣaśeṣasya pākārthamagneḥ sandhukṣaṇāya ca|

जीर्णाशने तु भैषज्यं युञ्ज्यात् – jīrṇāśane tu bhaiṣajyaṃ  yuñjyāt – in the presence of proper digestion (in spite of presence of amadosha), medicines shall be administered
स्तब्ध गुरु उदरे – stabdhagurūdare – in the presence of stiffness and heaviness of abdomen,
दोष शेषस्य पाकार्थम् – doṣaśeṣasya pākārtham – to digest the residue doshas and
अग्नेः सन्धुक्षणाय च – agneḥ sandhukṣaṇāya ca – to stimulate (kindle) the agni or digestive power

Apatarpana chikitsa for Amajanya vyadhis

AH Su 8.20b-21a
शान्तिरामविकाराणां भवति त्वपतर्पणात्॥२०॥
त्रिविधं त्रिविधे दोषे तत्समीक्ष्य प्रयोजयेत्।
śāntirāmavikārāṇāṃ  bhavati tvapatarpaṇāt||20||
trividhaṃ  trividhe doṣe tatsamīkṣya prayojayet|

शान्तिः आमविकाराणा भवति तु – śāntir āmavikārāṇāṃ  bhavati tv – the diseases caused by ama or undigested food becomes relieved by
अपतर्पणात् – apatarpaṇāt – administration of Apatarpana (non-nourishment or lightening therapies i.e. langhana)
त्रिविधं – trividhaṃ  – the apatarpana is of three types and should be applied in
त्रिविधे दोषे – trividhe doṣe – three types of dosha i.e. ama dosha (i.e. in mild, moderate and severe doshas respectively)
तत् समीक्ष्य प्रयोजयेत् – tat samīkṣya prayojayet – after properly analyzing the desha (place), kala (time), agni (digestion power) etc factors

Diseases produced by Ama – undigested food, become relieved by Apatarpana (non-nourishment); three kinds of Apatarpana,  appropriate to the three Doshas should be adopted after careful consideration of all aspects. 20.

3 types of Ama Chikitsa

AH Su 8.21b-22a
Administration of three types of langhana in three types of doshas

तत्राल्पे लङ्घनं पथ्यं, मध्ये लङ्घनपाचनम्॥२१॥
प्रभूते शोधनं, तद्धि मूलादुन्मूलयेन्मलान्।
tatrālpe laṅghanaṃ  pathyaṃ , madhye laṅghanapācanam||21||
prabhūte śodhanaṃ , taddhi mūlādunmūlayenmalān|

तत्र अल्पे लङ्गनं पथ्यं – tatrālpe laṅghanaṃ  pathyaṃ  – in presence of less doshas (ama), only langhana (fasting) will be suitable,
मध्ये लङ्घन पाचनम् – madhye laṅghanapācanam – if doshas are present in moderate proportions then langhana-pachana (fasting combined with medicines which destroy ama) are suitable,
प्रभूते शोधनं – prabhūte śodhanaṃ  – and when severe doshas (ama) are present, shodhana (purification like Panchakarma therapies) should be administered

तद्धि मूलात् उन्मूलयेद् मलान् – tad dhi mūlāt unmūlayen malān – the above said will expel out the doshas and ama from their roots

If Ama is less, only Langhana (fasting) will be suitable,
If it is moderate Langhana (fasting) and Pachana – digestive drugs are needed;
If it is severe, then Shodhana (purification Panchakarma therapy) is necessary; for these will expel out the Dosha and Ama from the very root.

Treatment principle for diseases

Hetu viparita (cause specific) and Vyadhi viparita (disease specific) chikitsa (treatment principles)

एवमन्यानपि व्याधीन् स्वनिदानविपर्ययात्॥२२॥

चिकित्सेदनुबन्धे तु सति हेतुविपर्ययम्।

त्यक्त्वा यथायथं वैद्यो युञ्जाद्व्याधिविपर्ययम्॥२३॥

evamanyānapi vyādhīn svanidānaviparyayāt||22||

cikitsedanubandhe tu sati hetuviparyayam|

tyaktvā yathāyatha  vaidhyo yuñjādvyādhiviparyayam||23||

एवम् – evam – Thus (just like in ama vikara explained above),

अन्यान् अपि व्याधीन् – anyān api vyādhīn – even the other diseases

स्व निदान विपर्ययात् – svanidāna viparyayāt – should be treated by adopting treatments which are opposite of their causative factors (this is called Hetu Viparyaya Chikitsa or cause specific treatment)

चिकित्सेत् अनुबन्धे तु – cikitset anubandhe tu – however if the diseases persists for long time (even after cause specific treatments) or recur, then,

सति हेतु विपर्ययम् त्यक्त्वा – sati hetuviparyayam tyaktvā – the cause specific treatment should be given up and

यथायथं वैद्यो युञ्ज्याद् – yathāyatha  vaidyo yuñjyād – accordingly, the physicians should adopt

व्याधि विपर्ययम् – vyādhiviparyayam – treatments which are opposite of the disease (this is called Vyadhi Viparyaya Chikitsa or disease specific treatments)

तदर्थकारि वा.., – tadarthakāri vā – or Tadarthakari Chikitsa (treatments though not actually opposite of either the cause or diseases still produce the desired result), should be adopted

AH Su 8.24

Pakva Dosha Chikitsa (treatment of doshas devoid of ama)

तदर्थकारि वा पक्वे दोषे त्विद्धे च पावके।

हितमभ्यञ्जनस्नेहपानवस्त्यादि युक्तितः॥२४॥
tadarthakāri vā pakve doe tviddhe ca pāvake|

hitamabhyañjanasnehapānavastyādi yuktita||24||

पक्वे दोषे – pakve doe – when the doshas get ripened after the digestion (destruction) of ama (following the treatment of ama dosha explained above) and

त्विद्धे च पावके – tv iddhe ca pāvake – when the digestive activity is restored completely to normalcy,

तदर्थकारि वा – tadarthakāri vā – then meaningful and

हितम् अभ्यञ्जन – hitam abhyañjana – beneficial measures like oil massage,

स्नेहपान वस्त्यादि – snehapāna vastyādi – oleation, medicated enema therapy etc should be

युक्तितः – yuktitajudiciously administered

Even the other diseases should be treated by adopting treatments which are opposite to their causative factors. It is called Hetu Viparyaya Chikitsa. Hetu means causative factors. If, however, the diseases recurs or persist for long time then the Hetu Viparyaya  should be given up and disease specific treatment should be adopted. It is called as Vyadhi Viparyaya Chikitsa.

Or Tadarthakari Chikitsa (therapies which, though not actually opposite of either the cause or the diseases still produce the desired result) should be adopted;

When the Doshas have returned to normal, when the Ama is completely relieved,  when digestion activity is completely restored to normalcy, then oil-bath, drinking of oil (oleation therapies) and enema therapy, etc. should be administered appropriately to gain the lost strength in the patient.  22-24.

Ajirna Bheda – different kinds of indigestion

AH Su 8.25-26

Ama ajirna

अजीर्णं च कफादामं तत्र शोफोऽक्षिगण्डयोः।
सद्योभुक्तं इवोद्गारः प्रसेकोत्क्लेशगौरवम्॥२५॥
ajīrṇaṃ  ca kaphādāmaṃ  tatra śopho’kṣigaṇḍayoḥ|
sadyobhuktaṃ  ivodgāraḥ prasekotkleśagauravam||25||

अजीर्ण च कफात् आमं – ajīrṇaṃ  ca kaphāt āmaṃ  – the indigestion caused by vitiated kapha is called ama ajirna
तत्र शोफो अक्षि गण्डयोः – tatra śopho ‘kṣigaṇḍayoḥ – it is characterized by swelling of the eye sockets and cheeks,
सद्यो भुक्त इव उद्गारः – sadyobhukta ivodgāraḥ – belching similar to those which come up immediately after meals (clean belching),
प्रसेको उत्क्लेश गौरवम् – prasekotkleśagauravam – excessive salivation, nausea (feel to vomit) and heaviness of the bodyAma Ajirna (Amajirna) – is the indigestion caused by vitiated kapha. It is characterized by swelling of the eye sockets and cheeks, pure belching similar to those which come up immediately after meals, excessive salivation, nausea (feel to vomit) and heaviness of the body.

Vitiation of Kapha causes ”Ama Ajeerna” It is characterized with swelling of the eyes socket and cheeks, belching similar to those which come up immediately after meals, excess salivation, nausea and heaviness of the body. 25

Vishtabdha ajeerna

विष्टब्धमनिलाच्छूलविबन्धाध्मानसादकृत्।
viṣṭabdhamanilācchūlavibandhādhmānasādakt|

विष्टब्धम् अनिलात् – viṣṭabdham anilāc – the indigestion caused by vitiated vata is called vishtabdha ajirna and is characterized byशूल विबन्ध – chūla vibandha – pain in the abdomen, constipation,
आध्मान सादकृत् – ādhmāna sādakṛt – flatulence and debility

Vishtabdha Ajirna (Vishtabdhajirna) – is the indigestion caused by vitiated vata. It is characterized by pain in the abdomen, constipation, flatulence and debility.

Vidagdha ajeerna

पित्ताद्विदग्धं तृण्मोहभ्रमाम्लोद्गारदाहवत्॥२६॥
pittādvidagdhaṃ  tṛṇmohabhramāmlodgāradāhavat||26||

पित्तात् विदग्धं – pittāt vidagdhaṃ  – the indigestion caused by pitta is called vidagdha ajirna and is characterized by
तृण् मोह भ्रम – tṛṇmohabhrama – thirst, fainting, dizziness (giddiness),
अम्लोद्गार दाहवत् – amlodgāra dāhavat – sour belching and burning sensation Vidagdha Ajirna Vidagdha ajirna – is the indigestion caused by vitiated pitta.  It is characterized by thirst, fainting, dizziness (giddiness), sour belching and burning sensation.

Ajirna Chikitsa

AH Su 8.27

लङ्घनं कार्यमामे तु, विष्टब्धे स्वेदनं भृशम्।
विदग्धे वमनं, यद्वा यथावस्थ हितं भवेत्॥२७॥
laṅghanaṃ  kāryamāme tu, viṣṭabdhe svedanaṃ  bhṛśam|
vidagdhe vamanaṃ , yadvā yathāvastha hitaṃ  bhavet||27||

लङ्घनं कार्यम् आमे तु, – laṅghanaṃ  kāryam āme tu – in ama ajirna, fasting should be done,
विष्टब्धे स्वेदनं भृशम् – viṣṭabdhe svedanaṃ  bhṛśam – in vishtabdha ajirna, sudation therapy should be done,
विदग्धे वमनं – vidagdhe vamanaṃ  – in vidagdha ajirna, emesis therapy should be done or
यद्वा यथावस्थ हित भवेत् – yad vā yathāvasthaṃ  hitaṃ  bhavet – any other therapy appropriate to the stage of the disease can be done

In ama ajirna, fasting should be advocated.  

In vishtabdha ajirna, sudation therapy should be administered.

In vidagdha ajirna, emesis therapy should be conducted.  

Any other therapy appropriate to the stage of the disease can also be done.

Vilambika disease

AH Su 8.28

गरीयसो भवेल्लीनादामादेव विलम्बिका।
कफवातानुबद्धाऽऽमलिङ्गा तत्समसाधना॥२८॥
garīyaso bhavellīnādāmādeva vilambikā|
kaphavātānubaddhā”maliṅgā tatsamasādhanā||28||

गरीयसो भवेत् लीनाद् आमादेव – garīyaso bhavel līnād āmād eva – due to profound accumulation and adherence of ama in the channels of the body occurs, another type of indigestion named
विलम्बिका – vilambikā – Vilambika,
कफवात अनुबद्धाः – kaphavātānubaddhāh – caused due to combined vitiation of (association of) kapha and vata and has
आम लिङ्गा – āmaliṅgā – all the symptoms of ama and
तत्सम साधना – tatsamasādhanā – its treatment is also similar to that of ama

Vilambika is another type of indigestion caused due to profound accumulation and adherence of ama in the channels of the body.  It is caused by association of kapha and vata and presents with all the symptoms of ama. The treatment of vilambika is also similar to that of ama.

Rasashesha Ajeerna

AH Su 8.29-30a
अश्रद्धा हृद्व्यथा शुद्धेऽप्युद्गारे रसशेषतः।
शयीत किञ्चिदेवात्र सर्वश्चानाशितो दिवा॥२९॥
स्वप्यादजीर्णी, सञ्जातबुभुक्षोऽद्यान्मित लघु।
aśraddhā hṛdvyathā śuddhe’pyudgāre rasaśeṣataḥ|
śayīta kiñcadevātra sarvaścānāśito divā||29||
svapyādajīrṇī, sañjātabubhukṣo’dyānmita laghu|

अश्रद्धा हृद्व्यथा – aśraddhā hṛdvyathā – lack of enthusiasm, discomfort in the region of the heart,
शुद्धे अपि उद्गारे – śuddhe ‘py udgāre – in spite of presence of pure belching are the features of
रस शेषतः – rasaśeṣataḥ – Rasashesha ajirna (another type of indigestion)
शयीत किञ्चित् एव अत्र – śayīta kiñcit evātra – such a person (having rasashesha ajirna) should sleep for some time (during the day)
सर्वश्चानाशितो दिवा स्वप्याद्जीर्णी – sarvaścānāśito divā svapyād ajīrṇī – in all other types of indigestion, one should sleep during the day without taking any food,
सञ्ज्चात बुभुक्षोध्यान्मित लघु – sañjātabubhukṣo ‘dyān mitaṃ  laghu – (later) when hunger is manifested, he should eat little quantity of easily digestible food

Rasashesha Ajirna is a type of indigestion characterized by lack of enthusiasm and discomfort in the region of the heart, in spite of presence of pure belching. The person having rasashesha ajirna should sleep for some time (during the day).

In all other types of indigestion also, one should sleep during the day without taking any food.Later, when hunger is manifested, he should eat little quantity of easily digestible food.

Ajirna Samanya Lakshana

AH Su 8.30b-31a

Ajirna Samanya Lakshana – General symptoms of indigestion

विबन्धोऽतिप्रवृत्तिर्वा ग्लानिर्मारुतमूढता॥३०॥
अजीर्णलिङ्गं सामान्यं विष्टम्भो गौरवं भ्रमः।
vibandho’tipravṛttirvā glānirmārutamūḍhatā||30||
ajīrṇaliṅgaṃ  sāmānyaṃ  viṣṭambho gauravaṃ  bhramaḥ|

विबन्धो अति प्रवृत्तिः वा – vibandho ati pravṛttiḥ vā – constipation or diarrhea
ग्लानि मारुत मूढता – glānir mārutamūḍhatā – exhaustion, inactivity of vata (upward movement of vata),
अजीर्ण लिङ्गं सामान्यं – ajīrṇaliṅgaṃ  sāmānyaṃ  – are the general symptoms of ajirna (indigestion), along with
विष्टम्भो गौरवं भ्रमः – viṣṭambho gauravaṃ  bhramaḥ – distension of abdomen, heaviness of the body and dizziness (giddiness)

The common symptoms of constipation or diarrhea, exhaustion, inactivity of vata (upward movement of vata), distension of abdomen and heaviness of the body and dizziness (giddiness)

Ajirna Anya karanani

AH Su 8.31.b-33.a

Ajirna Anya karanani – other causes of indigestion

न चातिमात्रमेवान्नमामदोषाय केवलम्॥३१॥
द्विष्टविष्टम्भिदग्धामगुरुरूक्षहिमाशुचि।
विदाहि शुष्कमत्यम्बुप्लुतं चान्नं न जीर्यति॥३२॥
उपतप्तेन भुक्तं च शोकक्रोधक्षुदादिभिः।

na cātimātramevānnamāmadoṣāya kevalam||31||
dviṣṭaviṣṭambhidagdhāmagururūkṣahimāśuci|
vidāhi śuṣkamatyambuplutaṃ  cānnaṃ  na jīryati||32||
upataptena bhuktaṃ  ca śokakrodhakṣudādibhiḥ|

न च अतिमात्रामेव अन्नम् आमदोषाय केवलम् – na cātimātram evānnam āmadoṣāya kevalam – consumption of large quantities of food is not the only cause for the production of ama dosha,
द्विष्ट विष्टम्भि दग्धाम – dviṣṭa viṣṭambhi dagdhāma – foods which are disliked, which cause distension of abdomen (and flatulence), which are over-cooked or uncooked,
गुरु रूक्ष हिमाशुचि – guru rūkṣa himāśuci – which are not easily digestible (hard to digest), which are dry, very cold and contaminated,
विदाहि शुष्कम् – vidāhi śuṣkam – which are corrosive (cause burning sensation) during digestion, which are dried up or
अत्यम्बुप्लुतं चान्नं – atyambuplutaṃ  cānnaṃ  – foods which are soaked in more water
न जीर्यति – na jīryati – do not undergo proper digestion, so does
उपतप्तेन भुक्तं च शोकक्रोधक्षुदादिभिः – upataptena bhuktaṃ  ca śokakrodhakṣudādibhiḥ – the food consumed by persons afflicted with grief, anger, excessive hunger etc.

Consumption of large quantities of food causes production of ama dosha. Apart from that, below mentioned are the other causes which cause indigestion of food (and consequent production of ama dosha) –

  • foods which are disliked,
  • foods which cause distension of abdomen (and flatulence),
  • foods which are over-cooked or uncooked,
  • foods which are not easily digestible (hard to digest),
  • foods which are dry, very cold and contaminated,
  • foods which are corrosive (cause burning sensation), which are dried up or
  • foods which are soaked in more water
  • the food consumed by persons afflicted with grief, anger, excessive hunger etc.

Dushta Ashana – types of bad food habits

AH Su 8.33.b-35.a

मिश्रं पथ्यमपथ्यं च भुक्तं समशनं मतम्॥३३॥
विद्यादध्यशनं भूयो भुक्तस्योपरि भोजनम्।
अकाले बहु चाल्पं वा भुक्तं तु विषमाशनम्॥३४॥
त्रीण्यप्येतानि मृत्युं वा घोरान् व्याधीन्सृजन्ति वा।
miśraṃ  pathyamapathyaṃ  ca bhuktaṃ  samaśanaṃ  matam||33||
vidyādadhyaśanaṃ  bhūyo bhuktasyopari bhojanam|
akāle bahu cālpaṃ  vā bhuktaṃ  tu viṣamāśanam||34||
trīṇyapyetāni mṛtyuṃ  vā ghorān vyādhīnsṛjanti vā|

मिश्रं पथ्यम् अपथ्यं च भुक्तं – miśraṃ  pathyam apathyaṃ  ca bhuktaṃ – consuming suitable and unsuitable foods mixed together
समशनं मतम् – samaśanaṃ  matam – is called Samashana
विद्यात् अध्यशनं भूयो भुक्तस्य उपरि भोजनम् – vidyāt adhyaśanaṃ  bhūyo bhuktasya upari bhojanam – consuming large quantities of food even before the previously consumed food is digested is called Adhyashana
अकाले बहु चाल्पं वा भुक्तं तु विषमाशनम् – akāle bahu cālpaṃ  vā bhuktaṃ  tu viṣamāśanam – consuming less quantity or large quantity of food at improper time is called Vishamashana
त्रीणि अपि एतानि मृत्युं वा घोरान् व्याधीन् सृजन्ति वा – trīṇy apy etāni mṛtyuṃ  vā ghorān vyādhīn sṛjanti vā – all these three food habits either cause death or dreadful diseases

Below mentioned are the three types of bad food habits –

Samashana – is consuming suitable and unsuitable foods mixed together

Adhyashana – isconsuming large quantities of food even before the previously consumed food is digested

Vishamashana – is consuming less quantity or large quantity of food at improper time is called Vishamashana

All these three food habits either cause death or dreadful diseases.

Bhojana Samyak Yoga (Ahara Vidhi)

AH Su 8.35.b-38

Bhojana Samyak Yoga (Ahara Vidhi) – Regimen of diet, method of taking food properly

काले सात्म्यं शुचिं हितं स्निग्धोष्णं लघुतन्मनाः॥३५॥
षड्रसं मधुरप्रायं नातिद्रुतविलम्बितम्।
स्नातः क्षुद्वान् विविक्तस्थो धोतपादकराननः॥३६॥
तर्पयित्वा पितॄन् देवानतिथीन् बालकान् गुरून्।
प्रत्यवेक्ष्य तिरश्चोऽपि प्रतिपन्नपरिग्रहान्॥३७॥
समीक्ष्य सम्यगात्मानमनिन्दन्नब्रुवन् द्रवम्।
इष्टमिष्टैः सहाश्नीयाच्छुचिभक्तजनाहृतम्॥३८॥
kāle sātmyaṃ  śuciṃ  hitaṃ  snigdhoṣṇaṃ  laghutanmanāḥ||35||
ṣaḍrasaṃ  madhuraprāyaṃ  nātidrutavilambitam|
snātaḥ kṣudvān viviktastho dhotapādakarānanaḥ||36||
tarpayitvā pitṝn devānatithīn bālakān gurūn|
pratyavekṣya tiraśco’pi pratipannaparigrahān||37||
samīkṣya samyagātmānamanindannabruvan dravam|
iṣṭamiṣṭaiḥ sahāśnīyācchucibhaktajanāhṛtam||38||

One should follow the proper regimen of food and take the food as indicated below. One should consume food –
काले सात्म्यं – kāle sātmyaṃ  – at proper time
शुचि हितं – śuci hitaṃ  – which is clean, suited and accustomed to one’s health
स्निग्ध उष्णं लघु – snigdhoṣṇaṃ  laghu – which is unctuous hot and easily digestible
तन्मनाः – tanmanāḥ – with due attention
षड्रसं मधुर प्राय – ṣaḍrasaṃ  madhuraprāyaṃ  – which contains all the six tastes with predominance of sweet taste,
न अति दृत विलम्बितम् – nātidrutavilambitam – neither very quickly nor very slowly,
स्नातः – snātaḥ – after taking bath
क्षुद्वान् – kṣudvān – after having good hunger
विविक्तस्थो – viviktastho – sitting in solitude
धोतपादकर आननः – dhautapādakarānanaḥ – after having the feet, hands and face,
तर्पयित्वा पितॄन् देवान् अतिथीन् बालकान् गुरून् – tarpayitvā pitṝn devān atithīn bālakān gurūn – after satisfying the manes, gods, guests, children and teachers,
प्रत्यवेक्ष्य तिरश्चोपि प्रतिपन्न परिग्रहान् – pratyavekṣya tiraśco ‘pi pratipanna parigrahān – after satisfying even the dependants in the house (such as servants, horses, parrots and other pets)
समीक्ष्य सम्यगात्मानम् – samīkṣya samyag ātmānam – after considering one’s own constitution, likes and dislikes,
अनिन्दन् – anindann – without scolding or abusing the food,
अब्रुवन् – abruvan – without talking too much,
द्रवम् – dravam – which is liquid food,
इष्टम् – iṣṭam – which is liked,
इष्टैः सह – iṣṭaiḥ saha – in the company of liked people,
अश्नीयात् शुचि भक्तजनाहृतम् – aśnīyāc chuci bhakta janāhṛtam – (should eat the food) served by those who are clean and also faithful to him

Below explained is the format of an Ideal and good diet regimen.

One should consume food –  

  • at proper time
  • which is clean, suited and accustomed to one’s health
  • which is unctuous hot and easily digestible
  • with due attention
  • which contains all the six tastes with predominance of sweet taste,
  • neither very quickly nor very slowly,
  • after taking bath
  • after having good hunger
  • sitting in solitude
  • after having the feet, hands and face,
  • after satisfying the manes, gods, guests, children and teachers,
  • after satisfying even the dependants in the house (such as servants, horses, parrots and other pets)
  • after considering one’s own constitution, likes and dislikes,
  • without scolding or abusing the food,
  • without talking too much,
  • which is liquid food,
  • which is liked,
  • in the company of liked people,
  • served by those who are clean and also faithful to him

AH Su 8.39

Tyajya Bhojana (foods which needs to be rejected) –

भोजनं तृणकेशादिजुष्टमुष्णीकृतं पुनः।
शाकावरान्नभूयिष्ठमत्युष्णलवणं त्यजेत्॥३९॥
bhojanaṃ  tṛṇakeśādijuṣṭamuṣṇīkṛtaṃ  punaḥ|
śākāvarānnabhūyiṣṭhamatyuṣṇalavaṇaṃ  tyajet||39||

भोजनं तृणकेशादिजुष्टम् bhojanaṃ  tṛṇakeśādijuṣṭam – food which is contaminated with grass, hairs etc,
उष्णीकृतं पुनः – uṣṇīkṛtaṃ  punaḥ – re-heated,
शाका अवरान्नभूयिष्ठम् – śākā avarānna bhūyiṣṭham – which consists more of vegetables and undesirable grains,
अत्युष्णलवणं त्यजेत्  – atyuṣṇalavaṇaṃ  tyajet – which is very hot and very salty should be rejected

Food which is contaminated with grass, hairs etc, re-heated, which consists more of vegetables and undesirable grains, which is very hot and very salty should be rejected.

Food that should not be consumed habitually

AH Su 8.40-41

किलाटदधिकूचीकाक्षारशुक्ताममूलकम्।
कृशशुष्कवराहाविगोमत्स्यमहिषामिषम्॥४०॥
माषनिष्पावशालूकबिसपिष्टविरूढकम्।
शुष्कशाकानि यवकान् फाणितं च न शीलयेत्॥४१॥
kilāṭadadhikūcīkākṣāraśuktāmamūlakam|
kṛśaśuṣkavarāhāvigomatsyamahiṣāmiṣam||40||
māṣaniṣpāvaśālūkabisapiṣṭavirūḍhakam|
śuṣkaśākāni yavakān phāṇitaṃ  ca na śīlayet||41||

किलाट दधिकूचीका – kilāṭa dadhikūcīkā – dairy products which are sweet in taste,  solid part of curds,
क्षार शुक्त आममूलकम् – kṣāra śukta āmamūlakam – alkalis, fermented gruels, uncooked radish,
कृश शुष्क – kṛśa śuṣka – meat of animals which are emaciated, dry meat,
वराह आवि गो मत्स्य महिष आमिषम् – varāha āvi go matsya mahiṣāmiṣam – meat of boar, sheep, cow, fish and buffalo,
माष निष्पाव शालूक – māṣa niṣpāva śālūka – black gram, cowpea (flat bean), rhizome of lotus,
बिस पिष्ट विरूढकम् – bisa piṣṭa virūḍhakam – lotus, flour, germinated grains,
शुष्क शाकानि यवकान् – śuṣkaśākāni yavakān – dried vegetables, small barley,
फाणितं च न शीलयेत् – phāṇitaṃ  ca na śīlayet – half cooked molasses – these should not be consumed habitually

One should not consume the below mentioned food materials habitually –

  • dairy products which are sweet in taste, curds, solid part of curds,
  • alkalis, fermented gruels, uncooked radish,
  • meat of animals which are emaciated, dry meat,
  • meat of boar, sheep, cow, fish and buffalo,
  • black gram, cowpea (flat bean), rhizome of lotus,
  • lotus, flour, germinated grains,
  • dried vegetables, small barley,
  • half cooked molasses – these should not be consumed habitually

Foods to be consumed habitually

AH Su 8.42-43

Satmya-Pathya – Foods that can be consumed habitually, on daily basis

शीलयेच्छालिगोधूमयवषष्टिकजाङ्गलम्।
सुनिषण्णकजीवन्तीबालमूलकवास्तुकम्॥४२॥
पथ्यामलकमृद्वीकापटोलीमुद्गशर्कराः।
घृतदिव्योदकक्षीरक्षौद्रदाडिमसैन्धवम्॥४३॥
śīlayecchāligodhūmayavaṣaṣṭikajāṅgalam|
suniṣaṇṇakajīvantībālamūlakavāstukam||42||
pathyāmalakamṛdvīkāpaṭolīmudgaśarkarāḥ|
ghṛtadivyodakakṣīrakṣaudradāḍimasaindhavam||43||
शीलयेत् – śīlayet – the below mentioned foods can be consumed as a habit (on daily basis)
शालि गोधूम यव – shāli godhūma yava – rice, wheat, barley,
षष्टिक जाङ्गलम् – ṣaṣṭika jāṅgalam – rice maturing in sixty days, meat of animals living in desert lands,
सुनिषण्णक जीवन्ती – suniṣaṇṇaka jīvantī – Blepharis edulis, Leptadenia reticulate,
बालमूलक वास्तुकम् – bālamūla kavāstukam – young radish, cucumber
पथ्या अमलक मृद्वीका – pathya āmalaka mṛdvīkā – Terminalia chebula, Indian gooseberry, dry grapes (raisins),
पटोली मुद्ग शर्कराः – paṭolī mudga śarkarāḥ – pointed gourd, green gram, sugar,
घृत दिव्योदक क्षीर – ghṛta divyodaka kṣīra – ghee, rain water or pure water, milk,
क्षौद्र दाडिम सैन्धवम् – kṣaudra dāḍima saindhavam – honey, pomegranate and rock salt

Pathya – food that can be consumed habitually (on daily basis, for a long time) –
Shali (rice),
Godhuma (wheat),
Yava – Barley – Hordeum vulgare,
Shashtika (rice maturing in sixty days),
Jangala (meat of animals of desert like lands),
Sunisannaka, Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata,
Balamulaka (young radish),
Pathya (Haritaki)
Amalaka (Amla – Indian gooseberry),
Mridwika – dry grapes,
Patola – Pointed gourd
Mudga – green gram,
Sarkara (sugar),
Ghrita (ghee),
Divyodaka (rain water or pure water),
Ksheera (milk),
Kshoudra (honey),
Dadima – Pomegranate – Punica granatum
and Saindhava – Rock Salt (salt) can be consumed habitually.

Use of Triphala on daily basis

त्रिफलां मधुसर्पिर्भ्यां निशि नेत्रबलाय च।
स्वास्थ्यानुवृत्तिकृद्यञ्च रोगोच्छेदकरं च यत्॥४४॥
triphalāṃ  madhusarpirbhyāṃ  niśi netrabalāya ca|
svāsthyānuvṛttikṛdyañca rogocchedakaraṃ  ca yat||44||

त्रिफलां मधु सर्पिर्भ्यां निशि – triphalāṃ  madhusarpirbhyāṃ  niśi – Triphala should be consumed with honey and ghee at night time, daily,
नेत्रबलाय च – netrabalāya ca – for strengthening the eyesight
स्वास्थ्यानुवृत्तिकृध्यञ्च – svāsthyānuvṛttikṛd yac ca – any other thing which is good for promoting (and maintaining) health
रोगोच्छेदकर च यत् – rogocchedakaraṃ  ca yat – and dispelling the diseases shall be consumed habitually
Triphala should be consumed with honey and ghee, daily at night time, for strengthening the eyesight. Any other thing (food or medicine) which is good for promoting (and maintaining) health and dispelling the diseases should be habituated (for consumption on daily basis).

Triphala along with honey and ghee should be consumed at nights daily for strengthening of eye sight.

Any other things which is good for promoting/maintaining health and dispelling diseases can also be consumed habitually.

Food to be consumed at the beginning of meal

AH Su 8.45-46.a

Foods which should be consumed at the beginning, middle and end of a meal

बिसेक्षुमोचचोचाम्रमोदकोत्कारिकादिकम्।
अद्याद्द्रव्यं गुरु स्निग्धं स्वादु मन्दं स्थिरं पुरः॥४५॥
विपरीतमतश्चान्ते मध्येऽम्ललवणोत्कटम्।
bisekṣumocacocāmramodakotkārikādikam|
adyāddravyaṃ  guru snigdhaṃ  svādu mandaṃ  sthiraṃ  puraḥ||45||
viparītamataścānte madhye’mlalavaṇotkaṭam|

बिस इक्षु मोच चोचाम्र – bisa ikṣu moca coca amra – foods like lotus, sugarcane, plantain, coconut, jackfruit, mango,
मोदक उत्कारिकादिकम् – modaka utkārikādikam – sweet meat balls, sweet dishes etc
अद्याद् गुरु स्निग्धं स्वादु मन्दं स्थिर पुरः – adyād dravyaṃ  guru snigdhaṃ  svādu mandaṃ  sthiraṃ  puraḥ – which are hard to digest, unctuous (fatty), sweet, slow and hard should be consumed at the commencement of the meal,
विपरीतमतश्चान्ते – viparītam ataś cānte – foods of opposite qualities should be consumed at the end of the meal and
मध्ये अम्ल लवण उत्कटम् – madhye amla lavaṇotkaṭam – foods which are predominantly sour and salty should be taken in the middle of the meal

Foods which are hard to digest, unctuous (fatty), sweet, slow and hard should be consumed at the commencement of the meal, example, foods like lotus, sugarcane, plantain, coconut, jackfruit, mango, sweet meat balls, sweet dishes etc

Foods of opposite qualities should be consumed at the end of the meal i.e. foods having laghu (light to digest) etc qualities, rice prepared with paddy growing (reap) in 60 days (shashtika shali) etc

Foods which are predominantly sour and salty should be taken in the middle of the meal.

Compartments of abdomen

AH Su 8.46.b-47.a

Compartments of abdomen (stomach) for accommodation of food and drinks

अन्नेन कुक्षेर्द्वावंशौ पानेनैकं प्रपूरयेत्॥४६॥
आश्रयं पवनादीनां चतुर्थमवशेषयेत्।
annena kukṣerdvāvaṃ śau pānenaikaṃ  prapūrayet||46||
āśrayaṃ  pavanādīnāṃ  caturthamavaśeṣayet|

अन्नेन कुक्षेर्द्वावंशौ – annena kukṣer dvāv aṃ śau – two parts of the stomach (half of its capacity) should be filled with solid foods,
पानेन एकं प्रपूरयेत् – pānenaikaṃ  prapūrayet – one part of the stomach should be filled with liquids (liquid foods) and
आश्रयं पवनादीना चतुर्थम् अवशेषयेत् – āśrayaṃ  pavanādīnāṃ  caturtham avaśeṣayet – the remaining part (forth) part of the stomach should be kept vacant for accommodation and free circulation of air etc.

The stomach should be divided into four parts. Two parts of the stomach (half of its capacity) should be filled with solid foods.

One part of the stomach should be filled with liquids (liquid foods) and the remaining part (fourth) part of the stomach should be kept vacant for accommodation and free circulation of air etc.

This explanation tells us about the allotment of the stomach space for different foods and also the limitations for consuming solid and liquid foods.

Anupana (after – drink)

AH Su 8.47.b-50

Anupana – After-drinks
अनुपानं हिमं वारि यवगोधूमयोर्हितम्॥४७॥
दध्नि मध्ये विषे क्षौद्रे, कोष्णं पिष्टमयेषु तु।
शाकामुद्गादिविकृतौ मस्तुतक्राम्लकाञ्जिकम्॥४८॥
सुरा कृशानां पुष्ट्यर्थं, स्थूलानां तु मधूदकम्।
शोषे मांसरसो, मद्यं मांसे स्वल्पे च पावके॥४९॥
anupānaṃ  himaṃ  vāri yavagodhūmayorhitam||47||
dadhni madhye viṣe kṣaudre, koṣṇaṃ  piṣṭamayeṣu tu|
śākāmudgādivikṛtau mastutakrāmlakāñjikam||48||
surā kṛśānāṃ  puṣṭyarthaṃ , sthūlānāṃ  tu madhūdakam|
śoṣe māṃ saraso, madyaṃ  māṃ se svalpe ca pāvake||49||

अनुपानं हिमं वारि – anupānaṃ  himaṃ  vāri – cold water is the ideal after-drink
यव गोधूमयोर्हितम् – yava godhūmayor hitam – after meals prepared from barley and wheat,
दध्नि मध्ये विषे क्षौद्रे, – dadhni madye viṣe kṣaudre – after consuming curds (yoghurt), wine, poison and honey
कोष्णं पिष्टमयेषु तु – koṣṇaṃ  piṣṭamayeṣu tu – warm water is an ideal after-drink for foods which are starchy (foods prepared from flour),
शाक मुद्गादि विकृतौ – śākamudgādivikṛtau – after consuming preparations (dishes) made of vegetables, green gram and other grams (legumes)
मस्तु तक्र – mastu takra – after consuming supernatant liquid layer of curds (whey) and buttermilk,
अम्ल काञ्जिकम् – āmlakāñjikam – fermented gruel,|
सुरा कृशानां पुष्ट्यर्थ, – surā kṛśānāṃ  puṣṭyarthaṃ  – beer is ideal after-drink for lean person (emaciated), for providing nourishment
स्थूलानां तु मधूदकम् –sthūlānāṃ  tu madhūdakam – honey mixed with water is an ideal after-drink for obese people
शोषे मांसरसो, – śoṣe māṃ saraso – meat soup is good after-drink for the emaciated people,
मद्यं मांसे स्वल्पे च पावके – madyaṃ  māṃ se svalpe ca pāvake – wines are ideal after-drink after consuming a meal of meat and for those having poor digestive capacity,

Cold water is the ideal after-drink (Anupana) – after meals containing/ prepared from Yava – (Barley) and Godhuma – wheat, after consuming Dadhi – Curds / yoghurt, wine, poison and honey.
Warm water is ideal after-drink for
foods which are starchy,
Mastu – Supernatent liquid of curds (whey),
Takra (diluted buttermilk)
Amla kanjika (fermented gruel);
Dishes prepared from vegetables and Mudga (green gram) and other legumes :

Sura (beer) is the ideal after drink for lean person.
Honey mixed water is the ideal after drink for obese person.
Meat soup is good after drink for the emaciated.
Wines are ideal after a meal of meat and to those who have poor digestive capacity.

Milk as co-drink

AH. Su. 8.50

व्याध्यौषधाध्वभाष्यस्त्रीलङ्घनातपकर्मभिः।
क्षीणे वृद्दे च बाले च पयः पथ्यं यथाऽमृतम्॥५०॥
vyādhyauṣadhādhvabhāṣyastrīlaṅghanātapakarmabhiḥ|
kṣīṇe vṛdde ca bāle ca payaḥ pathyaṃ  yathā’mṛtam||50||

व्याध्यौषध अध्व भाष्य – vyādhy auṣadha adhva bhāṣya – (for those debilitated by) diseases, medicines (and therapies), walking long distances, speaking in excess,
स्त्री लङ्घन आतप कर्मभिः – strī laṅghana ātapa karmabhiḥ – excess sexual intercourse, fasting, exposure to heat of son and other tiresome activities,
क्षीणे वृद्धे च बाले च – kṣīṇe vṛddhe ca bāle ca – for the emaciated, the aged and children,
पयः पथ्यं यथा अमृतम् – payaḥ pathyaṃ  yathāmṛtam – milk is best suited, just as nectar

Milk is best suited just as nectar for those who are debilitated by diseases, medicines (and therapies), walking long distances, speaking, sexual intercourse, fasting, exposure to sun and such other tiresome activities; for the emaciated, the aged, and for children.

Qualities of ideal Anupana

AH Su 8.51

विपरीतं यदन्नस्य गुणैः स्यादविरोधि च।
अनुपानं समासेन, सर्वदा तत्प्रशस्यते॥५१॥
viparītaṃ  yadannasya guṇaiḥ syādavirodhi ca|
anupānaṃ  samāsena, sarvadā tatpraśasyate||51||

विपरीतं यदन्नस्य गुणैः – viparītaṃ  yad annasya – an ideal anupana or after-drink is that which has properties opposite of those of the foods,
स्यादविरोधि च – guṇaiḥ syād avirodhi ca – but not incompatible with them (foods),
अनुपानं समासेन, सर्वदा तत्प्रशस्यते – anupānaṃ  samāsena sarvadā tat praśasyate – such an after-drink is generally (in all conditions) and always valuable

An ideal anupana or after-drink is that which has properties opposite of those of the foods, but not incompatible with them (foods). Such an after-drink is generally (in all conditions) and always valuable.

Benefits of Anupana

AH Su 8.52

Benefits of Anupana (after-drink)

अनुपानं करोत्यूर्जा तृप्तिं व्याप्तिं दृढाङ्गताम्।
अन्नसङ्घातशैथिल्यविक्लित्तिजरणानि च॥५२॥
anupānaṃ  karotyūrjā tṛptiṃ  vyāptiṃ dṛḍhāṅgatām|
annasaṅghātaśaithilyaviklittijaraṇāni ca||52||

अनुपानं करोति – anupānaṃ  karoty – after-drink bestows
ऊर्जा तृप्ति – ūrjāṃ  tṛptiṃ  – invigoration (strength) and contentment,
व्याप्ति दृढाङ्गताम् – vyāptiṃ  dṛḍhāṅgatām – proper movement of foods inside the body (in the channels) and stability of body parts,
अन्नसङ्घात शैथिल्य विक्लित्तिजरणानि च – annasaṅghāta śaithilya viklitti jaraṇāni ca – loosening of hard masses of food, their moistening (liquefaction) and digestion

Anupana or after-drink brings about  invigoration (strength) and contentment, enables proper movement of foods inside the body (in the channels) and stability of body parts, helps in loosening of hard masses of food, their moistening (liquefaction) and digestion.

Contra indication for Anupana

AH Su 8.53

नोर्ध्वजत्रुगदश्वासकासोरःक्षतपीनसे।
गीतभाष्यप्रसङ्गे च स्वरभेदे च तद्धितम्॥५३॥
nordhvajatrugadaśvāsakāsoraḥkṣatapīnase|
gītabhāṣyaprasaṅge ca svarabhede ca taddhitam||53||

न ऊर्ध्व जतृ गद – na urdhvajatrugada – in diseases of the organs above the shoulders (diseases of eyes, ear, nose, throat, brain),
श्वास कास उरः क्षत पीनसे – śvāsa kāsa uraḥkṣata pīnase – dyspnoea (asthma), cough, chest injury, rhinitis,
गीत भाष्य प्रसङ्गे च – gīta bhāṣya prasaṅge ca – for those engaged in singing and speaking for long time and in
स्वरभेदे च तद्दितम् – svarabhede ca tad dhitam – hoarseness of voice, anupana is not good for consumption (should be avoided)

Anupana should not be administered in diseases of the organs above the shoulders (diseases of eyes, ear, nose, throat, and brain), dyspnoea (asthma), cough, chest injury, rhinitis, for those engaged in singing and speaking for long time and in hoarseness of voice.

Contraindications after taking liquids and food

AH Su 8.54-55.a

प्रक्लिन्नदेहमेहाक्षिगलरोगव्रणातुराः।
पानं त्यजेयुः सर्वश्च भाष्याध्वशयनं त्यजेत्॥५४॥
पीत्वा, भुक्त्वाऽऽतपं वह्नि यानं प्लवनवाहनम्।
praklinnadehamehākṣigalarogavraṇāturāḥ|
pānaṃ  tyajeyuḥ sarvaśca bhāṣyādhvaśayanaṃ  tyajet||54||
pītvā, bhuktvā”tapaṃ  vahni yānaṃ  plavanavāhanam|

प्रक्लिन्न देह – praklinna deha – people who are over-hydrated,
मेहा – meha – those suffering from polyuria (urinary disorders, diabetes),
अक्षि गल रोग – akṣi galaroga – diseases of eyes and throat, and
व्रणातुराः – vraṇāturāḥ – those suffering from wounds (ulcers),
पान त्यजेयुःpānaṃ  tyajeyuḥ – should avoid drinking of liquids,
सर्वश्च भाष्याध्वशयनं त्यजेत् पीत्वा, – sarvaś ca bhāṣya adhva śayanaṃ  tyajet – all persons (diseased and healthy) should avoid speaking, walking long distances, and sleeping immediately after consuming liquids,
भुक्त्वा आतपं वह्नि यानं प्लवन वाहनम् – pītvā bhuktvā ātapaṃ  vahniṃ  yānaṃ  plavana vāhanam – soon after consuming food, one should avoid exposure to sun and fire, travel in vehicles, swimming and riding on animals.

AH Su 8.55

Ahara Kala: Proper time of meals

प्रसृष्टे विण्मूत्रे हृदि सुविमले दोषे स्वपथगे विशुद्ध चोद्गारे क्षुदुपगमने वातेऽनुसरति।
तथाऽग्नावुद्रिक्ते विशदकरणे देहे च सुलघो प्रयुञ्जीताहारं विधिनियमितं कालः स हि मतः॥५५॥
prasṛṣṭe viṇmūtre hṛdi suvimale doṣe svapathage viśuddha codgāre kṣudupagamane vāte’nusarati|
tathā’gnāvudrikte viśadakaraṇe dehe ca sulagho prayuñjītāhāraṃ  vidhiniyamitaṃ  kālaḥ sa hi mataḥ||55||

Food should strictly be consumed when the below mentioned conditions prevail –
प्रसृष्टे विण्मूत्रे – prasṛṣṭe viṇmūtre – after proper elimination of feces and urine,
हृदि सुविमले – hṛdi suvimale – when the mind is pleasant,
दोषे स्वपथगे – doṣe svapathage – when the doshas are moving gently in their natural pathways (functioning normally)
विशुद्धे च उद्गारे – viśuddhe codgāre – when the belching are clean and pure (without foul smell or taste),
क्षुद् उपगमने – kṣud upagamane – when the hunger is properly manifested,
वाते अनुसरति – vāte ‘nusarati – when the fart (flatus) is moving downward easily,
तथा अग्नावुद्रिक्ते – tathāgnāv udrikte – when the digestive activity is good and at its peak,
विशदकरणे – viśadakaraṇe – when the sense organs are functioning clearly
देहे च सुलघो – dehe ca sulaghau – when the body is light
प्रयुञ्जीत आहार – prayuñjītāhāraṃ  – food should be given
विधिनियमितं – vidhiniyamitaṃ  – while following the rules, regulations and procedures of food
काल: स हि मतः – kālaḥ sa hi mataḥ – only this is the ideal time for consumption of food

Food should strictly be consumed only when the below mentioned conditions prevail.

Food should be taken only –

  • after proper elimination of feces and urine,
  • when the mind is pleasant,
  • when the doshas are moving gently in their natural pathways (functioning normally)
  • when the belching are clean and pure (without foul smell or taste),
  • when the hunger is properly manifested,
  • when the fart (flatus) is moving downward easily,
  • when the digestive activity is good and at its peak,
  • when the sense organs are functioning clearly
  • when the body is light

Food should be given in the presence of the above said conditions while following the rules, regulations and procedures of food. Only this is the ideal time for consumption of food.

इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तप्रसूनश्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने मात्राशितीयो नाम अष्टमोऽध्यायः॥८॥
iti śrīvaidyapatisiṃ haguptaprasūnaśrīmadvāgbhaṭaviracitāyāmaṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃ hitāyāṃ  sūtrasthāne mātrāśitīyo nāma aṣṭamo’dhyāyaḥ||8||

Thus ends the 8th chapter of Ashtangahridaya Samhita, Sutrasthana, named Matrashiteeya Adhyaya, written by Shrimad Vagbhata, son of Shri Vaidhyapati Simhagupta.

3 thoughts on “Matrashiteeya Adhyaya: Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana 8th Chapter”

  1. I find this a very useful article to plan daily diet!

    One question: Above, it says that we can consume Yava daily but not Yavaka. Is the barley available in market of type Yava or Yavaka? How can we differentiate these two types?

    Reply

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