Anjeer Uses, Medicinal Qualities, Remedies, Research

By Dr Renita D’Souza


Anjeer (Ficus carica) is a very well-known nutritive fruit with many medicinal virtues. It helps in quick recovery from fatigue and endows the body with good physical and mental strength. Classical term of Anjeer fruit is Phalgu. It is described under Phala varga in Priya Nighantu. Leaves and roots of this plant are used in cardiovascular diseases, sore throat, cough, indigestion, colic, loss of appetite, diarrhoea and other respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Also used as anti-inflammatory agents. Fresh and dried figs possess laxative properties. Dry fruit is used as good nutritional support for diabetes.
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Botanical Name – Ficus carica
Family – Moraceae

Medicinal Qualities

Ripe fruit of Anjeer possess following qualities

Taste (Rasa) –
Quality (Guna) –
Guru (heavy to digest)
Snigdha (unctuous)
Potency (Virya) – Shita (cold)
Vipaka (Taste after digestion) – Sweet
Action (Karma)
Tarpana – Nutritive
Balya – promotes physical strength
Anulomana – helps easy evacuation of bowels
Vibandam Hanti – cures constipation
Shramahara – relieves fatigue
Brahmana – Nourishing
Vishtambhi – constipating (excess use)

Yakkrit uthejjaka
Vrshya – Aphrodisiac
Mutrala – diuretic
Raktashodhaka – Purifies blood
Kaphanisaraka – Expectorant
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Effect on Doshas

Vatapittahara – Balances aggravated vata and pitta dosha


  1. Latex of Fig is applied externally on warts, skin ulcers and sores. It is also used as a purgative and anthelmintic.
  2. Fruit paste is applied externally on swellings, tumour and inflammations. It acts as the best pain relieving agent.
  3. In Hemorrhage, fruit juice with honey is given internally. (Vrindamaadhava)

Pharmacological Activities

Ficus carica possess Anticancer, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Antibacterial,  Hepatoprotective, Anti-inflammatory, Gastroprotective, Antidiarrheal, Antitumor, Antispasmodic, Immune Balancing, Antipyretic  and Antimutagenic activities.
Leaves of Anjeer possess Diuretic, Demulcent, Emollient and Anthelmintic properties.

Nutritive value of Figs

Figs (Ficus carica) contains Protein 1.3 g, Fat (total Lipids) 0.2 g, Carbohydrates 7.6 g, Calories (energy) 80 k Cal, Moisture 88.1 g, Fibre 2.2 g, Minerals 0.6 g, Thiamine 0.1 mg, Calcium 35 mg, Phosphorus 22 mg, Iron 0.6 mg, Vitamin A – 80 IU and Vitamin C – 2 mg
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Therapeutic Uses

Anjir can be used in diseases such as-
Liver and Spleen diseases
General debility
Sandhivata – Osteoarthritis
Vataraktha – gout
Rakta vikara – diseases related to blood
Sore throat, Cough, Asthma
Ashmari – urinary calculi
Vrikka shula
Mutrakricchra – dysuria
Shukra dourbalya – Oligospermia
Burning sensation
Vrana – wound
Visphota – Boils
Masurika – measles

Fruits are used in –
Nose bleeding
Hair nutritive
Liver diseases
Chest pain

Roots are used in –
Ringworm infection.

Latex is used as –
Anthelmintic and in the treatment of anemia.

Leaves are used as –
In contact dermatitis

Seeds are used as edible oil, lubricant etc
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Part Used

Fruit, Leaves, Root

Juice – l0-20 ml
Paste – 5-10 ml
Dried fruit – 2-3

Sanskrit Verses


Botanical Description

Ficus carica is a moderate sized deciduous tree growing up to 15- 20 ft in height. Leaves are broad, ovate, nearly 3-5 lobed, leathery dark green above and hairy below.
Fruits are axillary, usually pear shaped, variable in size and color, when ripe it is sweet and juicy. It is gummy with latex before ripening. Although fig is considered as a fruit is actually a flower inverted into it. Seeds are many and vary greatly in size. Seeds are real fruits in figs.
Plant latex is milky white and it contains a protein digesting enzyme called Ficin.
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Ficus carica is native to Carica in Asia minor. It is distributed in Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean region, from Turkey in the East to Spain and Portugal in the West. It is also grown commercially in parts of the U.S.A., Chile, Arabia, Persia, India, China and Japan.


In Charaka and Sushruta Samhita, Phalgu is mentioned as Vishtambhi (constipating). Priya Nighantu mentions properties of Anulomana and Vibanda hanti that helps in relieving constipation.

Other Nighantukaaras and commentators such as Dalhana and Chakrapaani mentions Phalgu as synonym of Kaakodumbara (Ficus hispida).
Read – Ficus hispida – Kakodumbara Uses, Research, Remedies, Side Effects


Anticancer Activity – The study ‘Anticancer Activity of Methanol Extract of Ficus carica Leaves and Fruits Against Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Necrosis in Huh7it Cells’, have shown that the leaf extract of Ficus carica have higher anticancer activity compared with its fruit extracts.
Anti-inflammatory Activity– A research study conducted to evaluate Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Ficus carica have shown that the petroleum  ether (PEE),  chloroform (CE)  and  ethanol (EE)  extracts have greater anti-inflammatory effect comparative to standard drug Indomethacin.

Classical Categorization

Priya Nighantu – Phala varga
Charaka Samhitha
Shramaharani Dashemaani
Phala Varga
Sushrutha Samhitha – Phala Varga


Whoopin Syrup – It relieves distressing cough
Gojihwadi Kashaya – It is used in the treatment of fever, cough, bronchitis etc Nila ghritha – Used in asaadhya kushta (Su.Chi 9/29)
Nila ghritha – Used in asaadhya kushta (Su.Chi 9/29)

Scientific Classification

Kingdom – Plantae
Subkingdom – Tracheobionta
Superdivision – Spermatophyte
Division- Magnoliphyta
Class – Maghnoliosida
Subclass – Hamamelididae
Order – Urticales
Family – Moraceae
Genus – Ficus
Species – carica

Vernacular Names

English Name – Common fig
Sanskrit Name – Phalgu phalam
Hindi Name – Anjeer
Marathi Name – Anjra
Bengali Name – Anjir
Kannada Name – Anjura
Malayalam Name – Shimi atti
Tamil Name – Simayiatti tenatti
Telugu Name – Anjura, Manjimedi, Shimi atti
Punjabi Name – Fagari
Arab Name – Tin
Persian Name – Anjir
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Systemic Action (Sthanika Karma)

External – Warm paste is used to apply on inflammatory wounds.

Digestive System – Liver stimulant, indicated in Splenomegaly, hemorrhoids, Jaundice etc. Facilitate normal movement of doshas.
Circulatory System –Indicated in joint inflammation, blood borne diseases, bleeding diseases etc.
Respiratory system – Expels out vitiated kapha dosha, indicated in cough, breathing diseases etc. by improving the mucosal health of respiratory passage.
Excretory system – Improve urine output, indicated in Urinary calculi and associated pain, Dysuria etc.
Reproductive system – Aphrodisiac. It can be used with other herbal medicines to increase sperm count.
Skin – Improve complexion, cure burning sensation associated with skin irruptions.
Satmikarana – Indicated in general debility. promote strength.
Tapakrama – jvaraghna (fever and associated weakness)

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