Yashada (Zinc): Qualities, Shodhana, Marana and Jarana

Medicinal use of zinc was first documented in Ayurvedic literature. It is used in Ayurvedic treatment of eye disorders, diabetes, urinary disorders and respiratory conditions.

Introduction

Zinc, also known as spelter, is a metallic element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is included in most single tablet over- the- counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements. It is believed to posses antioxidant properties, which protect against premature ageing of skin and muscles of the body. Zinc also helps speed up the healing process  after injury. Zinc gluconate glycine and  Zinc acetate are used in throat lozenges or tablets to reduce the duration and the severity of cold symptoms.

Its references are found in ancient text books. Ancient scholars are given a place for this metal on oar with Loha . Pittala – which increases Pitta is prepared using this metal. It was known as Kharpara Bhasma – Bhasma (Calx) of Zinc Sulphide Satwa in ancient times. Yashad Bhasma – Bhasma (Calx) of Zinc is a white  colored metal, Brittle, Malleable and ductile. It is good conductor of heat and electricity. Its relative density is 7.2 and melting point is 419 C
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Synonyms

Yashad Bhasma – Bhasma (Calx) of Zinc, Netrarogari, Kharparaja,
Tamraranjak, Reetihetu, jaastha.

Availability

Bihar, Rajastan, Madras,Panjab, kashmeir MP and UP.

Zinc Ores

Zincie, Adamite, Aurichalcite, Fowlerite(Rhodonite), Franklinite, Gahnite, gahnospinel, Hydrozincite, Nicholsonite, Paradamite, Smithsonite Sphalerite, Wurtzite.

Suitable Characteristics

छेदे समुज्ज्वलं स्निग्धं  मृदुलं  निर्मलं तथा ॥
द्रुतद्रावं महाभारं यशदं ग्राह्यमुच्यते ॥(र.त. १९/९५)
chede samujjvalaṃ snigdhaṃ  mṛdulaṃ  nirmalaṃ tathā ||
drutadrāvaṃ mahābhāraṃ yaśadaṃ grāhyamucyate ||(ra.ta. 19/ 15)

Bright upon cutting, Snigdha, soft, clear, having lower melting point and weightiness.

Unsuitable characteristics

कठिनं कठिनद्रावं रुक्षं रुक्षप्रभं लघु ।
मलिनं यशदं यत्तु तदग्राह्यं प्रकीर्तितम् ॥(र.त. १९/९६)
kaṭhinaṃ kaṭhinadrāvaṃ rukṣaṃ rukṣaprabhaṃ laghu |
malinaṃ yaśadaṃ yattu tadagrāhyaṃ prakīrtitam ||(ra.ta. 19/96)

Hard, melting at a higher temprerature, dry, light and diryness are the unsuitable characteristics of Yashad.

Qualities

यशदं तुवरं तिक्तं शीतलं कफपित्तहृत् ।
चक्षुष्यं परमं मेहान् पाण्डुश्वासं च नाशयेत् ॥ (रसेन्द्रभास्कर)
yaśadaṃ tuvaraṃ tiktaṃ śītalaṃ kaphapittahṛt |
cakṣuṣyaṃ paramaṃ mehān pāṇḍuśvāsaṃ ca nāśayet || (rasendrabhāskara)

Kashaya, tikta Rasa – Herbal purified Mercury, Sheeta Veerya, Good for eyes, Kapha, Pittahara, Prameha, Pandu roga and Shwasa.

Samanya  shodhana

तैले तक्रे गवां मूत्रे ह्यरनाले कुलत्थजे।
क्रमान्निषेचयेत्तप्तं द्रावे द्रावे तु  सप्तधा ॥
स्वर्णदिलोहपत्राणां शुद्धिरेषा प्रशस्यते । (र.र.स. ५/१३)
taile takre gavāṃ mūtre hyaranāle kulatthaje|
kramānniṣecayettaptaṃ drāve drāve tu  saptadhā ||
svarṇadilohapatrāṇāṃ śuddhireṣā praśasyate | (ra.ra.sa. 5/13)

The Lohas are made into thin sheets, heated in fire  till red hot and dipped in Taila – Sesame oil – Sesamum indicum – 768 ml (gingelly oil), Takra ( buttermilk), Gomutra – Cow urine, Kanji – Fermented gruel and Kulattha Kwatha (decoction of horsegram) for 7 times each.

Vishesha Shodhana

यशदं द्रवितं यत्नाद् गोदुग्धे स्नपयेद्भिषक् ।
त्रिसप्तवारं यत्नेन यशदं शुद्धिमाप्नुयात् ॥ )र.त. १९/१०२(
१. जात्यं यशदमादाय लोहदर्व्यान्तु विन्यसेत् ।
तीव्राग्निना तु विद्राव्यं चूर्णवारिप्रपूरिते ॥
सच्छिद्रेण पिधानेन पिहितास्ये घटे क्षिपेत् ।
सप्तवारं प्रयत्नेन यशदं शुद्धिमाप्नुयात् ॥ )र.त. १९/९८)
२. यशदं द्रवितं यत्नात् सप्तवारं विधानतः ।
सिन्दुवारशिफाद्रावे स्नपयेद्भिषजां वरः ।
रीत्यानया तु यशदं शुद्धिमायात्यनुत्तमाम् ।
एवं शुद्धन्तु यशदं मारणाय प्रयोजयेत् ॥ )र.त.१९/२०० – १०१(

yaśadaṃ dravitaṃ yatnād godugdhe snapayedbhiṣak |
trisaptavāraṃ yatnena yaśadaṃ śuddhimāpnuyāt || (ra.ta. 19/102)

  1. jātyaṃ yaśadamādāya lohadarvyāntu vinyaset |
    tīvrāgninā tu vidrāvyaṃ cūrṇavāriprapūrite ||
    sacchidreṇa pidhānena pihitāsye ghaṭe kṣipet |
    saptavāraṃ prayatnena yaśadaṃ śuddhimāpnuyāt || )ra.ta. 19/98)
  2. yaśadaṃ dravitaṃ yatnāt saptavāraṃ vidhānataḥ |
    sinduvāraśiphādrāve snapayedbhiṣajāṃ varaḥ |
    rītyānayā tu yaśadaṃ śuddhimāyātyanuttamām |
    evaṃ śuddhantu yaśadaṃ māraṇāya prayojayet || )ra.ta.19/200 – 101(
  1. Yashada is melted and poured into milk for 12 times
  2. Yashad is melted and poured into lime water for 7 times
  3. Yashad is melted and dipped in Nirgundi moola swarasa for 7 times.

Jarana

प्रतप्ते यशदे वह्नौ भङ्गा प्र्स्तोद्भवं रजः ।
दत्वा प्रचालयेदर्वी यवच्चूर्णत्वमाप्नुयात् ॥( रसामृत लोह विज्ञानीय १२८)
pratapte yaśade vahnau bhaṅgā prstodbhavaṃ rajaḥ |
datvā pracālayedarvī yavaccūrṇatvamāpnuyāt ||( rasāmṛta loha vijñānīya 128)

Yashada is taken in an Ion vessel, melted, opium powder is added, Bhanga powder is added, stirred continuously, till the mass turns into powder form. Then it is collected together, covered with a lid and heated till redness and allowed to self cooling. It is used for the purpose of marana.

Marana

वस्त्रपुटं तु तच्चूर्णं कुमारीरसे मर्दितम् ।
कृत्वा तु चक्रिकाः शुष्कास्ततो गजपुटे पचेत् ॥
एवं सप्तपुटैः सम्यक् यशदं मृतत्वमाप्नुयात् ।
(रसामृत लोह विज्ञानीय, ११९ – १२०)
vastrapuṭaṃ tu taccūrṇaṃ kumārīrase marditam |
kṛtvā tu cakrikāḥ śuṣkāstato gajapuṭe pacet ||
evaṃ saptapuṭaiḥ samyak yaśadaṃ mṛtatvamāpnuyāt |
(rasāmṛta loha vijñānīya, 119 – 120)

  1. Jarita Yashada is given bhavana with  kumari swarasa and cakes are prepanred, taken inside sharava and samputa and given 7 Putas.
  2. Yashada sheets are smeared with Kajjali – Purified Sulphur and Mercury are triturated to form Kajjali , which is triturated with Kumari – Aloe vera swarasa, taken inside sharava samputa and 1 Gajaputa heat is given.
    Read related: Yashad Bhasma – Benefits, Dosage, Ingredients, Side Effect 

Dosage

½ – 1  ratti (62.5 mg to 125 mg) per day in divided doses

Formulations

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