Nirgundi – Vitex negundo Uses, Dose, Side Effects, Research

Nirgundi – Vitex negundo is a very good muscle relaxant, pain relieving, anti mosquito, anti anxiety, anti asthma and so on, herb of Ayurveda. There are very less herbs as multi-talented and as versatile as Nirgundi is.  Used both for external application in the form of paste / oil, and also for oral administration in the form of powder, leaf juice extract or water decoction. 

Botanical Name- Vitex Negundo Linn.
Family- VERBINACEAE (Nirgundi Kula)


Among the oils used to treat the arthritis Nirgundi is a common ingredient in most of the preparations. The plant is available in plenty and it is cheaper and more over, a confident herb to reduce the pain and swelling. 

The plant Nirgundi is known as Five leaved chaste in English and Sambhalu in Hindi.
Its botanical name is Vitex negundo Linn and it belongs to verbenaceae family.

The scientists have evaluated its potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, antioxidant, broncho-dilating and hepato-protective activities.
The leaves are the main usable parts. The stem as well as seeds are also in few unique preparations and conditions.

The plant is bitter mixed astringent in taste and it under goes Pungent kind of bio transformation (Vipaka). The plant is known as hot in potency and hence it is useful in Vata-kaphaja disorders.
Read related: Nirgundi – Vitex negundo Uses, Dose, Side Effects, Research

Important formulations are Nirgundi kashaya, Balanirgundyadi kwatha, Nirgundi kashaya etc.

Home remedies

Few important simple remedies of Nirgundi are as follows-

Joint pain, swelling

1. Fine paste of Nirgundi leaves in swelling and joint pains:
Matured leaves are collected and fine paste is made. This is warmed a little and applied over the joints or the area of swelling. This kind of poutlies are helpful to relieve the pain and swelling significantly.

Asthma, cough

2. Leaf decoction in Asthma and cough:
The leaf decoction (preferably from dry leaves) is administered in the dose of 20-30 m l twice or thrice daily. This pacifies cough, throat irritation, fever, URTI etc. To prepare decoction – 1 tablespoon of leaf powder is added with 2 cups of water, boiled and reduced to half a cup, filtered.

Wounds, ulcers

3. Leaf decoction to wash the wounds and ulcers:
The freshly prepared leaf decoction is used to wash the wounds. It helps in purification and easy and early healing of the wounds.

Nasal discharge, polyps

4. Seed/fruit powder for nasal discharge and nasal polyps:
2-4 gram of powder of its fruits is administered 2-3 times a day. Or else this can be made into hot infusion and administered. It cures disorders of nasal passages, especially rhinitis and nasal polyps.

Body ache, joint pain

5. Nirgundi leaf oil in body ache, joint pain etc:
50 gram of Nirgundi leaves , 200 ml of sesame oil and 800 ml of water or leaf decoction/fresh juice are taken together and oil is cooked. This oil is used to apply over the joints and painful area. This is very good analgesic and anti inflammatory oil.
Click to consult Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD (Ayu), PhD

Nirgundi Vati

Nirgundi vati is the tablet form of Nirgundi it contains 250-400 mg of Nirgundi water extract in it. It contains most of the properties of the herb.
It is mainly used for the treatment of
abscess, non healing wounds, muscle aches, stiffness, pain, arthritis, anal fistula and anal fissure.

Vernacular names

Hindi Name- Sambhalu, mewri, Nisinda, Sawbhalu
Telugu Name- indhuvaraVaviliNalla-vaviliTella-vavili, Lekkali
Tamil Name-ChinduvaramNirnochchiNochchiNotchiVellai-nochchi
Bengali Name- NirgundiNishindaSamalu
English – Five Leaved Chaste
Filipino – Lagundi
Assamese – Pochotia
Chinese name – Huang jing
Kannada name – Bile-nekki, Lakki soppu, Lakki gida, Lekki gida
Punjabi name – BannaMarwanMauraMawaSwanjan Torbanna

Vitex negundo flower

Sanskrit Synonyms

Nirgundi – Nirgudati Shareeram rakshati rogebhyaha – which protects body from diseases
Sindhuvara – Sindu shotham vaarayati it sinduvaraha – which helps to relieve inflammation
Bhutakesi – Nirgundi alleviate evil spirit
Sitasaha – Plant is having ushna virya, hence it can alleviates sitatva
Indrasurasa – Leaf jiuce is an efficacious medicine
Shephalika, Suvaha, Sinduka, Sinduvara, Surasa, Shvetapushpa (white coloured flower), Nilamanjari, Vanaja, Hutakeshi

Sambhalu - nirgundi

Classical categorization

Charaka –
Vishaghna – anti poisonous group of herbs
Krimighna – anti worm group of herbs
Susruta and Vagbhata – Surasadi


Different Varieties of Nirgundi (Sambhalu) – 
About six species of Vitex genus were studied for phytochemical profile. Nearly same constituents were present in all species. (Krishna Rao & Jean, 1996)

Bh. Pr. Ni, Pr. Ni, Dh. Ni – Swetapushpa Nirgundi, Nila pushpa Nirgundi
Ra. Ni – 3 types – Sinduvara, Nila Nirgundi, Sephali

Chemical constituents

Vitex Negundo chemical Constituents
Phenol, Dulcitol, Alkaloid-Vitricine, B-sitosterol, Camphene, a- And B- Pinenes, Angoside, Acunbin, Casticin, Artemetin, Orientin etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)

Medicinal qualities

Nirgundi – Vitex negundo – medicinal qualities: 
Rasa (taste) – Katu (pungent), Tikta (bitter)
Guna (qualities) – Laghu (lightness), Rooksha (dryness)
Vipaka – Katu – undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion
Veerya -Ushna – hot potency
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Vata and Kapha.

Part used, dose

Nirgundi – Part used- Leaf, root, seeds
Five leaved chaste Dose
Leaf juice 10-20 ml,
Root bark powder 3-6 g,
Seed powder 3-6 g, in divided doses per day, is the adult dose.

Utpatti sthana

It is found in almost all regions of India especially in hot weather areas.


Root- Branched, cylindrical

Stem- Pinnately compound, digitately 3 to 5 foliate, leaf lets are oblanceolate, grey-pubescent below.

Inflorescence- Dichasial cyme

Flower- Bracteate, pentamerous, bisexual, zygomorphic and complete, sepals are 5, shortly 5-toothed, petals are not 5, upper lip two to bed, much shorter than the lower, purple to violet in colour stamens are 5 in number.

Fruit- Small, globose, drupe, seeds are ovate oblong shaped with a straight embryo.

Parts used-

(Root), Patra (Leaf).

Roots are stout cylindrical 2 to 7 cm in diameter. External surface is greyish brown colour, longitudinally wrinkled with occasional warty protuberances and circular root scars. Has slight aromatic odor and bitter in taste.

Sanskrit verse

Vitex negundo benefits


Vitex negundo uses:
Krumi – useful in intestinal worm infestation
Kushta – useful in skin diseases, eczema, ring worm
Rujapaha – relieves muscle and arthritis related pain
Pleeha – useful in spleen disorder
Gulma – useful in abdominal tumor
Aruchi – useful in anorexia
Medhya – improves intelligence, relieves anxiety
Netrahita, Chakshushya – good for eyes,
Deepani – carminative
Keshya – improves hair quality
Vishapaha — anti toxic, anti poisonous
Shulahara – useful in abdominal colic, anti spasmoidic
Amahara – useful in Ama (a product of altered digestion and metabolism)
Medohara – useful against cholesterol
Vranahara – heals wounds faster
Vranakurmi here – cleanses wounds
Pratishyaya – useful in running nose
Shwasahara – useful in asthma, bronchitis
Kasahara – useful in cold, cough
Smrutida – improves memory
Its fumes are useful in getting rid of mosquitoes.

Properties of nirgundi flower

According to Bhojana Kutuhalam in the context of flowers, The flower of nirgundi is said to have bitter taste, cold potency, helps to treat vata and kapha related disorders, gulma, splenic disorders, tastelessness, various skin conditions, itching and edema.

External application

The leaves are made into paste, heated a little and applied externally to relieve headache, orchitis (swelling in testicles), rheumatoid and osteo arthritis.
Water decoction of Nirgundi is used for vaginal douche to relieve local inflammation
Water decoction is used for mouth gargling to relieve throat pain and oral ulcers.
The dry leaves are burnt and fumes are inhaled to relieve headache and running nose.
Its oil is prepared with sesame oil and used in wound healing  and grey hairs.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.


Vitex negundo – research:
Larvicidal activity against mosquito larvae
Hepato-protective activity of ethanolic activity
Anitpyretic activity of alcoholic extract
Anti fungal activity

Ayurvedic medicines

Ayurvedic medicines with Vitex negundo –
Saraswatarishta,  Manasamitra vatakam – 
Nirgundi being anxiolytic and medhya (improving intelligence), helps these medicines to fight anxiety and depression. Also, it also relieves pain. Hence, useful in fibro-myalgia, associated with depression.
Dashamool Taila – useful in vascular headache, migraine
Mahavat Vidhwans Ras – useful in neuralgia, aches and pains
Anthrakutaram gulika – useful in abdominal colic, constipation, bloating

In Vata Gajankush ras, an Ayurvedic medicine, the leaf juice extract of Vitex negundo is used for trituration (Bhavana) or grinding of the powders of medicine. It acts as a binding agent and also imparts medicinal qualities to this product.

Sthanika Karma (Systemic Action)

External – Relieve pain and edema, promote hair growth, cleanses wound and promote healing

Hot fomentation with its leaf is indicated in Headache, Arthritic pain, joint inflammation etc. Pouring of Its decoction in Lower abdominal region is beneficial in inflammation in conditions like Anal area, gynecological disorders, lower abdominal pain, inflammation in scrotum etc. Gargling with its decoction is beneficial in mouth ulcer, throat pain. Fumigation with dry leaves indicated in headache and running nose. Oil can be applied in wounds, greying of hairs.

Nervous System – It has vatahara action (Pacify vatadosha), improve intellect. indicated in painful inflammatory conditions, Amavata, Sciatica, headache. improve brain function.

Digestive System – stimulate liver. It has carminative property. Ama pachana, Anti helmenthic. indicated in anorexia, Helminthiasis,. Its leaf juice along with cow urine is indicated in splenic disorders.

Circulatory System – Helps to reduce odema.

Respiratory System – Alliviate kapha dosha, Indicated in Cough, Pleurisy, lung inflammation

Satmikarana – rejuvenative, Promote body strength

Excretory system – Increase urine production.

Reproductive System – Indicated in gynecological disorders like dysmenorrhea, and post partum diseases

Skin – Indicated in various r skin disorders, itching, boils etc.
Tapakrama – Indicated in Fever (Vishamajvara / intermittent fever) Its leaf juice can be administered as an adjuvant in fever along with other medicines.
Eye – Good for eyes (Chakshushya), improve eye sight
Ear – Indicated in oozing conditions of ears (Karna srava)

44 thoughts on “Nirgundi – Vitex negundo Uses, Dose, Side Effects, Research”

  1. Hello, when you talk about the rasa, guna and vipaka – are you referring to the berry? leaves? or the root? And for the uses – which part of the plant has these healing qualities. In the West vitex berry tinctures are very popular for women’s heath – specially for menstrual disorders. We use vitex berry tincture or capsule the most. – thank you.

    • Hi, the properties explained are for Leaf, root and seeds.
      Thanks for value addition.
      Best regards

  2. hello a
    lease give information about the variety of nirgundi from which oil is to prepare use in liniment

    • Sir, No side effects.
      Apply Nirgundi tailam — it can be used in phimosis to loosen the foreskin. Daily morning, 10 minutes before bath, apply this and try to stretch foreskin.

  3. thanks sir its really work…..i m pg student in u.p….i want more detail in vitex negundo linn. about how its work 0n pesticides

  4. In the web page, i can see two different types of Nirgundi plants, 1. with five leaf 2. with three leaf with purple colour flowers. which is the correct nirgundi.

    do both has the same medicinal uses.


  5. can vitex negundo and vites agnus be used interchangably or do they each have different indications? thank you

    • They are different. Vitex agnus castus is commonly used in treating pre-menstrual syndrome, female infertility, menopausal symptoms etc.

  6. मेरा युरिक एसिड 6.5 निकला है. मैं सिनदुआर(निरगुनडी)का काढ़ा पिता हु तब दर्द ठीक हो जाता है. लेकिन फिर हो जाता है. तो फिर किया निरगुडी युरिक एसिड नही घटाता है. सिर्फ गरम होने के कारण दर्द घटता है. कमर दर्द जकडन. एडी मे दर्द. धुटना में दर्द. उपचार बताए

    • Sirf Sinduvar se shayad uric acid kam nahi ho pata hai.
      Krupaya ek Ayurvedic doctor ko direct consult keejiye.

  7. Will it help in my hormonal pimples problem which happen just before my period starts. I have bought nirgundi kwath and shatavar

  8. It is useful. Apply it over both external wound andd anal opening.
    Do not mix with any other oil.
    Oregano oil can also be used similarly.

  9. It is useful to reduce pain. Its paste made with castor oil is applied locally to reduce pain.

  10. Dear Sir,

    for treatment of uric acid you can use homeopathic medicine “URTICA URENS Q”. This medicine is very useful. you can take 5-7 drops in luke worm water 3 times a day. please avoid protein rich items, like whole pulses, kabli chana, kidney beans, cheese, peas, peanut. do not use soya refined oil. or soya paneer or soyabeans. have patience it will take time to cure. once you will start taking the same within month you can see some result but you need to take until you get rid of the problem. tested medicine.

    • Dip the leaves in sesame oil or castor oil. Heat it over a Tava / pan for 2 – 3 minutes. apply the leaves over the painful swollen area – do this 2 – 3 times a day.


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