Rajata (Silver): Types, Shodhana, Marana, Qualities, Dosage

Rajata or Silver is a metal with bright shinning. In Ayurveda, it is mainly used in the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, hemiplegia, neuritis etc. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is malleable and ductile. According to mythology silver originated o of left eye tears faking  on earth,  out of anger from Lord Shiva.

Introduction

Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Latin : agrentum) and atomic number 47. It has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. 

The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free from (native silver ), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as  argentite and chlorargyrite.

Silver is widely used in topical gel and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial ctivity. The anti- microbial properties of silver stem fom the chemical properties of its ionized form, Ag+. This ion forms strong molecular bounds with other substances used by bacteria to respire, such as molecules containing sulfar, nitrogen, and oxygen. When the Ag + ion forms a complex with these molecules, they are rendered unusable by the bacteria, depriving them of necessary compounds and eventually leading to the bacteria’s death.

Atomic number47
Atomic Mass107.868200
Specific gravity10.4
Melting point959°C

Food, drinks in Silver Vessels

According to Acharya Sushruta –
peyā deyā ti rājate – That means juices, food and drinks should be stored in silver vessels. Silver vessels are generally coolant. Coolant fruit juices and drinks, being cooling, would get their properties enhanced by silver.
Parisuska (cooked meat) and Pradigdha (cooked meat soaked in milk) should be kept in  vessels of silver.
Read related: Qualities Of Water, Drinks and Foods Stored In Different Vessels

Synonyms

Ruchira, Roupya Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver, Tara, Rupyaka, Chandraloha, Chandrahasa, rupaka, Soudha, shudhraka, Chandrama.

Availability

Mexico, Norway, Australia New Zealand, Wales, India.

Ores of Silver are- Argentine (Ag2S), Chlorargyrite (AgCI) which includes horn silver, and pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3). The prinicipal sourses of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead- zinc.

Types

  1. Sahaja
  2. Khanjin
  3. Krutrima

Suitable characteristics

गुरु स्निग्धं मृदु श्वेतं दाह छेदे घन क्षमम् ।
स्वर्णादि रहितं अवच्छं तारं नव जुणं शुभम् ॥
guru snigdhaṃ mṛdu śvetaṃ dāha chede ghana kṣamam |
svarṇādi rahitaṃ avacchaṃ tāraṃ nava juṇaṃ śubham ||

Guru, unctuous, soft, white, upon subjecting  to heat or cutting, it should have firm & even surface, should be free from adultrants including Swarna Bhasma – Bhasma of Gold,and which is clear and fresh is good.

Unsuitable characteristics

कठिनं कृत्रिमं रुक्षं रक्तंपीतं दलं लघु ।
दाह छेद घनैर्नष्टं रुप्यं दुष्टं प्रकिर्तिम् ॥ (रसेन्द्र सार संग्रह)
kaṭhinaṃ kṛtrimaṃ rukṣaṃ raktaṃpītaṃ dalaṃ laghu |
dāha cheda ghanairnaṣṭaṃ rupyaṃ duṣṭaṃ prakirtim || (rasendra sāra saṃgraha)

Hardness , Artificial, dry, red, yellow colors, having many layers, light, loss while heating and cutting.

Harms of using unpurified Rajata

Decrease age, Veerya, Bala, Jwara, Vibandha etc.

Qualities of Rajata

Rasa – Herbal purified Mercury- Kashaya Amla – Indian gooseberry fruit – Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Madhura – sweet vipaka, Sheeta veerya, Snigdha (unctuous, oilyness), Saraka, Vayasthapana, Balaprasa, Ruchikara, Lekhana, Vatapittahara, useful in Bhrama, Unmada etc.

General Shodhana

तैले तक्रे गवां मूत्रे ह्यरनाले कुलत्थजे।
क्रमान्निषेचयेत्तमं द्रावे द्रावे तु  सप्तधा ॥
स्वर्णादिलोहपत्राणां शुद्धिरेषा प्रशस्यते । (र. र स ५/१३)
taile takre gavāṃ mūtre hyaranāle kulatthaje|
kramānniṣecayettamaṃ drāve drāve
tu  saptadhā ||
svarṇādilohapatrāṇāṃ śuddhireṣā praśasyate | (ra. ra sa 5/13)

Silver is made into thin sheets, heated in fire  till red hot and dipped in Taila – Sesame oil – Sesamum indicum – 768 ml (gingelly oil), Takra ( buttermilk), Gomutra – Cow urine, Kanji – Fermented gruel and Kulattha Kwatha (decoction of horsegram) for 7 times each.

Vishesha Shodhana

पत्रीकृतं तु रजतं ज्वलने प्रतप्तं निर्वापयेन्मुनितरोः स्वरसे त्रिवारम् ।
इत्थं विशुद्धममलं खलु चन्द्रलोहं संयोजयेन्मृतिविधौ भिषजां वरेण्यः ॥ (र.त.१६/६)
patrīkṛtaṃ tu rajataṃ jvalane prataptaṃ nirvāpayenmunitaroḥ svarase trivāram |
itthaṃ viśuddhamamalaṃ khalu candralohaṃ saṃyojayenmṛtividhau bhiṣajāṃ vareṇyaḥ || (ra.ta.16/6)

Special Shodhana – Special Shodhana is done by heating and dipping in Agasthya patra swarasa or Jyotishmati Swarasa.

Marana of Swarna

कण्टकवेढ्ये तारापत्रे लिप्त्वा द्विगुणाहिङ्गुलम् ।
पातयन्त्रे रसो ग्राह्यो चूर्णाभं रजतं भवेत् ॥
तच्चूर्णं कनकक्षीरी रसैर्मर्दयं दिनावधि ।
शतपत्रि पुष्परसैर्मर्दयेद् वा दिनावधि ॥
कृत्वा तु चक्रिकं शुष्कं दद्याल्लघुपुटं भिषक् ।
एकादश पुटैरेवं ताराभस्म प्रजायते ॥ (रसामृतं)
माक्षीकचूर्णलुङ्गाम्लमर्दितं पुटितं शनै:।
त्रिंशद्वारेण तत्तारं भस्मसाज्जयतेतराम् ॥(र.र.स. ५/३६)
भाव्यं ताप्यं स्नुहीक्षीरैस्तारत्राणि लेपयेत् ।
मारयेत्पुटयोगेन निरुत्थं जायये ध्रुवम् ॥(र.र. स ५/३७)
kaṇṭakaveḍhye tārāpatre liptvā dviguṇāhiṅgulam |
pātayantre raso grāhyo cūrṇābhaṃ rajataṃ bhavet ||
taccūrṇaṃ kanakakṣīrī rasairmardayaṃ dināvadhi |
śatapatri puṣparasairmardayed vā dināvadhi ||
kṛtvā tu cakrikaṃ śuṣkaṃ dadyāllaghupuṭaṃ bhiṣak |
ekādaśa puṭairevaṃ tārābhasma prajāyate || (rasāmṛtaṃ)
mākṣīkacūrṇaluṅgāmlamarditaṃ puṭitaṃ śanai:|
triṃśadvāreṇa tattāraṃ bhasmasājjayatetarām ||(ra.ra.sa. 5/36)
bhāvyaṃ tāpyaṃ snuhīkṣīraistāratrāṇi lepayet |
mārayetpuṭayogena nirutthaṃ jāyaye dhruvam ||(ra.ra. sa 5/37)

Marana

  1. Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver thin sheats are taken triturated with two parts of Shuddha Hingula – Purified and processed Cinnabar (Mercury compound) and power is prepared. It is taken in Urdhwapatana Yantra (Read more about Rasashastra Yantra Prakarana here) to obtain Purified and processed Mercury at the top and Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver Bhasma is obtained. Then it is trituraced with Satyanashi Swarasa, cakes are prepared, taken in Samputa and 30 Puta given to obtain best quality Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver.
  2. Shuddha Swarna Makshika Bhasma – Bhasma of Copper-Iron Pyrite is trituraed with Nimbu swarasa and this paste is applied over Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver sheet, taken in Sharava Samputa and 30 Puta heat is given.
  3. Swarna Makshika Bhasma – Bhasma of Copper-Iron Pyrite is given Bhavana with snuhi Ksheera – Cow milk – 3.072 liters for seven times. It is applied over leaves of Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver and 30 Putas are given to obtain Rajata Bhasma – Bhasma of Silver
    Read related: Rajat Bhasma – Benefits, Dosage, Ingredients, Side Effects

Dosage of Rajata

30 to 60 mg, three times a day

Formulations of Rajata

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