Svarna (Gold): Types, Qualities, Shodhana, Marana, Dosage

Swarna or Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (Latin: Aurum) and an atomic number of 79. It is used in the treatment of low digestion strength, dyspnea, cough, poisoning etc. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile pure metal known.

Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. Gold is a Nobel metal.

Atomic number79
Atomic weight196.966550
Specific gravity19.4
Hardness2.4
Melting point1063 C

According to the Rasashastra belief and practice, Gold can be prepared by artificial method.

Synonyms

Suvarna, Dravina, Hiranya, Kalyanaka, kanchana, Agnivarna, Manohara, Hema, Bhooshanarha, Agnibeeja, Kanaka, Kaunta, Bhrungara, Mangalyaka, Jambava, Jambunada, Bharma, Jataroopa, Champeyaka, Lohavara, Rukma, Chameekara, Agnibija, Hataka etc.

Availability

Africa, rassia, America, Germany, Brazul, Britain and India
Ores of Svarna – Native Gold, Caloverite, Silvenite

Types

According to Rasashashtra, Swarna is of five types –
1. Prakruta Swarna
2. Sahaja Svarna
3. Amisambhava Swarna
4. Khanija Swarna
5. Parada Vedhaja Swarna

Prakruta Swaarna

ब्रह्माण्डं संवृतं येन रजोगुणभुवा खलु ।
तत्प्राकृतमिति प्रोक्तं देवानामपि दुर्लभम् ॥ (र. र. स. ५/३)
brahmāṇḍaṃ saṃvṛtaṃ yena rajoguṇabhuvā khalu |
tatprākṛtamiti proktaṃ devānāmapi durlabham || (ra. ra. sa. 5/3)

Which covers the whole universe, from which Rajas quality is born, that type is called a Prakruta Swarna. It is the rarest.

Sahaja Svarna

ब्रह्मा येनाऽवृतो जातः सुवर्णेन जरायुणा ।
तन्मेरुरुपतां यातं सुवर्णं सहजं हि तत् ॥ (र. र. स. ५/४)
brahmā yenā’vṛto jātaḥ suvarṇena jarāyuṇā |
tanmerurupatāṃ yātaṃ suvarṇaṃ sahajaṃ hi tat || (ra. ra. sa. 5/4)

The types of swarna, that caused the origin of Lord Bhrama, whose extent is compared to the heights of Meru mountains, that is called as Sahaja Swarna.

Agnisambhava Swarna

विसृष्टमग्निना शैवं तेज: पीतं सुदु: सहम् ।
अभूत्सर्वं समुद्दिष्टं सुवर्णं वह्निसम्भवम् ॥ (र. र. स.५/५)
visṛṣṭamagninā śaivaṃ teja: pītaṃ sudu: saham |
abhūtsarvaṃ samuddiṣṭaṃ suvarṇaṃ vahnisambhavam || (ra. ra. sa.5/5)

The vomitus of Agni – Lead Wort (root) – Plumbago zeylanica, after drinking shivaveerya, it turned into the form of gold. So, the name Agnisambhava.

The above three varieties are rare, having divine origin.

Khanija Swarna

तत्र तत्र गिरीणां हि जातं खनिषु यद्भवेत् ।
तञ्चतुर्दशर्णाढ्यं भक्षितं सर्वेरोगहृत् ॥ (र. र. स. ५/७)
tatra tatra girīṇāṃ hi jātaṃ khaniṣu yadbhavet |
tañcaturdaśarṇāḍhyaṃ bhakṣitaṃ sarverogahṛt || (ra. ra. sa. 5/7)

Bhasma of Gold- this is the one which is obtained from the ores found in mountains, consumption of which leads to therapeutical benefits.

Parada Vedhaja Swarna

रसेन्द्रवेधसम्भूतं तद्वेधजमुदाहृतम् ।
रसायनं महाश्रेष्ठं पवित्रं वेधजं हि तत् ॥(र. र. स. ५/८)
rasendravedhasambhūtaṃ tadvedhajamudāhṛtam |
rasāyanaṃ mahāśreṣṭhaṃ pavitraṃ vedhajaṃ hi tat ||(ra. ra. sa. 5/8)

 This is type of Swarna is obtained from Parada – by means of Samskaras.

Suitable qualities of Swarna

दाहे रक्तं सितं छेदे निकषे कुंकुमप्रभम् ।
तरशुल्वोभूतं स्निग्धं कोमलं गुरु हेम सत् ॥ (रसेन्द्र मंगल )
dāhe raktaṃ sitaṃ chede nikaṣe kuṃkumaprabham |
taraśulvobhūtaṃ snigdhaṃ komalaṃ guru hema sat || (rasendra maṃgala)

The one which turns into red color on heating, looks to have white shade on cutting, upon rubbing on Kasauti, yields saffron color , which is devoid of adulteration with Copper and Silver, unctuous, soft and heavier than other metals is considered s best for therapeutic use.
Read related: Swarna Vacha Home Remedy For Immunity, Memory

Unsuitable qualities of Swarna

कटिनं लघु रुक्षञ्च  कषे च्छेदेऽनले सितम् ।
तारताम्रसमायुक्तं स्वर्णं हेयं स्मृतं बुधै: ॥ (र त १५/१३)
kaṭinaṃ laghu rukṣañca  kaṣe cchede ‘nale sitam |
tāratāmrasamāyuktaṃ svarṇaṃ heyaṃ smṛtaṃ budhai: || (ra ta 15/13)

Hard, light, dry, upon rubbing on Kasauit and upon heating, gives white colour, with adulteration of Silver and Copper, with adulteration of Silver and Copper is  considered as unsuitable.

Bad effects of unpurified Swarna – Unpurified Swarna may harm Buddhi, Strength and  health.

Ores  of Gold : Native Gold. Ores in which gold occurs in chemical compostion with other elements are comparatively rare. They include calaverite, Syvanite, Nagyaite , Petzite and Krennerite.

Qualities

Madhura – sweet,
Kashaya Rasa – astringent in taste,
Madhura vipaka – sweet – post-digestion change,
Sheeta veerya – cold in potency,
snighdha – unctuous,
laghu – light, Improves skin color,
Rasayana – rejuvenative, anti-aging ,
vrushya – Aphrodisiac,
improves memory,
useful in  –
Yakshama – consumption,
Unmada – insanity,
Tridosha disorders,
Visha – poison.
Read related: Swarna Bindu Prashana: Ayurvedic Immunization Method

Shodhana of Svarna

Samanya Shodhana

तैले तक्रे गवां मूत्रे ह्यरनाले कुलत्थजे।
क्रमान्निषेचयेत्तप्तं द्रावे द्रावे तु सप्तधा ॥
स्वर्णदिलोहपत्राणां शुद्धिरेषां प्रशस्यते । (र. र स ५/१३)
taile takre gavāṃ mūtre hyaranāle kulatthaje|
kramānniṣecayettaptaṃ drāve drāve tu saptadhā ||
svarṇadilohapatrāṇāṃ śuddhireṣāṃ praśasyate | (ra. ra sa 5/13)

General method of purification for all Lohas including Swarna –

The Lohas are made into thin sheets, heated in fire  till red hot and dipped in Taila – Sesame oil – Sesamum indicum – 768 ml (gingelly oil), Takra ( buttermilk), Gomutra – Cow urine, Kanji – Fermented gruel and Kulattha Kwatha (decoction of horsegram) for 7 times each.

Vishesha Shodhana

कर्षप्रमाणमं तु सुवर्णपत्रं शरावरुद्धं पटुधातुयुक्तम् ।
अङ्गारसंस्थं प्रहरार्धमानं ध्मातेन तत्स्यान्ननु पूर्णवर्णम् ॥ (र र स ५/१२)
karṣapramāṇamaṃ tu suvarṇapatraṃ śarāvaruddhaṃ paṭudhātuyuktam |
aṅgārasaṃsthaṃ praharārdhamānaṃ dhmātena tatsyānnanu pūrṇavarṇam || (ra ra sa 5/12)

Special Shodhana – Thin gold plate is smeared with a mixture of Saindhava and Gairika taken in Musha and heated till 1.5 hours. By this, Swarna gets specially purified.

Marana of Swarna

विशुद्धस्वर्णपत्राणि कर्षैकप्रमितानि च ।
समादाय समं सूतं दत्त्वा सोंमर्दयेद् दृढम् ॥
निम्बुद्रावेण सम्पेष्य  सम्यक् प्रच्छालयेत्ततः।
हिङ्गुलं गन्धकञ्चाथ शिलाञ्च नवसादरम् ॥
पृथक् पृथक् कर्षमितं निक्षिप्याम्लेन मर्दयेत् ।
संशोष्य चातपे सम्यक् श्लक्ष्णचूर्णञ्च कारयेत् ॥
पुटेत्तावत्प्रयत्नेन यावत्रिश्चन्द्रिकं भवेत् ।
इत्थं स्वल्पपुटैरेव काञ्चनं याति पञ्चताम् ॥(र. त. १५/४९- ५२)

कञ्चनारद्रावैर्मर्दयं तुलसी स्वरसैस्तथा ।
विधाय चक्रिकां शुष्कं ततो लघुपुटे पचेत् ॥
द्वितीयादि पुटे देयं मल्लं पादामितं बुधैः ।
अरुणाभं भवेद्भस्म हेम्नस्त दशभिः बुधैः ।(रसामृत लोह विज्ञानीय)

स्वर्णपत्राणि शुद्धानि समादाय भिशग्वरः।
कर्तर्या कर्तयेच्चाथ कणान् सूक्ष्मांस्तु कारयेत् ॥
सुवर्णतुल्यं रसं दत्त्वा खल्वे सम्मर्दयेद् दृढम् ।
निम्बूद्रावेण सम्मर्द्य बहुशः क्षालयेद्भिषक् ॥
कुनटी रससिन्दूरं स्वर्णतुल्यं विनिक्षिपेत् ।
सुवर्णपादिकञ्चैव मृतं कनकमाक्षिकम् ॥
रविदुग्धेन सम्पेष्य श्लक्ष्णचूर्णञ्च कारयेत् ।
पुटेत्तावद्विधानज्ञो यावन्निश्चन्द्रिकं भवेत् ॥
एवं स्वल्पपुटैरेव कनकं मृतिमाप्नुयात् ।
निश्चन्द्रिकञ्च मसृणं स्वर्णभस्म भवेच्छुभम् ॥
द्वितियादिपुटेष्वत्र मृतं कनकमाक्षिकम् ।
न निक्षिपेद्विधानज्ञो रहस्यमिदमीरितम् ॥(र.त.१५/५३- ५८)

viśuddhasvarṇapatrāṇi karṣaikapramitāni ca |
samādāya samaṃ sūtaṃ dattvā soṃmardayed dṛḍham ||
nimbudrāveṇa sampeṣya  samyak pracchālayettataḥ|
hiṅgulaṃ gandhakañcātha śilāñca navasādaram ||
pṛthak pṛthak karṣamitaṃ nikṣipyāmlena mardayet |
saṃśoṣya cātape samyak ślakṣṇacūrṇañca kārayet ||
puṭettāvatprayatnena yāvatriścandrikaṃ bhavet |
itthaṃ svalpapuṭaireva kāñcanaṃ yāti pañcatām ||(ra. ta. 15/49- 52)

kañcanāradrāvairmardayaṃ tulasī svarasaistathā |
vidhāya cakrikāṃ śuṣkaṃ tato laghupuṭe pacet ||
dvitīyādi puṭe deyaṃ mallaṃ pādāmitaṃ budhaiḥ |
aruṇābhaṃ bhavedbhasma hemnasta daśabhiḥ budhaiḥ |(rasāmṛta loha vijñānīya)

svarṇapatrāṇi śuddhāni samādāya bhiśagvaraḥ|
kartaryā kartayeccātha kaṇān sūkṣmāṃstu kārayet ||
suvarṇatulyaṃ rasaṃ dattvā khalve sammardayed dṛḍham |
nimbūdrāveṇa sammardya bahuśaḥ kṣālayedbhiṣak ||
kunaṭī rasasindūraṃ svarṇatulyaṃ vinikṣipet |
suvarṇapādikañcaiva mṛtaṃ kanakamākṣikam ||
ravidugdhena sampeṣya ślakṣṇacūrṇañca kārayet |
puṭettāvadvidhānajño yāvanniścandrikaṃ bhavet ||
evaṃ svalpapuṭaireva kanakaṃ mṛtimāpnuyāt |
niścandrikañca masṛṇaṃ svarṇabhasma bhavecchubham ||
dvitiyādipuṭeṣvatra mṛtaṃ kanakamākṣikam |
na nikṣipedvidhānajño rahasyamidamīritam ||(ra.ta.15/53- 58)

Swarna  Marana

  1. Shuddha Swarna  is triturated with equal parts of Shuddha Purified and processed Mercury and Kajjali – Purified Sulphur and Mercury are triturated to form Kajjali (black mixture, devoid of shining) is prepared. This mixture is triturated with Nimbu swarasa and washed thoroughly with water. This Kajjali – Purified Sulphur and Mercury are triturated to form Kajjali (black mixture, devoid of shining) is added with one  part of  each of Shuddha Hingula – Purified and processed Cinnabar (Mercury compound), Shuddha Gandhaka – Purified and processed Sulphur,  Suddha Manashila – Purified and processed Realgar (Arsenic di sulphide) and Shuddha Navasadara. The mass is triturated with Nimbu swarasa. The mass turns into powder. It is taken in a Samputa and 4-5 Laghuputa heat is given to obtain Swarna Bhasma .
  2. Shuddha Swarna Bhasma – Bhasma of Gold powder is added with equal part of Shuddha Purified and processed Mercury and given Bhavan with Kanchanara – Bauhinia variegata Swarasa and Rose water  for 7  times each, cakes (Chakrikas) are prepared, taken in Samputas and 10 Laghuputa heat is given to obtain Swarna Bhasma .
  3. Shuddha Swarna Bhasma – Bhasma of Gold powder is added with equal  parts of Shuddha Purified and processed Mercury and triturated with Numbu Swarasa, Washed with water. It is added with equal parts of Shuddha Manashila – Purified and processed Realgar (Arsenic di sulphide) & Rasasindhura – A compound of Purified Mercury and Sulphur and 1/4th  part of Swarnamakshika Bhasma. This mass is given Bhavan awith Satyanashi Swarasa, Chakrikas are prepared and 10 laghuputa heat is given to obtain  swaranabhasma.

Marana of Swarna etc. metals

लोहानां मारणं श्रेष्ठं सर्वेषां रस भस्मना।
मुलिभिर्मध्यमं प्राहु: कनिष्ठ गन्धकादिभिः ॥
अरिलोहेन लोहस्य मारणं दुर्गुणप्रदम् ।(र.र.स ५/२४)
lohānāṃ māraṇaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ sarveṣāṃ rasa bhasmanā|
mulibhirmadhyamaṃ prāhu: kaniṣṭha gandhakādibhiḥ ||
arilohena lohasya māraṇaṃ durguṇapradam |(ra.ra.sa 5/24)

Loha Marana – The Marana of all Lohas with Purified and processed Mercury is considered as Shreshta. Marana done with herbs is inferior, Marana done with substances like Gandhaka (Purified and processed Sulphur) is still inferior and Marana done with Shatru ( Enemies) of Dhatus may cause harmful effects.
Read related: Swarna Bhasma Benefits, Dosage, Ingredients, Side Effects

Dosage of Swarna

30 to 120 mg

Formulations of Swarna


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