By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Disease is formed with involvement of vitiated doshas. Therefore doshas and diseases are related by cause and effect relationship.
Doshas which cause diseases form karana i.e. ‘cause’
and disease which is formed by vitiated doshas form karya i.e. ‘effect’ in relationship.
Read – Role of Doshas In the Causation of Disease
Since diseases are formed by vitiated doshas, dosha symptoms are found in disease. This happens due to pathological variations and fluctuations happening in the qualities of doshas.
When there is pitta vitiation due to increase in hot quality of pitta, pitta disorder which eventually occurs presents with rise in heat at the level of body, mind and senses.
This presentation can be seen in fever. Here, vitiated pitta is the cause and fever is the effect. We can also tell that raised heat in fever is due to increased hot quality of pitta, rather displacement of heat from stomach to the periphery according to Ayurveda.
Read – Amshamsha Kalpana – Fractional Understanding Of Qualities Of Doshas In Disease
Ayurvedic masters have enlisted qualities of each dosha for better understanding of their involvement in causation of varied presentations of a disease and its sub-types.
Some diseases are in accordance to the doshas involved i.e. according to the causes and some diseases are formed in a way which is not in accordance to doshas involved in their causation.
First instance is called Prakriti Sama Samavaya and second instance is called Vikriti Vishama Samavaya.
These are two different presentations of a disease and can be understood by the study of doshas in terms of their qualities.
Read – Atma Rupas of Doshas – Cardinal Symptoms Of Doshas In Diseases
Prakriti sama samavaya and Vikriti vishama samavaya presentation of diseases as related with doshas
Prakriti Sama Samavaya
Prakriti Sama Samavaya
If symptoms of a disease are similar to the symptoms of disease-causing-dosha, it is called as prakriti sama samavaya.
Here effect i.e. disease is in accordance to its cause i.e. vitiated doshas.
Samavaya means collection.
Disease is the collection of various symptoms. If this collection of symptoms is formed in accordance to the permutation and combination of qualities of causative dosha, it is called prakriti sama samavaya.
Any disease may be caused by the vitiation of one, two or all three doshas. In this form of diseases caused by prakriti sama samavaya pathology, symptoms of each dosha are specifically and distinctly seen and identified.
Read – Main Cause For Diseases As Per Ayurveda
Diseases formed by dual and triple combination of vitiated doshas can be readily identified by the knowledge of qualities of doshas. Therefore we do not find detailed explanation of symptoms of diseases caused due to involvement of dual or triple vitiated doshas. They are just mentioned among sub-types of a given disease.
Symptoms can be known through inference on basis of knowledge of dosha qualities.
When a disease is caused by dual vitiation of vata and pitta, presence of pain and burning sensation will enable us to know involvement of vitiated vata and pitta in causation of disease.
If a joint pain is caused by the vitiated vata and pitta, there will be pain due to vata and burning sensation due to pitta. Thus disease symptoms are in accordance to the dosha symptoms.
On other hand, when we see pain and burning sensation in a disease, we infer that condition is caused due to dual vitiation of vata and pitta.
Read – Classification of Vyadhi (diseases) according to Ayurveda
Vikriti Vishama Samavaya
If symptoms of a disease are dissimilar to the symptoms of dosha causing that disease, it is called as vikriti vishama samavaya.
Here effect i.e. disease is not in accordance to its cause i.e. vitiated doshas.
Example – when we mix turmeric and white colors, we should get either yellowish white or whitish yellow color in accordance to the involved colors participating in combination, but we do not get either colors. In fact we get red color. Here effect i.e. final color formed is not in accordance to causes i.e. initial colors participating in combination.
Read – Ayurvedic Principles Of Naming Disease: Vyadhi Namakarana Siddhanta
Clinical example for Vikriti Vishama Samavaya:
In case of Vata aggravation, if Chala guna – movement quality of Vata Dosha is increased, then it may lead to diarrhea. In this case, diarrhea appears to be Prakriti Sama Samavaya symptom of Vata Dosha.
But, in some instances, blockage of large intestine which leads to constipation is also considered as a Vata aggravation disorder. In this case, constipation can be considered as a Vikriti vishama samavaya symptom of Vata Dosha.
When we apply this rule to diseases, especially diseases formed due to vitiation of two doshas, symptoms of causative doshas are not distinctly identified after formation of disease.
Thus, in the form of diseases caused by vikriti vishama samavaya pathology, symptoms of each dosha are not specifically identified since disease symptoms and those of causative doshas will be contrasting.
Therefore we find detailed explanation of symptoms of such diseases caused due to involvement of dual or triple vitiated doshas combined in vikriti vishama pathology.
Explanation of these disease symptoms is necessary because we cannot understand disease symptoms on basis of symptoms of causative doshas involved.
Read – Qualities Of Vata, Pitta and Kapha Dosha – Easy Explanation
Symptoms of vikriti vishama samavaya cannot be known through inference on basis of knowledge of dosha qualities because symptoms of causative doshas and symptoms of disease which manifests as an effect are entirely different.
Examples for Vikriti Vishama Samavaya type of pathology:
The best way to understand the strange
behavior of vikriti vishama samavaya type of pathology is by looking at the
diseases in which 2 or 3 Doshas are involved.
Ex 1 – Increased thirst, fainting, giddiness, burning sensation, loss of sleep, headache, dryness of mouth and throat, vomiting, goosebumps, anorexia, darkness before eyes, pain in small joints of hand and yawn are the symptoms of fever caused by vata and pitta.
Ex 2 –Sannipataja jwara i.e. fever caused due to vitiation of all three doshas. One interesting symptom is – feeling of burning sensation at one moment and feeling of coldness in the other. Here we can see the unpredictable nature of symptoms and quick fluctuation between burning sensation and coldness. This happens due to strangeness in combination of doshas. The fluctuations of doshas are also unpredictable. Other symptoms include pain in bones, joints and head, tears in the eyes, sounds in the ears, earache, sleepiness, unconsciousness, delirium, dyspnea, cough, tastelessness, giddiness, laxity of body parts etc.
Raised heat in body or particular areas of
the body, burning sensation etc symptoms suggestive of pitta increase. But
their symptoms are aggravated on consumption of cold things, sweet and exposure
to cold air of fan or cooler. These should actually decrease pitta but they
aggravate pitta and worsen pitta symptoms. To make understanding even
complicated, these people feel better with consumption of coffee or hot water,
even a hot water bath. If these cases are not due to
Avarana i.e. pathological condition wherein the vata functions are blocked or
Ashayapakarsha i.e. displacement of doshas by vata, they are definitely caused due to vikriti vishama samavaya.
Some cases of avarana and ashayapakarsha have seen to show the behavior and presentation similar to vikriti vishama samavaya.