Samprapti Vighatana – Breaking Of Pathogenesis Meaning, Importance

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD(Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Samprapti is a term which explains a series of events which ultimately leads to the formation of a disease in the body. It includes all the pathological responses and changes which occur in the body after a person gets exposed to or consumes Nidanas i.e. etiological factors of a disease to the complete manifestation of the disease. 

In modern day language we equate it to a term called ‘pathogenesis’ which means birth of a disease or mechanism which leads to a diseased state.

The Nidanas (causative factors) lead to disturbance of doshas in the body. The vitiated doshas circulate all through the body and contaminate the body tissues leading to a pathological admixture of doshas and tissues and waste products. This damages the tissues and waste products and cause the disease (vyadhi or roga) in that tissue or the organ.

Related Reading – Samprapti

Vighatana means to break or to abort.
Samprapti Vighatana means breaking the disease process, bringing the pathogenesis to a halt, making it weak enough to progress towards the formation of disease.

Samprapti Vighatana

According to Ayurveda, the disease develops in step ladder pattern which involves 6 different stages. These stages in which the disease forms are called ‘Kriya Kala’ or ‘Shat Kriya Kala’.
Related Reading – Kriya Kala – six stages of disease manifestation

In disease treatment

Samprapti Vighatana is Chikitsa or Treatment for a given disease
Breaking the pathogenesis is nothing but bringing a halt to the progression of disease process and ultimately aborting the formation of disease.

If pathogenesis has been completed and the disease is formed, the complex pathological admixture of morbid doshas and susceptible tissues (dosha dushya sammurchana) is broken by administration of suitable medicines, therapies, diet and lifestyle corrections so as to destroy or to take the doshas under control.

Later the doshas are flushed back from the tissues and organs into the gut from where they are removed through effective administration of cleansing treatments of Panchakarma, mainly emesis (Vamana) and purgation (Virechana).

The other types of Panchakarma cleansing treatments i.e. medicated enemas (Vasti), nasal medication (Nasya) and bloodletting (Raktamokshana) can also be administered as and when required.

Thus, breaking the Samprapti or the dosha-dushya-sammurchana is nothing but effective treatment.

Samprapti Vighatana can be considered in two stages of diseases i.e. during the first three stages of pathogenesis when only doshas are vitiated (dosha kriya kala) and in the final three stages of pathogenesis when the disease formation takes place (vyadhi kriya kala).

In Dosha Kriya Kala

Samprapti Vighatana in Dosha Kriya Kala
Sanchaya (stage of accumulation of doshas in their own seats),
Prakopa (stage of aggravation of doshas in their own seats) and
Prasara (stage of spread of doshas) are the dosha kriya kalas because during these stages of pathogenesis only dosha vitiation and spread take place. Symptoms of dosha aggravation are manifested but disease is not formed.

Here, the pathogenesis of disease is weak. Therefore the pathogenesis breakdown (samprapti vighatan) can be done easily. When samprapti vighatana is done in dosha kriya kala, the pathogenesis doesn’t progress to vyadhi kriya kala and hence the disease is not manifested. The samprapti of the disease can be halted by administration of dosha pratyanika chikitsa or dosha specific treatment in this condition.
Read related: Amshamsha Kalpana – Fractional Understanding Of Qualities Of Doshas In Disease

In Vyadhi Kriya Kala

Samprapti Vighatan in Vyadhi Kriya Kala
Sthana Samshraya (stage of lodgment of doshas in the tissues),
Vyakta (stage of manifestation of diseases along with its signs and symptoms) and
Bheda (stage of formation of complications) are the vyadhi kriya kalas because during the pathogenesis of these stages, the disease is formed with its signs and symptoms and in later conditions it presents complications.

In contrast to the Dosha Kriya Kala, the samprapti is stronger in this vyadhi kriya kala. Since the disease with symptoms or complications is formed, the vyadhi kriya kala is difficult to treat in comparison to the dosha kriya kala, i.e. the samprapti vighatana is difficult in vyadhi kriya kala.

When Samprapti Vightan is done in sthana samshraya stage, the disease is not formed since the disease doesn’t progress to vyakta stage.

Similarly when the samprapti vighatana or chikitsa is done in vyakta stage, the disease doesn’t progress to the bheda stage and thus complications are not formed.

Vyadhi Pratyanika Chikitsa or disease specific treatment is needed to address the disease and to induce samprapti vighatana in vyadhi kriya kala. Cleansing treatments or Panchakarma treatments, disease modifying medicines (aushadha), immune-modulators (rasayana), and good diet (pathya) will be needed to treat the disease in this condition.

Just Before Finishing –
In this article we have explained in detail about treating the diseases comprehensively by breaking the samprapti of a disease i.e. Samprapti Vighatana. The knowledge of samprapti vighatana is very essential for a physician if he needs to succeed in his clinical practice and also to provide cure to the ailing patients.
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