Sudarshan: Crinum latifolium, Uses, Research, Medicine

Sudarshana- Crinum latifolium is a plant mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of fever, swelling, case of poisoning and skin disease. 

Latin name- Crinum latifolium Linn.
Family- Amaryllidaceae

Vernacular names

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Sudarshan, Chindar, Kanmu, Kunwal, Pindar, Kanwar, Barakanwar,
English name – Milk and Wine Lily, pink-striped trumpet lily, wide-leaved pink-striped trumpet lily
Bengali name- Sukhadarshana, Barakanur, Bada Kanod, Gaerhonar Patta, Nagdaun.
Gujarati name- Nagadamani, Nagrikanda
Kannada name- Sudarshana, Visha Biduru, Visha Mungali, Visha Mandala,
Malayalam name- Pulattali, Belutta-Polataali, Velutta, Polataali, Kantenna, Vishamula.
Marathi name- Nagdaun, Gadambi kanda
Tamil name- Visha Pungil, Visha Mungil, Perumanarivingaayam, Tudevaachi, Vishamungali.
Telugu name- Kesara Chettu, Vishamugali
Urdu name- Nagadaman,Nagdauna
Arabic name – Haliyon.
Burmese name – Koyang
Ceylon name – Visha mungil.
Chinese name – Quen Chou Lan
Konkani name – Kirathi Maari 

Sanskrit Synonyms

Bala Mota, Bala: The one which gives strength
Chakrahwa: The arrangement of leaf is in charka manner.
Durdarshana: Bulb emits bad smell on crushing.
Jambhati: Grown in Jambhava desha.
Jambu: Bulb resembles Jambhu phala
Kandali: As it possesses bulb.
Medhi: Good for brain.
Meshaka: Eaten by goats.
Naagadhamani: Leaves resemble hood of the snake.
Rakta pushpi: Sometimes flowers are having reddish sting.
Ratna maala: Beautiful flowers.
Viphala: Acts against poison.
Visha mandala: Acts against poison.
Vritta pushpa: The flowers are in vrittakara

Morphology

Morphology of Crinum latifolium:
It is a small plant growing to a height of 2-3 feet. The leaves are big, growing to a length of 2-4 feet and 3-4 inch wide. The leaves emerge from the rhizome and resembles like emerging from the ground. The flowering stems are stout, reaching about 2 m in height. The flowers have white color and pinkish tinge, emerge from the middle stalk and arranged in an umbel. The fruits are round, 2-2.5 inch in diameter having 10-12 seeds inside. The plant is found all over India in the temperate climate especially Central India.

Properties, part used, dosage

Sudarshan medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet), Tikta (Bitter),
Guna (Qualities) – Ruksha (Dry), Teekshna (Pungent)
Vipaka – Madhura (Undergoes sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)

Part used- Leaf, Rhizome
Dosage-
Rhizome powder- 1 to 3 g
Leaf juice- 5 to 10 ml

Chemical composition

Chemical composition of Crinum latifolium:
The rhizome of the plant contains Glucans A & B, Alkoloids-zeylamine crinofoline, crinofolidine, tazetine, flexinine, harmenthamine, ambelline, galanthamine. The leaves contain alkaloids Latifine, Cherilline, 3-o-acetalamine, crinomine and crinine.

Uses, Sanskrit verse

Uses of Sudarshana:

  • The paste of the leaves of Sudarshana is applied over the skin surface having eczema and fungal infections.
  • Fresh juice of the leaves of Crinum latifolium is given in a dose of 10 ml to induce purgation and vomiting in cases of adverse effect of poisoning.
  • The powder of the rhizome of Sudarshana is given in a dose of 2-3 g with honey or hot water in case of fever and joint pain.
  • The leaves of the plant is slightly heated and tied around joints having pain and swelling.
  • Fresh juice of the leaf is slightly heated and poured as drops to treat earache and discharge from the ear.
  • The rhizome of Crinum latifolium is crushed, slightly heated and applied over the external pile mass to relieve the pain and swelling.
  • In conditions of pustules, the paste of the leaf of Sudarshana is applied over it.

Uses in other systems
Siddha: Leaf / fresh rhizome- used in carbuncle, dropsy, ear disorders, diaphoretic, emetic
Unani – seeds used in forunculosis

Folk medicine

In lakhimpur: The leaves are applied to skin diseases (CARTAR)
The leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil use ful in whitlows and local inflammation.
In Java: Leaf is used as emetic

Side effects

Increased dose of juice of the leaf can cause purgation and vomiting along with abdominal cramps.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Ayurvedic medicines

Medicines containing Sudarshana:

A-3 forte capsule: It is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine which is used for the treatment for fever, body pain, immunity deficiency disorder etc.

Sudarshana choorna: It is a medicine in powder form used for the treatment of fever originating from the vitiation of all types of dosha.

Research

Research articles related to Crinum latifolium:
Anti- oxidant action: In this study, we demonstrate potent in vitro antioxidant activity of an aqueous Crinum latifolium extract by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of 1610 ± 150 μmol Trolox equivalents/g. Furthermore, significant anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were shown by its potential to suppress indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediated tryptophan degradation in unstimulated- and mitogen-stimulated PBMC at IC50 doses of 241 ± 57 μg/ml and 92 ± 20 μg/ml, respectively.

Anti- microbial action: Antimicrobial potential of crude methanolic extracts of C. latifolium was accomplished by most commonly used disc diffusion method against a wide range of Gram positive (+ve) and Gram negative(-ve) bacteria. Extracts showed slight antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (+ve) bacteria while surprisingly showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (-ve) bacteria Escherichia coli.

Anthelmintic action: Anthelmintic activity was assessed applying five different concentrations of the plant extract and recording the time of paralysis and death. The lowest time for paralysis and death of worms, for test sample at highest concentration (50mg/ml), were found 24±0.45 and 46.4±0.60min respectively, which gradually increased with the decrease of concentration. On the other hand, albendazole, which was used as standard, caused paralysis and death of worms at 56.2±0.20 min and 77.4±0.24min respectively; whereas no mortality of the worms was observed, when distilled water was used as control.

Classical categorization

Bhavaprakasha- Guduchyadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Nighantu Adarsha – Musali kandadi varga
Ayurveda Dravyaguna vignana – Talamulyadi varga
Brihat Dravya guna adarsha – Krishna mushalyadi gana
Shaligrama Nighantu – Guduchaydi varga

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Amaryllidoideae
Genus: Crinum
Species: C. latifolium

Word derivation of Sudarshana:
“Sudrushya”
“sukhena drishyate asro iti”!
shobhanam darshanamyasya iti va!
The word meaning of sudarshana is = the one which is good to look. Means that plant is very beautiful &pleasing to look at.

Habitat

India, Srilanka, Java, Burma, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malasia, Philipines Island.
In India: Tropical India, Lakhmi pur, Orissa, Chota Nagpur, Bengal, Deccan, Central India, Madhyapradesh.


India, Srilanka, Java, Burma, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malasia, Philipines Island.
In India: Tropical India, Lakhmi pur, Orissa, Chota Nagpur, Bengal, Deccan, Central India, Madhyapradesh.

Therapeutical uses

External uses:
Patra Swarasa used as ear drops for ear infection.
And other ear disorders
Patra Swedana :     Sandhi vaata
Amavaata
Shota
Vedana praddhana vikaras
Kalka of kanda:       Heated and used in arsha peeda shanthi
Vidradhi paachana
Patra :  Used as prabhala jantughna
Patra dhooma:  Krimi naashaka  Like mosquitoes
Patra swarasa siddha tila: Used in charma rogas

Oral use:
Paachana samsthana: It is ubhayato bhaga hara,used in visha etc, stages of samshodhana.
Rasa vaha samsthana: Shotha
Twacha: Kustha And Anya rakta vikaras
Taapa karma: Jwara

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: [email protected]
Click to consult Dr Prashanth BK

Home remedies

Sudarshan Crinum latifolium Remedies: Joint Pain, Asthma, Eczema
By Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD(Ayu) PhD.
The plants are found most parts of India and other Asian sub continents.
The leaves of the plant and tubers are used in therapeutics.

The leaves are sweetish astringent in taste and hot in potency. It under goes pungent kind of bio transformation and it is appreciated in the conditions like phlegm, cough, edema, gouty arthritis etc.
Other varieties which are substituted to this plant are Crinum asiaticum Linn and
Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl. They do possesses similar actions, properties and uses but in lesser extent.

Few of its simple and effective folklore uses and simple remedies are elaborated here below-

Chest congestion

1. Tuber juice with honey or palm jaggery for phlegm and chest congestion:
The fresh tubers are collected and on pounding juice is obtained. This is mixed with honey or palm jaggery and asked to lick with the patients. This relieves nasal congestion, chest congestion, phlegm etc. Patients of cough and asthma are also benefited by this.
Read related: Chronic Asthma Causes, Diet, Natural Remedies

Joint pain

2. Steam therapy with the leaf for joint pains:
Matured large leaves are taken and sesame or any other analgesic oil is applied to both the surfaces of the leaves. This is warmed a little and tied around the joints. This is effective in Osteo- arthritis cases.
Read related: Psoriatic Arthritis: Ayurveda Treatment, Clinical Experience

Gouty arthritis

3. Fine paste of the whole plant for gouty arthritis:
Whole plant is taken and crushed well to obtain the fine paste. To this little lime juice or tamarind leaves are also added, if necessary. This is warmed a little and applied over the affected joints. This is beneficial in the patients who are suffering from gouty arthritis.

Eczema

4. Leaf or tuber oil for eczema:
The leaves or tuber is made into fine paste and oil is cooked by taking sesame oil or coconut oil (slight turmeric powder may be added). This oil is applied over the skin lesions like Dhobi itch, eczema etc. It has significant benefits in these conditions. Itching is relieved immediately.
Read Eczema: Causes, Ayurvedic Treatment, Medicines, Home Remedies

Even though drugs like Sudarshana are used abundantly by the folk healers care must be taken as the over usage may cause vomiting or giddiness. Also people very often confuse the drug with any other tubers of the hilly area which may be poisonous or dangerous to the health. Much care and caution and proper identification are very essential while collecting and processing such drugs. Or else unknown medicine may cause danger or emergency conditions.
Click to consult Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD (Ayu), PhD (Ayu)

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