This chapter deals with the detailed procedure and administration of Snehana, i.e., treatment by drinking medicated fats. Fats are usually administered before performing Panchakarma procedures mainly Vamana (emesis) and Virechana (purgation).
Pledge by the author(s)
अथातः स्नेहविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः।
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः।(गद्यसूत्रे॥२॥)
athātaḥ snehavidhimadhyāyaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|
iti ha smāhurātreyādayo maharṣayaḥ|(gadyasūtre||2||)
अथातः स्नेहविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः – athātaḥ snehavidhimadhyāyaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ – after having offered prayers to the God, henceforth we are going to explain the chapter pertaining to the explanation of oleation therapy
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः – iti ha smāhurātreyādayo maharṣayaḥ – thus pledge Atreya and other sages.
Atreya and other sages pledge that after Shodhanadigana sangraham Adhyayam i.e. the chapter expounding group of herbs used in Panchakarma, they would henceforth be explaining the chapter called Snehavidhi Adhyayam, i.e. chapter explaining the oleation therapy in detail.
Table of Contents
Shloka Recitation Video
Snehana Dravya Guna
AH Su 16.1
Qualities of oils and fats –
औषधं स्नेहनं प्रायो, विपरीतं विरूक्षणम्॥१॥
auṣadhaṃ snehanaṃ prāyo, viparītaṃ virūkṣaṇam||1||
औषधं स्नेहनं प्रायो – auṣadhaṃ snehanaṃ prāyo – the medicines used for oleation therapy generally have the below mentioned qualities –
गुरु – guru – heavy
शीत – śīta – cold
सर – sara – easily moving, mobility, spreading, flowing,
स्निग्ध – snigdha – unctuous, oily,
मन्द – manda – mild,
सूक्ष्म – sūkṣma – minute,
मृदु – mṛdu – soft,
द्रवम् – dravam – liquid,
विरूक्षणम् विपरीतं – virūkṣaṇam viparītaṃ– the medicines used for imparting dryness to the body rookshana are of opposite qualities of those mentioned above
Qualities of oil and fats – Snehana Dravya Guna –
The Snehana substances – used for oleation therapy have the following qualities –
Guru – heaviness
Sheeta – cold
Sara – easily moving, mobility, spreading
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Manda – mild,
Sookshma – minute
Mrudu – soft
Dravam – liquid
The substances used for imparting dryness to the body (Rookshana) are of opposite qualities to the above-mentioned.
AH Su 16.2-3a ½
Oleating substances (Sneha Dravya)
सर्पिर्मज्जा वसा तैलं स्नेहेषु प्रवरं मतम्।
तत्रापि चोत्तमं सर्पिः संस्कारस्यानुवर्तनात्॥२॥
माधुर्यादविदाहित्त्वाज्जन्माद्येव च शीलनात्।
sarpirmajjā vasā tailaṃ sneheṣu pravaraṃ matam|
tatrāpi cottamaṃ sarpiḥ saṃskārasyānuvartanāt||2||
mādhuryādavidāhittvājjanmādyeva ca śīlanāt|
सर्पि: मज्जा वसा तैलं प्रवरं मतम् स्नेहेषु – sarpiḥ majjā vasā tailaṃ pravaraṃ matam sneheṣu –
Ghee, clarified butter (sarpi),
bone marrow (majja),
muscle fat (vasa) and
oil (taila) are considered as the best among the oleating substances,
तत्रापि सर्पिः चोत्तमं – tatrāpi sarpiḥ cottamaṃ – even among these, ghee is considered as the best (best sneha) because
संस्कारस्यानुवर्तनात् – saṃskārasyānuvartanāt – ghrita (ghee) follows (anu) the method of processing (samskara) i.e. when ghee is processed with cold potency herbs, it acquires cold potency and when it is processed with hot potency herbs, it acquires hot potency, both without losing its own qualities.
माधुर्यात् – mādhuryāt – becauseghee is sweet in taste,
अविदाहित्त्वात् – avidāhittvāt – becauseghee does not cause burning sensation and
शीलनात् च जन्माद्येव – śīlanāt ca janmādyeva– ghee is congenial to the body since birth.
Oleating substances – Sneha Dravyah –
Sarpi (ghee, clarified butter),
Majja (bone marrow),
Vasa – muscle fat and
Taila (oil) – are considered best among oleating substances;
Among these, Ghee is the best. Because,
Madhura – sweet in taste
Avidahi – it does not cause burning sensation
Janmadyeva sheelanat – it is congenial to the body since birth.
AH Su 16.3b
Comparison of dosha balancing effect of various oleating substances (sneha dravya)
पित्तघ्नास्ते यथापूर्वमितरघ्ना यथोत्तरम्॥३॥
pittaghnāste yathāpūrvamitaraghnā yathottaram||3||
यथापूर्वम् ते पित्तघ्ना: – yathāpūrvam te pittaghnāh – in the reverse order, they (oleating substances) are superior to each other in pitta balancing.
यथोत्तरम् इतरघ्ना – yathottaram itaraghnā – in the chronological order, they (oleating substances) are successively superior in balancing the other doshas (vata and kapha).
If we consider ghee, bone marrow, muscle fat and oil as the oleating substances mentioned in chronological order,
i) In their reverse order they are superior in pitta balancing. Thus when it comes to pitta balancing, oil is the inferior one and ghee is the superior one. Muscle fat is better than oil, bone marrow is better than muscle fat (and oil) and ghee is superior to bone marrow (muscle fat and oil) in mitigating pitta.
ii) In the mentioned chronological order they are successively superior to each other in balancing or mitigating vata and kapha.
Thus ghee is inferior in mitigating vata and kapha whereas oil is superior in balancing vata and kapha.
Thus when it comes to vata and kapha balancing, bone marrow is superior to ghee, muscle fat is superior to bone marrow (and ghee) and oil is superior to muscle fat (bone marrow and ghee) in mitigating vata and kapha.
AH Su 16.4a
Comparison of qualities in terms of lightness and heaviness of various oleating substances
घृतात्तैलं गुरु वसा तैलान्मज्जा ततोऽपि च।
ghṛtāttailaṃ guru vasā tailānmajjā tato’pi ca|
घृतात्तैलं गुरु – ghṛtāttailaṃ guru – In comparison to ghee, the oil is heavy (hard to digest)
वसा तैलान्मज्जा ततोऽपि च – vasā tailānmajjā tato’pi ca – the muscle fat is heavier than the oil and the bone marrow is heavier than the muscle fat (and all other oleating substance).
In comparison to ghee, the oil is heavy (hard to digest), the muscle fat is heavier than the oil and the bone marrow is heavier than the muscle fat (and all other oleating substance).
Notes: Ghee is the lightest among the four oleating substances i.e. light to digest. Bone marrow is the heaviest to digest. Thus, ghee being lighter to digest, oil, muscle fat and bone marrow are heavier to digest in that order in comparison to ghee.
AH Su 16.4b
Combination of the 4 oleating substances in twos, threes and fours
द्वाभ्यां त्रिभिश्चतुर्भिस्तैर्यमकस्त्रिवृतो महान्॥४॥
dvābhyāṃ tribhiścaturbhistairyamakastrivṛto mahān||4||
तै द्वाभ्यां त्रिभिश्चतुर्भि – tair dvābhyāṃ tribhiścaturbhis – among them, the combination of two, three and four oleating substances
यमक: त्रिवृतो महान् – yamakas trivṛto mahān – are called yamaka, trivrit and mahasneha respectively.
Mixture of two oleating substances is called as Yamaka.
Mixture of three is called as Trivrit and
All four combined is called as Mahasneha.
- The combination (mixture) of two oleating substances is called Yamaka.
- The combination of three oleating substances is called Trivrit.
- The combination of all four oleating substances is called Mahaan sneha.
Snehana yogya (Person suitable for oleation)
AH Su 16.5-6a
Persons suitable for oleation (snehyah)
वृद्धबालाबलकृशा रूक्षाः क्षीणास्ररेतसः॥५॥
vṛddhabālābalakṛśā rūkṣāḥ kṣīṇāsraretasaḥ||5||
स्नेह्याः – snehyāḥ – people who are eligible to undergo oleation therapy are –
स्वेद्य – svedya – those whoare about to be administered with sudation therapy
संशोध्य – saṃśodhya – those whoare about to be administered with purification therapies (panchakarma)
मद्य स्त्री व्यायामासक्त – madya strī vyāyāmāsakta – those who are habituated to indulge excessively in alcohol (wine), women (sex) and exercise
चिन्तकाः – cintakāḥ – those who think too much (brainy activities)
वृद्ध – vṛddha – old aged people
बाला – bālā – children
अबल – abala – debilitated people
कृशा – kṛśā – emaciated people
रूक्षाः – rūkṣāḥ – those who have developed excessive dryness in the body
क्षीणास्र – kṣīṇāsra – those suffering from depletion of blood (blood loss)
क्षीण रेतसः – kṣīṇa retasaḥ – those suffering from depletion of semen
वातार्त – vātārta – those suffering from diseases caused by vitiated vata
स्यन्द – syanda – those suffering from conjunctivitis
तिमिर – timira – those suffering from ophthalmia, blindness
दारुणप्रतिबोधिनः – dāruṇapratibodhinaḥ – those suffering from difficulty in opening their eyes
Snehyah – persons suitable for oleation :-
People who require Snehana therapy are –
Svedya, Samshodhya – Those who are to be administered sudation and purification therapies,
Madya Stree, Vyayama asakta – who indulge more in wine, women and exercise;
Chintaka – who think too much,
Vruddha – the aged,
Bala – the children,
Abala – the debilitated,
Krusha – the emaciated, fatigue;
Ruksha – who are dry,
Ksheena asra retas – Depleted blood and semen,
Vatarta – who are suffering from diseases of Vata,
Timira – ophthalmia, blindness,
Who suffer from chronic disorder.
Snehana ayogya (Person unsuitable for oleation)
AH Su 16.6b-8a
Persons unsuitable for oleation (asnehyah)
अपप्रसूता युक्ते च नस्ये बस्तौ विरेचने।
apaprasūtā yukte ca nasye bastau virecane|
न तु पीडिता: – na tu pīḍitā: – oleation therapy should not be administered to those suffering from below mentioned conditions –
अतिमन्दाग्नि – atimandāgni – very weak digestion power
तीक्ष्णाग्नि – tīkṣṇāgni – very strong digestive capacity
स्थूल – sthūla – obesity
दुर्बलाः – durbalāḥ – very weak, weakness
ऊरुस्तम्भ – ūrustambha – stiffness of thighs
अतिसार – atisāra – diarrhea
आम – āma – ama condition, indigestion, erroneous metabolism
गलरोग – galaroga – diseases of throat
गर – gara – chronic poisoning
उदरैः – udaraiḥ – abdominal disorders
मूर्च्छा – mūrcchā – loss of consciousness, fainting
च्छर्दि – chardi – vomiting
अरुचि – aruci – tastelessness, anorexia
श्लेष्म – śleṣma – diseases caused by kapha imbalance (vitiation)
तृष्णा – tṛṣṇā – excessive thirst
मद्यैश्च – madyaiśca – chronic alcoholism
अपप्रसूता – apaprasūtā – woman who has undergone abortion
युक्ते च नस्ये बस्तौ विरेचने – yukte ca nasye bastau virecane – to those who are administered with nasal medication, enema and purgative therapies
Asnehya – persons unsuitable for oleation :-
Patients who should not be given Snehana therapy are –
Atimandagni – Those who have very weak digestion power
Teekshnagni -or very strong digestive power
Sthula – obese
Durbala – very weak
Urustambha – stiffness of thighs
Atisara – diarrhoea, dysentery
Amaroga – indigestion, Ama condition, altered metabolism
Galaroga – diseases of throat
Gararoga – chronic poisoning
Murcha – fainting, loss of consciousness
Chardi – Vomiting
Aruchi – anorexia
Shleshmaroga – diseases of Kapha imbalance
Trushnaroga – excessive thirst
Madyapeedita – chronic alcoholic
Apaprasuta – lady who has undergone abortion
Nasya, Basti Virechana – people who undergo nasal medication, enema and purgative therapies.
AH Su 16.8b
Persons suitable for oleation through ghee (ghrita yogya)
तत्र धीस्मृतिमेधादिकाङ्क्षिणां शस्यते घृतम्॥८॥
tatra dhīsmṛtimedhādikāṅkṣiṇāṃ śasyate ghṛtam||8||
तत्र घृतम् शस्यते – tatra ghṛtam śasyate – among the oleation substances, ghee (as oleation) is suitable for
धी स्मृति मेधादि काङ्क्षिणां – dhīsmṛtimedhādikāṅkṣiṇāṃ – those who desire improvement of their cognition, memory and intelligence
Ghrita (ghee) is best suited for those who desire improvement of intelligent, memory, intelligence etc.
AH Su 16.9
Persons suitable for oleation through oil (taila yogya)
तैलं लाघवदार्ढ्यार्थिक्रूरकोष्ठेषु देहिषु॥९॥
tailaṃ lāghavadārḍhyārthikrūrakoṣṭheṣu dehiṣu||9||
तैलं – tailaṃ – oil is suitable (as remedy) in diseases like
ग्रन्थि – granthi – cysts, tumors
नाडी रोगिषु – nāḍī – sinus ulcers
कृमि रोगिषु – kṛmi roga – worm infestations
श्लेष्म रोगिषु – śleṣma roga – diseases caused due to imbalance of kapha
मेदो रोगिषु – medo rogiṣu – obesity
मारुत रोगिषु – māruta rogiṣu – diseases caused due to imbalance of vata
लाघव दार्ढ्यार्थि – lāghava dārḍhyārthi – those who are desirous of begetting lightness (thinness) and sturdiness (stability, endurance) in their body
क्रूरकोष्ठेषु देहिषु – krūrakoṣṭheṣu dehiṣu – those who are having hard (difficult) bowel movements
Taila (oil) is suited in diseases like
Granthi – tumour,
Nadi roga – sinus ulcer
Krumiroga – worm infestation
Shleshmaroga – diseases of Kapha imbalance
Medoroga – obesity
Marutaroga – Diseases due to imbalance of Vata
for those who desire thinning and sturdiness of the body, and who have hard bowel movements.
Muscle fat and marrow
AH Su 16.10
Persons suitable for oleation through bone marrow and muscle fat (majja & vasa yogya)
शेषौ – śeṣau – the others i.e. muscle fat and bone marrow are suited for –
क्षीणधातुषु – kṣīṇadhātuṣu – those who are suffering from depletion of tissues
वातातपाध्व भार स्त्री व्यायाम vātātapādhva bhāra strī vyāyāma – due to excessive exposure to breeze, heat of the sun, walking long distances, carrying heavy loads of weight, women (sexual indulgence) and strenuous physical activities
रूक्ष – rūkṣa – those who have excessive dryness in their body
क्लेशक्षम – kleśakṣama – those who withstand strain
अत्यग्नि – atyagni – those who have very strong digestive activity वातावृत पथेषु च – vātāvṛta patheṣu ca – and in whom vata has obstructed the pathways and channels in the body (or vata is obstructed in its normal pathways)
Vasa and Majja – Muscle-fat and marrow are suited for persons
Vatatapa – who are depleted of their tissues from exposure to breeze, sunlight, long distance walk, carrying heavy load, women (sexual activity) and physical activities;
Ruksha – who are dry, who withstand strain, who have very strong digestive activity, and in whom Vata is obstructed in its normal pathways.
AH Su 16.11
Persons suitable for oleation through muscle fat (vasa yogya)
वसा तु सन्ध्यस्थिमर्मकोष्ठरुजासु च।
vasā tu sandhyasthimarmakoṣṭharujāsu ca|
वसा तु – vasā tu – muscle fat is suited for
सन्ध्यस्थि मर्म कोष्ठ रुजासु च – sandhyasthi marma koṣṭha rujāsu ca – pain in joints, bones, vital organs and abdominal viscera
दग्ध – dagdha – burns,
आहत – āhata – assault by weapons (trauma), injuries,
भ्रष्टयोनि – bhraṣṭayoni – prolapse or displacement of vagina,
तथा कर्ण शिरोरुजि – tathā karṇa śiroruji – earache and headache
Vasa – Muscle-fat is suited for pain of the joints, bones, vital organs and abdominal viscera; so also for pain of burns, assault by weapons, displacement of vagina (prolapsed), earache, and headache.
Sneha yogya kala
AH Su 16.12-14a
Proper seasons and time for oleation therapy (sneha yogya kala)
तैलं प्रावृषि, वर्षान्ते सर्पिरन्यौ तु माधवे।
ऋतौ साधारणे स्नेहः शस्तोऽह्नि विमले रवौ॥१२॥
तैलं त्वरायां शीतेऽपि घर्मेऽपि च घृतं निशि।
निश्येव पित्ते पवने संसर्गे पित्तवत्यपि॥१३॥
निश्यन्यथा वातकफाद्रोगाः स्युः पित्ततो दिवा।
tailaṃ prāvṛṣi, varṣānte sarpiranyau tu mādhave|
ṛtau sādhāraṇe snehaḥ śasto’hni vimale ravau||12||
tailaṃ tvarāyāṃ śīte’pi gharme’pi ca ghṛtaṃ niśi|
niśyeva pitte pavane saṃsarge pittavatyapi||13||
niśyanyathā vātakaphādrogāḥ syuḥ pittato divā|
तैलं प्रावृषि – tailaṃ prāvṛṣi – oil is ideal for use in pravrit or early monsoon season
वर्षान्ते सर्पि: – varṣānte sarpir – ghee can ideally be used at the end of rainy season i.e. during sharat or autumn season
अन्यौ तु माधवे – anyau tu mādhave – the others (unctuous substances) i.e. muscle fat and bone marrow are ideal to be used in vasanta or spring season
साधारणे ऋतौ स्नेहः शस्तोऽह्नि विमले रवौ – sādhāraṇe ṛtau snehaḥ śasto’hni vimale ravau – during temperate seasons oleating substances should be ideally used during day time and when the sun is clear
त्वरायां तैलं शीतेऽपि घृतं घर्मेऽपि निशि च – tvarāyāṃ tailaṃ śīte’pi ghṛtaṃ gharme’pi niśi ca – during emergency the oil may be used even in cold season and ghee may be used in summer and even at night
पित्ते पवने संसर्गे पित्तवत्यपि निश्येव – pitte pavane saṃsarge pittavatyapi niśyeva – in diseases produced by vitiated pitta and vata and in dual combination of doshas wherein pitta is predominant, ghee should be given only at nights during summer
अन्यथा निशि वातकफाद्रोगाः स्युः पित्ततो दिवा – anyathā niśy vātakaphādrogāḥ syuḥ pittato divā – if administered otherwise the fats or unctuous substances used at nights (when indicated to be given in morning) cause diseases due to vata and kapha and unctuous substances used during day time (when indicated to be given in night time) causes diseases of pitta
Oil is ideal for use during Pravrit – first rainy season, ghee during end of Varsa i.e., Sharat- autumn.
The others during Madhava i.e. Vasantha – spring.
Proper time for oleation
Snehayogya Kala – proper time for oleation therapy :-
During temperate seasons use of oleating materials should be done during day time and when the sun is clear. 12b.
Oil may be used in emergency even in cold season and ghee, even in summer and even at night. 13a.
In diseases produced by increased Pitta and Vata and in their combination with predominance of Pitta – ghee should be used only at nights – during summer. 13.
Otherwise, diseases due to Vata and Kapha arise if fats are used at nights and diseases of Pitta if used during day. 13 – 14a.
Sneha vicharana samkhya
AH Su 16.14b-15a
Various combinations of oleation recipes (sneha vicharana samkhya)
युक्त्याऽवचारयेत्स्नेहं भक्ष्याद्यन्नेन बस्तिभिः॥१४॥
yuktyā’vacārayetsnehaṃ bhakṣyādyannena bastibhiḥ||14||
स्नेहं अवचारयेत् युक्त्या – snehaṃ avacārayet yuktyā – fats (oleation) should be used skillfully
भक्ष्याद्यन्नेन – bhakṣyādyannena – either mixed with chewable and other kinds of foods
बस्तिभिः नस्य अभ्यञ्जन गण्डूष मूर्द्ध तर्पणैः कर्ण तर्पणैः अक्षि तर्पणैः – bastibhiḥ nasya abhyañjana gaṇḍūṣa mūrddha tarpaṇaiḥ karṇa tarpaṇaiḥ akṣi tarpaṇaiḥ – or in the form of enemas nasal drops, massage (anointing the body), gargle or mouth rinsing, putting over the head, instillation into the ears and eyes
Number of Oleation recipes – Sneha Samkhya –:-
Fats should be used properly either mixed with chewable and other kinds of foods or in the form of enemas, nasal drops, anointing over the body, holding in the mouth, putting over the head, into the ears and eyes.
AH Su 16.15b-16a
64 types of oleation recipes (vicharana sneha)
रसभेदैककत्वाभ्यां – rasabhedaikakatvābhyāṃ – depending on its combination with food substances of various tastes and being used individually (without mixing it with anything),
चतुःषष्टिर्विचारणाः catuḥṣaṣṭir vicāraṇāḥ – the number of oleation combinations (recipes) will be of 64 kinds i.e. vicharana (fat combinations) is of 64 types
स्नेहस्य अन्याभिभूतत्वाद् अल्पत्वाञ्च क्रमात्स्मृताः – snehasya anyābhibhūtatvād alpatvāñca kramātsmṛtāḥ – since the fats are combined with other food substances and being less in quantity sneha vicharanas are poor or mild in effect
By its use with substances of different tastes and separately, without admixture, it will be sixty four number of recipes.
Sneha Vicharana – use of fat mixed with foods is poor – mild in effect because of its mingling with other materials and also because of lesser quantity.
Acchapeya or accha sneha
AH Su 16.16b-17a
Use of only fats, not mixed with other food substances (acchapeya or accha sneha)
यथोक्तहेत्वभावाञ्च नाच्छपेयो विचारणा॥१६॥
स्नेहस्य कल्पः स श्रेष्ठः स्नेहकर्माशुसाधनात्।
yathoktahetvabhāvāñca nācchapeyo vicāraṇā||16||
snehasya kalpaḥ sa śreṣṭhaḥ snehakarmāśusādhanāt|
अच्छपेयो न विचारणा – acchapeyo na vicāraṇā – acchapeya (fats consumed without mixing them with any food substances) is not vicharana
यथोक्त हेत्वभावाञ्च – yathokta hetvabhāvāñca – because of the absence of conditions needed for it to be called as vicharana (to be called as vicharana, the fats should be mixed with other food substances)
स स्नेहस्य कल्पः श्रेष्ठः – sa snehasya kalpaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ – this form of oleating method (acchapeya) is said to be the superior form of administration
स्नेहकर्म आशु साधनात् – snehakarma āśu sādhanāt – since it does the functions of sneha (bestows the needed benefits of fats) and brings about oleation in very quick time
Acchapeya of Sneha – means consuming the oils / fats without mixing with food.
Sneha Vicharana means – consuming after mixing with food items.
Acchapeya method of administering fats is considered best as it serves the function of fats and lubrication quickly.
AH Su 16. 17b-18
Dose of fats for drinking –
द्वाभ्यां चतुर्भिरष्टाभिर्यामैर्जीर्यन्ति याः क्रमात्॥१७॥
ह्रस्वमध्योत्तमा मात्रास्तास्ताभ्यश्च ह्रसीयसीम्।
कल्पयेद्वीक्ष्य दोषादीन् प्रागेव तु ह्रसीयसीम्॥१८॥
dvābhyāṃ caturbhiraṣṭābhiryāmairjīryanti yāḥ kramāt||17||
hrasvamadhyottamā mātrāstāstābhyaśca hrasīyasīm|
kalpayedvīkṣya doṣādīn prāgeva tu hrasīyasīm||18||
याः र्जीर्यन्ति द्वाभ्यां चतुर्भि: अष्टाभि: यामै: – yāḥ jīryanti dvābhyāṃ caturbhir aṣṭābhir yāmair – that quantity of fat (sneha) which on consumption gets digested in two, four and eight yamas (1 yama = 3 hours)
ह्रस्व मध्य उत्तमा मात्रास्ता: क्रमात् – hrasva madhya uttamā mātrās tās kramāt – will be considered as lesser (hrsva), medium or moderate (madhya) and large (uttama) dose (matra) of the fat respectively
ताभ्यश्च ह्रसीयसीम् – tābhyaśca hrasīyasīm – the dose of fat lesser than the above said is called hraseeyasi matra or least dose (test dose)
वीक्ष्य दोषादीन् प्रागेव तु ह्रसीयसीम् कल्पयेद् – vīkṣya doṣādīn prāgeva tu hrasīyasīm kalpayed – after analyzing the dosha etc factors beforehand itself, the least dose of the consumable fat should be decided (planned)
Notes: Hrasiyasi matra or least dose of the consumable fat (accha sneha) should be initially given to every individual fit to take snehana. After seeing the tolerance and the time of digestion of this dose, the lesser, medium or maximum dose shall be fixed or decided. Thus, the lesser etc 3 types of doses can be decided after giving the least dose as a test dose.
Acchapanamatra – dose of fats for drinking :-
The dose of fats depends upon the digestive activity of the patient.
The heena matra (least dose) is the one, which digests in 2 yaama (1 yaama = 3 hours)
The medium dose (Madhyama matra) is the one, which undergoes digestion in 4 yama (12 hours)
The high dose (Uttama matra) is the one, which undergoes digestion in 8 yama (24 hours).
Hraseeyasi matra – the minimum quantity should be administered in the beginning after considering the condition of Dosha etc.
The Hraseeyasi matra is the very little quantity of sneha, that is given to the patient, just to judge the digestive strength. After judging the digestion power, the right dose of the fat is decided.
AH Su 16.19-22
Procedure of drinking fat for different purposes –
Drinking fat for body cleansing – shodhana sneha
ह्यस्तने जीर्ण एवान्ने स्नेहोऽच्छः शुद्धये बहुः।
hyastane jīrṇa evānne sneho’cchaḥ śuddhaye bahuḥ|
शुद्धये – śuddhaye – for cleansing purposes (as preparation for panchakarma theapy),
स्नेहोऽच्छः – sneho’cchaḥ – the fat alone (not mixed with food substances) should be given to drink
बहुः – bahuḥ – in large (maximum) dosage
ह्यस्तने जीर्ण एवान्ने – hyastane jīrṇa evānne – soon after the digestion of previously taken food (and in the absence of hunger)
Drinking fat for palliating disease – shamana sneha
शमनः क्षुद्वतोऽनन्नो मध्यमात्रश्च शस्यते॥१९॥
śamanaḥ kṣudvato’nanno madhyamātraśca śasyate||19||
शमनः – śamanaḥ – for palliating a disease (mitigating the doshas),
शस्यते – śasyate – the fat should be ideally given to drink
क्षुद्वतो अनन्नो – kṣudvato ananno – when the person is hungry and has not taken food
मध्यमात्रश्च – madhya mātraśca – in medium dose
Drinking fat for weight gain (bulk promoting) treatment – brimhana sneha
बृंहणो रसमद्याद्यैः सभक्तोऽल्पः हितः स च।
मृदुकोष्ठोल्पदोषेषु काले चोष्णे कृशेषु च॥२१॥
bṛṃhaṇo rasamadyādyaiḥ sabhakto’lpaḥ hitaḥ sa ca|
mṛdukoṣṭholpadoṣeṣu kāle coṣṇe kṛśeṣu ca||21||
बृंहणो – bṛṃhaṇo – for weight gain treatment,
रस रसमद्याद्यैः rasa madyādyaiḥ – (fat should be) mixed with meat soup, wine etc and
सभक्तो – sabhakto – consumed along with the food
अल्पः – alpaḥ – in minimum (small) quantity
स च हितः – sa ca hitaḥ – the same (mild oleation or fat used in minimum dose) is suitable for –
बाल – bāla – the children
वृद्ध – vṛddha – aged people
पिपासार्त – pipāsārta – those suffering from thirst
स्नेहद्विण् – snehadviṇ – those having aversion to fat
मद्यशीलिषु – madyaśīliṣu – those who regularly indulge in wine
स्त्री स्नेह नित्य – strī sneha nitya – those who regularly indulge in women (sex) and fatty foods
मन्दाग्नि – mandāgni – those who have low digestion capacity
सुखित – sukhita – those who lead happy and comfortable life
क्लेश भीरुषु – kleśa bhīruṣu – those who are afraid of troubles
मृदुकोष्ठो – mṛdukoṣṭho – those having soft bowel movements
अल्पदोषेषु – alpadoṣeṣu – in presence of mild increase of doshas
च उष्णे काले – ca uṣṇe kāle – during hot seasons
कृशेषु च – kṛśeṣu ca – emaciated people
Benefits of drinking fats before, in between and after food – Prak, Madhya and Uttara Bhukta sneha
व्याधीञ्जयेद्बलं कुर्यादङ्गानां च यथाक्रमम्॥२२॥
vyādhīñjayedbalaṃ kuryādaṅgānāṃ ca yathākramam||22||
प्राक् मध्य उत्तरभक्तो असौ – prāk madhya uttarabhakto asāv – the fats taken before food, in between food and after food
जयेद् व्याधीन् – jayed vyādhīñ – will cure the diseases
अधो मध्य ऊर्ध्व देहजान् – adho madhya urdhva dehajān – affecting the lower, middle and upper parts of the body and also
बलं कुर्यादङ्गानां च यथाक्रमम् – balaṃ kuryād aṅgānāṃ ca yathākramam – will strengthen the lower, middle and upper parts of the body respectively
Snehapanavidhi – procedure of drinking fat :-
As a preparation procedure to Panchakarma therapy, Acchasneha – fat alone should be administered soon after digestion of previous food and in maximum dose.
For mitigation of Doshas, for palliating a disease, fats should be consumed when the person is hungry and without food – fasting and in medium dose.
For weight gain treatment, it should be given mixed with meat soup, wine etc. and consumed along with food, in small quantity – minimum dose.
This kind of mild oleation is suitable for children, the aged, those suffering from thirst, those who have aversion to fat, who indulge in wine, women and fatty foods daily, who have poor digestive ability, who lead a happy life, who are afraid of troubles, who are of soft bowel, who have little quantity of – increase of Doshas; during hot season and for the emaciated.
If fats are used before food, it is useful in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower part of the body or to strengthen the lower part of the body.
If fats are used during the food intake, it is useful in the treatment of diseases affecting the middle part of the body.
If fats are used after the food intake, it is useful in treating the diseases of the upper part of the body or to strengthen the upper part of the body.
Sneha pana uttara upachara
AH Su 16.23-24
Care after drinking fats –
वार्युष्णमच्छेऽनु पिबेत् स्नेहे तत्सुखपक्तये।
आस्योपलेपशुद्ध्यै च, तौवरारुष्करे न तु॥२३॥
जीर्णाजीर्णविशङ्कायां पुनरुष्णोदकं पिबेत्।
तेनोद्गारविशुद्धिः स्यात्ततश्च लघुता रुचिः॥२४॥
vāryuṣṇamacche’nu pibet snehe tatsukhapaktaye|
āsyopalepaśuddhyai ca, tauvarāruṣkare na tu||23||
jīrṇājīrṇaviśaṅkāyāṃ punaruṣṇodakaṃ pibet|
tenodgāraviśuddhiḥ syāttataśca laghutā ruciḥ||24||
अच्छे – acche – after drinking fat alone (fat not mixed with any food substances),
वार्युष्णम् अनुपिबेत् – vāryuṣṇam anupibet – hot (warm) water should be consumed as after drink
तत्सुखपक्तये स्नेहे – tatsukhapaktaye snehe – since it helps in easy digestion of fats
शुद्ध्यै आस्योपलेप च – śuddhyai āsyopalepa ca – and also clears (cleanses) the coating in the mouth (caused by fats)
न तु तौवर अरुष्करे – na tu tauvara aruṣkare – but not while consuming tuvaraka oil (oil of Hydnocarpus laurifolia) and arushkara oil (oil of marking nut) i.e. hot water should not be consumed while taking the mentioned oils because these oils are basically very hot in nature (in these conditions cold water should be given)
विशङ्कायां जीर्ण अजीर्ण – viśaṅkāyāṃ jīrṇa ajīrṇa – when there is a doubt whether the fat is digested or not,
उष्णोदकं पिबेत् पुन: – uṣṇodakaṃ pibet punar – hot water should be consumed once again तेन उद्गार विशुद्धिः लघुता रुचिः स्यात्ततश्च – tena udgāra viśuddhiḥ laghutā ruciḥ syāttataśca – with this (consumption of hot water), clear belching, feel of lightness of the body and desire for food are manifested which suggest that the fat has been completely digested
Care after drinking fats – Sneha upachara –
After Acchapana – (drinking of fat alone), warm water should be consumed.
It helps in digestion and clears the mouth coating.
But while taking Tuvaraka taila or Arushkara taila (very hot in nature), cold water is preferred.
In case of doubts regarding digestion of the fat, warm water should be consumed again;
Purification, clear belching, feeling of lightness in the body and desire for food – these 3 symptoms suggest that the fat has been completely digested.
AH Su 16.25
Diet for fat consumption (before, during and after drinking fats) –
भोज्योऽन्नं मात्रया पास्यन् श्वः पिबन् पीतवानपि।
bhojyo’nnaṃ mātrayā pāsyan śvaḥ piban pītavānapi|
श्वः पास्यन् – śvaḥ pāsyan – the person who is about to consume fats the next day (before therapy),
पिबन् – piban – the person who is in the process of consuming fat or has consumed fat on that day (during therapy)
पीतवानपि – pītavānapi – and also the person who has finished the course of taking fats (after therapy),
भोज्यो अन्नं द्रव उष्णम् अनभिष्यन्दि नातिस्निग्धम् असङ्करम् मात्रया – bhojyo annaṃ drava uṣṇam anabhiṣyandi nātisnigdham asaṅkaram mātrayā – should consume foods which are liquid, warm, not producing excess moisture (not aggravating kapha), not very oily and not a mixture of many food materials which are mutually contaminating or incompatible in proper quantity (lesser quantity or digestible quantity)
Diet during fat consumption – Foods which are liquid (drava), warm (Ushna), not producing excess moisture inside (anabhishyandi), not very oily (na atisnigdha) and not a mixture of many food materials, should be consumed by the patient in limited quantity.
Snehana kala vihara niyama
AH Su 16.26-29.a
Regimen and activities during (and after) oleation –
उष्णोदकोपचारी स्याद्ब्रह्मचारी क्षपाशयः।
न वेगरोधी व्यायामक्रोधशोकहिमातपान्॥२६॥
यान्यहानि पिबेत्तानि तावन्त्यन्यान्यपि त्यजेत्।
सर्वकर्मस्वयं प्रायो व्याधिक्षीणेषु च क्रमः॥२८॥
उपचारस्तु शमने कार्यः स्नेहे विरिक्तवत्।
uṣṇodakopacārī syādbrahmacārī kṣapāśayaḥ|
na vegarodhī vyāyāmakrodhaśokahimātapān||26||
yānyahāni pibettāni tāvantyanyānyapi tyajet|
sarvakarmasvayaṃ prāyo vyādhikṣīṇeṣu ca kramaḥ||28||
upacārastu śamane kāryaḥ snehe viriktavat|
उष्णोदकोपचारी – uṣṇodakopacārī – the person should use only hot or warm water for all needs (activities)
स्याद्ब्रह्मचारी – syādbrahmacārī – should maintain celibacy
क्षपाशयः – kṣapāśayaḥ – should stay in their own places (home, ward), should not sleep during day and should not keep awake during night time
न वेगरोधी – na vegarodhī – should not suppress natural urges
त्यजेत् व्यायाम क्रोध शोक हिम आतपान् – tyajet vyāyāma krodha śoka hima ātapān – should avoid (not indulge in) excessive exercise, anger, grief, exposure to cold, sunlight,
प्रवात यान अध्व भाष्य अत्यासनसंस्थितीः – pravāta yāna adhva bhāṣya atyāsanasaṃsthitīḥ – (exposure to) heavy breeze, travelling in vehicles, walking long distances, too much speaking, being seated for prolonged time or keeping in uncomfortable postures for long time,
नीचात्युञ्चोपधानाहः – nīcātyuñcopadhānāhaḥ – keeping pillows very low or very high beneath the head while sleeping
स्वप्न – svapna – excessive day sleep
धूमरजांसि च – dhūmarajāṃsi ca – exposure or contact with smoke and dust
यान्यहानि पिबेत्तानि – yānyahāni pibettāni – on those days of drinking fat and
तावन्त्यन्यान्यपि – tāvantyanyānyapi – for the same number of days afterwards (after finishing the oleation therapy) also
अयं च क्रमः प्रायो सर्वकर्मसु व्याधिक्षीणेषु – ayaṃ ca kramaḥ prāyo sarvakarmasv vyādhikṣīṇeṣu – it is the same regimen which is probably (generally) followed for all purification therapies (such as emesis, purgation, enema etc) and also for those debilitated by the diseases
शमने स्नेहे उपचारस्तु विरिक्तवत् कार्यः – śamane snehe upacārastu viriktavat kāryaḥ – in case of palliative oleation therapy the regimens as indicated for the persons who has undergone purgation therapy should be administered
Ushnodakopachari – The person should only use warm water for all his activities.
Brahmachari – Should maintain celibacy. He should eat only when hungry.
Na vegarodhi – should not suppress natural urges, not indulge in exercise, anger, grief, exposure to cold, sunlight, breeze, riding on animals, travelling in vehicles, walking long distance, too much of speaking, remaining in uncomfortable postures for long time, keeping very low or very high pillow under the head, sleeping during day, contact with smoke and dust; on the days of drinking fats and for same number of days afterwards also.
This regimen is the same generally for all purification therapies such as emesis, purgation, enema etc. and also for those debilitated by diseases.
In case of Shamana Sneha – palliative oleation therapy, the regimen as suggested for the person who has undergone purgation therapy – in chapter 18 should be adopted.
AH Su 16.29b-30a
Duration of fat drinking –
त्र्यहमच्छं मृदौ कोष्ठे क्रूरे सप्तदिनं पिबेत्॥२९॥
सम्यक्स्निग्धोऽथवा यावदतः सात्म्यी भवेत्परम्।
tryahamacchaṃ mṛdau koṣṭhe krūre saptadinaṃ pibet||29||
samyaksnigdho’thavā yāvadataḥ sātmyī bhavetparam|
अच्छं पिबेत् त्र्यहम् मृदौ कोष्ठे सप्तदिनं क्रूरे – acchaṃ pibet tryaham mṛdau koṣṭhe saptadinaṃ krūre – drinking of fat not mixed with other substances (only fat) should be administered for three days in people having soft bowels and for seven days for persons having hard bowels
अथवा सम्यक्स्निग्धो – athavā samyak snigdho – or till the symptoms of proper oleation are observed
यावदतः परम् सात्म्यी भवेत् – yāvadataḥ param sātmyī bhavet – after that period the fat becomes accustomed to the patient (and doesn’t give the desired effect)
Acchapana Kala – duration of fat drinking :-
Acchapana – drinking fat alone should be done for
Three days for – persons of soft bowels (Mrudu koshta),
Seven days for persons of hard bowels (Krura koshta) or till the symptoms of good oleation appear.
After that period the fat becomes accustomed to the patient and does not give the desired effect.
Samyak snigdha, Asnigdha and Atisnigdha
AH Su 16.30b-31
Signs of proper, deficit and excess oleation –
वातानुलोम्यं दीप्तोऽग्निर्वर्चः स्निग्धमसंहतम्॥३०॥
स्नेहोद्वेगः क्लमः सम्यक्स्निग्धे, रूक्षे विपर्ययः।
अतिस्निग्धे तु पाण्डुत्वं घ्राणवक्त्रगुदस्रवाः॥३१॥
vātānulomyaṃ dīpto’gnirvarcaḥ snigdhamasaṃhatam||30||
snehodvegaḥ klamaḥ samyaksnigdhe, rūkṣe viparyayaḥ|
atisnigdhe tu pāṇḍutvaṃ ghrāṇavaktragudasravāḥ||31||
वातानुलोम्यं – vātānulomyaṃ – downward movement of vata
दीप्तो अग्नि: – dīpto agnir – digestive activity gets kindled
वर्चः स्निग्धम् असंहतम् – varcaḥ snigdham asaṃhatam – feces becomes stained or mixed with unctuous material (fatty feces) and unformed (not solid)
स्नेहोद्वेगः – snehodvegaḥ – aversion to fat
क्लमः – klamaḥ – exhaustion
सम्यक्स्निग्धे – samyaksnigdhe – are the symptoms of proper lubrication (oleation)
रूक्षे विपर्ययः – rūkṣe viparyayaḥ – in dryness i.e. deficit oleation or lubrication (asnigdha) we can find opposite signs (of proper lubrication) पाण्डुत्वं घ्राणवक्त्रगुदस्रवाः तु अतिस्निग्धे – pāṇḍutvaṃ ghrāṇavaktragudasravāḥ tu atisnigdhe – appearance of pallor (anemia), secretions from nose, mouth and rectum are the signs of excessive oleation (lubrication)
Snigdha Lakshana – signs of oleation :-
Vatanulomana – Downward movement of Vata,
Deepto agni – keen digestive activity,
Varchaha snigdham asamhatam – faeces becoming fatty and non formed not solid, Snehodvega – aversion to fat,
Klama – exhaustion
– are the signs of proper lubrication;
Opposite of these are the sign of dryness.
Appearance of pallor – yellowish white discoloration and secretions from the nose, mouth and rectum are the signs of excess lubrication.
Sneha vyapat lakshanas
AH Su 16.32-33a
Bad effects of improper oleation –
अमात्रयाऽहितो काले मिथ्याहारविहारतः।
स्नेहः करोति शोफार्शस्तन्द्रास्तम्भविसंज्ञताः॥३२॥
amātrayā’hito kāle mithyāhāravihārataḥ|
snehaḥ karoti śophārśastandrāstambhavisaṃjñatāḥ||32||
स्नेहः अमात्रया अहितो काले – snehaḥ amātrayā ahito kāle – fats, when consumed in improper dose and improper ways, in improper time,
मिथ्याहार विहारतः करोति – mithyāhāra vihārataḥ karoti – while indulging in improper foods and activities, produces (below mentioned symptoms) –
शोफ – śopha – dropsy (swelling),
अर्श: – arśas – hemorrhoids,
तन्द्रा – tandrā – stupor (drowsiness),
स्तम्भ – stambha – rigidity of body parts,
विसंज्ञताः – visaṃjñatāḥ – absence of sensation / unconsciousness,
कण्डू – kaṇḍū – itching,
कुष्ठ – kuṣṭha – skin diseases,
ज्वरो – jvara – fever,
उत्क्लेश – utkleśa – nausea,
शूल – śūla – pain in the abdomen,
आनाह – ānāha – flatulence,
भ्रमादिकान् – bhramādikān – dizziness etc
Snehavyapat Lakshana – bad effects of improper oleation :-
Fat drinking in improper dose, unsuitable kind, improper time, indulging in improper foods and activities produces dropsy, haemorrhoids, stupor, rigidity – loss of movement, loss of sensation / unconsciousness, itching, skin diseases, fever, nausea, pain in the abdomen, flatulence, dizziness etc.
Sneha vyapat chikitsa
AH Su 16.33b-35a
Treatment of bad effects of improper oleation –
यथास्व प्रतिरोगं च स्नेहव्यापदि साधनम्।
yathāsva pratirogaṃ ca snehavyāpadi sādhanam|
क्षुत् – kṣut – inducing hunger
तृष्णा – tṛṣṇa – inducing thirst
उल्लेखन – ullekhana – inducing emesis (vomiting therapy)
स्वेद – sveda – inducing sweating, sudation therapy
रूक्ष पान अन्न भेषजम् – rūkṣa pāna anna bheṣajam – administration of drinks, foods and medicines which are dry in nature (cause dryness)
तक्रारिष्ट – takrāriṣṭa – fermented medicine prepared in buttermilk
खल – khala – dish prepared from curds
उद्दाल – uddāla – type of rice
यव – yava – barley
श्यामाक – śyāmāka
कोद्रवम् – kodravam
पिप्पली – pippalī – long pepper
त्रिफला – triphalā – fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis
क्षौद्र – kṣaudra – honey
पथ्या – pathyā – Terminalia chebula
गोमूत्र – gomūtra – cow urine
गुग्गुलु – guggulu – Commiphora mukul
यथास्व प्रतिरोगं च साधनम् स्नेहव्यापदि – yathāsva pratirogaṃ ca sādhanam snehavyāpadi – and such others (foods, medicines etc) prescribed for each disease are the methods of treating the diseases caused due to improper oleation
Snehavyapat Cikitsa – treatment of bad effects :-
Kshut, Trushna – Producing hunger, thirst,
Ulleka, sveda – vomiting and perspiration,
Administering foods, drinks and medicines which are dry (cause dryness),
use of Takrarista (fermented medicine from buttermilk), Khala – menu prepared from curds, Uddala, Yava (barley), Shyamaka, Kodrava, Pippali (long pepper), Triphala, Ksaudra (honey), Pathya (haritaki), Gomutra – cow urine, Guggulu and such others – foods, drugs etc. prescribed for each disease are the methods of treating the diseases due to improper Snehana therapy.
AH Su 16.35b
Therapy to cause dryness – Virukshana
विरूक्षणे कृतातिकृत लक्षणम् लङ्घनवत् – virūkṣaṇe kṛtātikṛta lakṣaṇam laṅghanavat – in drying therapy (virukshana), the signs of proper and excessive drying are the same as those of properly and excessively done langhana (therapies done for thinning the body or inducing lightness in the body
Virukshana – therapy to cause dryness :-
The features of proper and excess Viruksana – dryness are the same as those of proper and excess of Langhana – methods of making the body thin.
Panchakarma after Snehana
AH Su 16.36-37a
Purification therapies (regimen of panchakarma) after administration of fats
स्निग्धस्त्र्यहं स्थितः कुर्याद्विरेकं, वमनं पुनः॥३६॥
एकाहं दिनमन्यञ्च कफमुत्क्लेश्य तत्करैः।
snigdhastryahaṃ sthitaḥ kuryādvirekaṃ, vamanaṃ punaḥ||36||
ekāhaṃ dinamanyañca kaphamutkleśya tatkaraiḥ|
स्निग्ध द्रवोष्ण धन्वोत्थर सभुक् – snigdha dravoṣṇa dhanvotthara sabhuk – the patient (who is to be given cleansing treatments) should be made to drink meat juice of desert animals and birds, mixed with fats and served hot
स्वेदमाचरेत् – svedamācaret – after this sudation (sweat inducing) therapy should be given
स्निग्ध: त्र्यहं स्थितः कुर्याद् विरेकं – snigdhas tryahaṃ sthitaḥ kuryād virekaṃ – the person who is properly lubricated by oleation should be rested for three days (after three days of administration of above mentioned regimen) and purgation therapy should be administered
वमनं पुनः एकाहं दिनमन्यञ्च कफम् उत्क्लेश्य तत्करैः – vamanaṃ punaḥ ekāhaṃ dinamanyañca kapham utkleśya tatkaraiḥ – for administering emesis, after resting the patient for 1 day after oleation (and sudation), the patient should be made to consume kapha increasing foods, medicines etc and then emesis therapy should be administered
Regimen of Panchakarma followed after Snehana – The patient should drink juice of meat of animals of desert like regions, mixed with fats, made liquid – thin and warm, then undergo sudation therapy; after three days of such regimen, he should be administered purgation therapy, after a lapse of one day, Kapha should be increased by using things – food, drugs etc. which cause its increase and then emesis – therapy should be administered.
AH Su 16.37b-39a
Conditions wherein drying therapy should be given before oleation and purification
मांसला मेदुरा भूरिश्लेष्मणो विषमाग्नयः॥३७॥
स्नेहोचिताश्च ये स्नेह्यास्तान् पूर्वं रूक्षयेत्ततः।
संस्नेह्य शोधयेदेवं स्नेहव्यापन्न जायते॥३८॥
अलं मलानीरयितुं स्नेहश्चासात्म्यता गतः।
māṃsalā medurā bhūriśleṣmaṇo viṣamāgnayaḥ||37||
snehocitāśca ye snehyāstān pūrvaṃ rūkṣayettataḥ|
saṃsnehya śodhayedevaṃ snehavyāpanna jāyate||38||
alaṃ malānīrayituṃ snehaścāsātmyatā gataḥ|
मांसला – māṃsalā – persons who are muscular,
मेदुरा – medurā – those who are fatty (obese),
भूरिश्लेष्मणो – bhūriśleṣmaṇo – those having severe kapha imbalance,
विषमाग्नयः – viṣamāgnayaḥ – those having erroneous digestive activity,
स्नेहोचिताश्च – snehocitāśca – those who are accustomed to fats
ये स्नेह्यास्तान् – ye snehyāstān – and those needing oleation therapy
पूर्वं रूक्षयेत् – pūrvaṃ rūkṣayet – should first be administered with drying therapy (use of foods, herbs etc which bring about dryness),
संस्नेह्य – saṃsnehya – after this (drying), oleation should be administered
ततः शोधयेद् – tataḥ śodhayed – followed with purification therapies
एवं स्नेहव्यापन्न जायते – evaṃ snehavyāpanna jāyate – by following this procedure, complications due to improper oleation will not arise
अलं मलान् ईरयितुं स्नेहश्च असात्म्यता गतः – alaṃ malān īrayituṃ snehaśca asātmyatā gataḥ – this method is enough to excite the vitiated doshas and excreta and the excessive unctuous material (fats) which have become accustomed to the body following excessive administration, which are meant to be eliminated
Persons who are muscular, fatty, having Kapha imbalance, and erratic type of digestive activity, who are accustomed to fats and who need oleation therapy, should be made to become dry first – by use of foods, drugs etc. and then administered oleation therapy followed with purification therapies; by this procedure complications of oleation will not arise. This method is enough to excite the vitiated Dosha to be eliminated.
Sadhya Sneha Yogas
AH Su 16.39b-43a
Recipes for instant oleation –
योगानिमाननुद्वेगान् सद्य:स्नेहान् प्रयोजयेत्।
प्राज्यमांसरसास्तेषु, पेया वा स्नेहभर्जिताः॥४०॥
तिलचूर्णश्च सस्नेहफाणितः, कृशरा तथा।
क्षीरपेया घृताढ्योष्णा, दध्नो वा सगुडः सरः॥४१॥
पेया च पञ्चप्रसृता स्नेहैस्तण्डुलपञ्चमैः।
सप्तैते स्नेहनाः सद्य: स्नेहाश्च लवणोल्बणाः॥४२॥
तद्ध्यभिष्यन्द्यरूक्षं च सूक्ष्ममुष्णं व्यवायि च।
yogānimānanudvegān sadyaḥsnehān prayojayet|
prājyamāṃsarasāsteṣu, peyā vā snehabharjitāḥ||40||
tilacūrṇaśca sasnehaphāṇitaḥ, kṛśarā tathā|
kṣīrapeyā ghṛtāḍhyoṣṇā, dadhno vā saguḍaḥ saraḥ||41||
peyā ca pañcaprasṛtā snehaistaṇḍulapañcamaiḥ|
saptaite sehanāḥ sadyaḥ snehāśca lavaṇolbaṇāḥ||42||
taddhyabhiṣyandyarūkṣaṃ ca sūkṣmamuṣṇaṃ vyavāyi ca|
बाल वृद्धादिषु – bāla vṛddhādiṣu – for children, aged etc,
स्नेहपरिहार असहिष्णुषु – snehaparihāra asahiṣṇuṣu – for those who cannot withstand the prohibitions (contra indications) and discomforts during oleation therapy,
इमान् योगान् सद्य: स्नेहान् अनुद्वेगान् प्रयोजयेत् – imān yogān sadyaḥ snehān anudvegān prayojayet – the below mentioned recipes which bring about instant oleation (immediate lubrication) and are also non-harming (safe and easy to administer) should be administered
प्राज्यमांसरसास्तेषु – prājyamāṃsarasāsteṣu – meat juice prepared from more quantity of meat
पेया वा स्नेहभर्जिताः – peyā vā snehabharjitāḥ – gruels, fried with more quantity of fats,
तिलचूर्णश्च सस्नेह फाणितः – tilacūrṇaśca sasneha phāṇitaḥ – sesame powder mixed with fat and half boiled molasses
कृशरा तथा – kṛśarā tathā – rice cooked along with green grams, mixed with fat and half boiled molasses
क्षीरपेया घृताढ्योष्णा – kṣīrapeyā ghṛtāḍhyoṣṇā – gruel prepared from milk, mixed with more quantity of ghee and served warm (hot)
दध्नो सरः वा सगुडः – dadhno vā saguḍaḥ saraḥ – yoghurt water (whey from curds) mixed with jaggery
पञ्चप्रसृता पेया च स्नेहै: तण्डुल पञ्चमैः – pañcaprasṛtā peyā ca snehais taṇḍula pañcamaiḥ – thin gruel prepared from 5 things, i.e. one prasruta (approximately 96 ml) each of 4 unctuous materials (ghee, sesame oil, muscle fat, bone marrow) and rice
सप्तैते सद्य: स्नेहनाः – saptaite sadyaḥ snehanāḥ – these seven recipes are instant oleation recipes
स्नेहाश्च लवणोल्बणाः – snehāśca lavaṇolbaṇāḥ – fats mixed with more amount of salt also cause instant oleation because
तद्धि – taddhy – that (the salt)
अभिष्यन्दि – abhiṣyandy – causes exudation in the cells,
अरूक्षं च – arūkṣaṃ ca – does not cause dryness,
सूक्ष्मं – sūkṣmam – capable of entering into minute pores,
उमुष्णं – uṣṇaṃ – hot in potency and
व्यवायि च – vyavāyi ca – spreads all over the body first and later undergoes transformation
Sadya sneha Yoga – recipes for immediate oleation :-
For children, the aged etc., for those who cannot withstand the discomforts or avoidance of things prohibited during of oleation therapy, can be administered the following recipes which are Sadya sneha – immediate oleation/ lubrication and which are non-harming.
Juice of meat prepared from more quantity of meat,
Peya – gruels, fried with more quantity of fats,
Powder of Tila mixed with fat and half boiled molasses (Phanita),
Krisara – rice cooked along with green gram, mixed with the same things as above,
Ksheerapeya – gruel prepared from milk, mixed with more quantity of ghee – butter fat and made warm;
Dadhi Sara – yoghurt water, whey from curds mixed with Guda (jaggery),
Panchaprasruta Peya – thin gruel prepared from one Prasruta each of ghee, sesame oil, muscle fat, marrow and rice (tandula).
These seven recipes are Sadya sneha – fat recipes which produce immediate oleation.
And also fats mixed with more amount of salt are Sadya sneha because
- Abhisyandhi (causes exudation in the tissues),
- Arooksha – does not cause dryness,
- Suksma – capable of entering into minute pores,
- Ushna – hot in potency and
- Vyavayi spreads all over the body first and later undergoes transformation.
AH Su 16.43b-45a
Substances and conditions contraindicated for use of instant oleation
कुष्ठशोफप्रमेहेषु स्नेहार्थं न प्रकल्पयेत्।
स्नेहान् यथास्वमेतेषां योजयेदविकारिणः।
kuṣṭhaśophaprameheṣu snehārthaṃ na prakalpayet|
snehān yathāsvameteṣāṃ yojayedavikāriṇaḥ|
गुड – guḍa – jaggery,
आनूपामिष – ānūpāmiṣa – meat of birds and animals residing in marshy lands,
क्षीर – kṣīra – milk
तिल – tila – sesame seeds
माष – māṣa – black gram
सुरा – surā – beer
दधि – dadhi – curds, yoghurt
न प्रकल्पयेत् स्नेहार्थं – na prakalpayet snehārthaṃ – should not be used for purpose of oleation (or instant oleation)
कुष्ठ शोफ प्रमेहेषु – kuṣṭha śopha prameheṣu – in skin diseases, inflammatory conditions (edema) and diabetes
एतेषां – eteṣāṃ – in these conditions,
स्नेहान् त्रिफला पिप्पली पथ्या गुग्गुल्वादि विपाचितान् – snehān triphalā pippalī pathyā guggulvādi vipācitān – the fats processed (boiled) with Triphala (fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis), long pepper, Terminalia chebula, Commiphora mukul etc.
योजयेद् यथास्वं अविकारिणः – yojayed yathāsvam avikāriṇaḥ – should be used as found suitable, which do not produce abnormalities
Contra indication for certain substances in certain diseases – For the purpose of Sadya snehana, Jaggery, meat of birds of marshy lands, milk, sesame seed, black gram, Sura – beer and Dadhi – curds, yogurt should not be used for purposes of oleation in skin diseases (kushta), inflammatory conditions (Shopha) and diabetes (Prameha). Because these substances may worsen the disease.
In these conditions, fats boiled with Triphala, Pippali, Pathya, Guggulu, etc., should be used as found suitable, which will not produce abnormalities.
AH Su 16.45b
Oleation for those debilitated by diseases
क्षीणानां आमयै: तु – kṣīṇānāṃ āmayair tv – for those who are debilitated by diseases,
अग्नि देह सन्धुक्षण क्षमान् – agni deha sandhukṣaṇa kṣamān – fats which are capable of increasing the strength of the body and strength of digestive fire (activity) should be used for oleation purposes
For those who are debilitated by diseases, fats which are capable of increasing the strength of the body and of the digestive activity should be made use of for oleation therapy.
Benefits of Snehapana
AH Su 16.46
Benefits of drinking fats
दीप्तान्तराग्निः परिशुद्धकोष्ठः प्रत्यग्रधातुर्बलवर्णयुक्तः।
दृढेन्द्रियो मन्दजर शतायुः स्नेहोपसेवी पुरुषः प्रदिष्टः॥४६॥
dīptāntarāgniḥ pariśuddhakoṣṭhaḥ pratyagradhāturbalavarṇayuktaḥ|
dṛḍhendriyo mandajara śatāyuḥ snehopasevī puruṣaḥ pradiṣṭaḥ||46||
दीप्तान्तराग्निः – dīptāntarāgniḥ – the person who has good, balanced and kindled digestive activity
परिशुद्ध कोष्ठः – pariśuddha koṣṭhaḥ – has clean alimentary tract
प्रत्यग्र धातु र्बल वर्णयुक्तः – pratyagra dhātur bala varṇayuktaḥ – has good quality and strong tissues, good strength and endurance, good color and complexion
दृढेन्द्रियो – dṛḍhendriyo – has strong sense organs (properly functioning)
मन्दजर – mandajara – who gets aged slowly
शतायुः – śatāyuḥ – who lives for hundred years
प्रदिष्टः स्नेहोपसेवी पुरुषः – pradiṣṭaḥ snehopasevī puruṣaḥ – is defined as the person who is habituated to regular oleation (in other words, the above mentioned are the benefits of oleation therapy which is adopted often)
Benefits of fat administration
He, who has very keen digestive activity, clean alimentary tract, well developed / strong tissues, physical strength, colour – complexion and powerful sense faculties, who is slow in getting old and who lives for a hundred years is the person who is habituated to oleation. In other words these are the benefits of oleation therapy if adopted often.
इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसूनुश्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहिताया सूत्रस्थाने स्नेहविधिर्नाम षोडशोऽध्यायः॥१६॥
iti śrīvaidyapatisiṃhaguptasūnuśrīmadvāgbhaṭaviracitāyāmaṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitāyā sūtrasthāne snehavidhirnāma ṣoḍaśo’dhyāyaḥ||16||
Thus ends the 16th chapter of Ashtangahridaya Samhita Sutrasthana, named Snehavidhim Adhyayam, written by Shrimad Vagbhata, son of Shri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.