Mukta (Pearl): Types, Properties, Shodhana, Marana, Dosage

Mukta or Pearl is an organic gem, which is obtained from the Pearl shell or oyster found in the sea. In Ayurveda, it is used for the treatment of skin diseases, digestive disorders, poisoning etc. It is classified under Ratna Varga or group of precious gems. It is white coloured, shining, hard spherical object found in sea shells. Due to its attractiveess it is widely used in jewelry and cosmetics.


Mukta, Shouktikeya, Ambasaara, Muktaphala, shashiratna, Mauktika, Shuktija.

Vernacular Names

  • English :Pearl
  • Hindi :Mothi
  • Kannada :Muthu
  • Gujarathi :Mothi
  • Malayalam :Muth
  • Tamil: :Muth


Depending upon yoni or origin:

  • Sukthi mothi – Which is obtained from sea shell
  • Shanka mothi – Which is obtained from conch shell
  • Gaja mothi – Which is obtain from elephant
  • Kroda mothi – Which is obtain from pig
  • Phani mothi – Which is obtain from snake
  • Mathsya mothi – Which is obtain from fish
  • Dardura mothi – Which is obtain from frog
  • Venu mothi – Which is obtain from bamboo

According to modern:

  • Natural pearl – naturally obtain in sea shell
  • Cultured pearl – here sea shell are cultured & pearl is obtained

Grahya Lakshana

Suitable qualities for medicinal use – The muktha having –
pleasant look (hladi),
white (swetha),
light (laghu),
slimy (snigdha),
shining like sun (rashsmivath),
clear (nirmala),
big (mahath),
water like (thoya prabha),
round (vratha), should be used for medicinal purpose.

Tyajya Lakshana

Unsuitable qualities for medicinal use – If the muktha is –
dry (ruksha),
absence of water or fluid (nirjala),
dark colour (syama),
like copper (tamrabam),
like salt (lavanopamam),
ting of white and black (arda subram),
irregular shape (vikatam),
having knots (grantila) should not be used for medicinal purpose.

Mukta Properties

GunaLaghu, Shishira
DoshanathaKapha, pitta
KarmaVarnya – improves complexion,
agnipustikara – enhances digestion power,
vishahara – anti-poisonous,
bhedi – purgative,
viryaprada – increases virility,
deepana – carminative,
pachana – digestive,
ruja hara – subsides pain,
ashukara – acts quickly,
kasa hara – cures cough,
swasa hara – cures dyspnea,
vrushya – aphrodisiac,
ayushya – increases lifespan,
dahagna – subsides burning sensation,
netrya – good for eyes,
jeerna jwara prashamana – cures chronic fever,
asthi dantha vivardana – strengthens teeth and bone,
hradya – cardiotonic,
meha hara – cures urinary disorders,
medhya – enhances intelligence,
dantha bedhapaham – subsides splitting pain in the tooth,
jvarapaham – cures fever,
kshaya hara – helpful in depletion of body tissues,
parikopa nashanam – keeps away anger,
asthi shosha shamanam – corrects degeneration of bone.

Mukta Therapeutic Usage

1. Fever due to removal of teeth in childrenIntake of muktha bhasma along with rasa sindoora.
2. RajayakshmaMuktha bhasma, pravala bhasma, shudha paradha & ghandhaka (parada & ghandhaka taken in the form of kajjali). All this ingredient is taken in equal quantity, this mixture is added with nimbu swarasa, mardhana is done & heated in laghu puta, this obtained medicine is taken in dose of 2 rathi daily for 1 month internally
3. Puppasa daurbhalyaMuktha bhasma is mixed with pravala bhasma & taken internally
4. Hiccup (hikka)a) Muktha bhasma is mixed with katuki & swarna gairika choorna & taken internally b) Muktha bhasma is mixed swarna bhasma, tamra bhasma, kanthaloha bhasma & nimbu swarasa & taken internally

Chemical composition – CaCO3
Indications of Mukta pishti– Eye disorders, Malabsorption syndrome, Heart disease, cough, vertigo, bleeding disorders, all types of headaches, diabetes, hyperacidity, burning micturition, dysuria, insomnia, intolerance to sound, irritability, anxiety, anger and can be used in summer as a coolant.

Target organs – Rasa, rakta, mamsa, asthi, twak, hridaya, kloma, yakrit, pleeha, endocrine glands.

Dose – 31.25 mg – 125 mg

Adjuvants – Milk, Gulkand, sandal syrup, rose syrup, sitopaladi churna or as per the disease.

How to use

  • Drug abuse and intoxication – mukta pishti and swarna makshika bhasma along with kushmanda paka or brahmi avaleha or brahmi ghrita
  • Mukta pishti and pravala pishti along with kushmanda paka or brahmi avaleha or brahmi ghrita.
  • Menorrhagia – Mukta pishti along with milk or gulkand

Formulations – Kastooribhairava ras, Trailokyachintamani rasa, Makaradwaja vati, Mahamriganka rasa, Muktapanchamrita rasa, Vasantamalati rasa, Vasanta tilaka rasa, Hiranyagarbha pottali.

Muktha Shodhana

1.Muktha is taken in cloth and made into pottali, the pottali is suspended in dola yantra, containing jayanthi swarasa or agasthya swarasa & swedana is given for 3 hours

2.muktha is taken in sharava to this lime water (sudhodhaka) is added & heated upto 3 hours in ‘Sura Pradeepa Agni’ (spirit lamp)

Muktha Marana

Shodhitha muktha should be taken in khalva yantra. To this cow’s milk or gulag arka is added and pounded well. It is then dried in sunlight. The obtained white powder is taken in sharava & sandhi bandhana is done. This sharava samputa is heated in laghu puta. Similar puta is given 3 times, then clear shiny bhasma obtained.
Read more about Mukta Bhasma here


Depending on bala & kala. Dose varies from ½ to 1 ratti (62.5 mg to 125 mg) according to condition we can also increase the dose


Honey, butter, Milk cream.

Mukta Pishti


Maritha muktha – 1 part
Gulab arka – quantity sufficient

Maritha muktha bhasma is triturated with gulab arka 3 times. By this muktha pisti is obtained

Bouthika guna:
Colour – white
Smell – fragrance
Touch – masrana
Taste – nirasa (not having any taste)

In various mental weaknesses like anger for simple reasons, decreased ability to think, feeling of hearing loud sound, feeling frightened even in crowd, severe mental shock. It can also detoxify the intoxication of deliriums like alcohol, ganja, datura etc. It can also cure the adverse effect thikna virya effect of drugs on mind, unmade roga due to intake of ushna ruksha padartha. Apart from mental disorder it has good effect on raktha pitta, rakthathisara, raktha pradara.  

Mukta Druti

Muktha choorna – 1 part
Amlavethasa swarasa – quantity sufficient
Lemon fruit – 1

Muktha choorna is kept in amlavethasa swarasa for 7 days then mardana is done to form paste. This paste is kept in between cut pieces of big lemon & tied with thread. This lemon is kept inside the heap of dhanya for 7 days. Then lemon is taken out, kept in musha & heated in gaja puta, muktha druthi is thus obtained.
Read more: Puta Prakarana of Rasashastra (Measurement of Heat)

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