10 Factors Of Examination: Dashavidha Parikshya Bhavas

By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Master Charaka has detailed the examination of 10 factors in the Vimana Sthana section of Charaka Samhita. The master opines that every physician should have a thorough knowledge of investigating these 10 factors to become a good clinician. They can also be considered as 10 fold methods of investigation.
Dasha = ten
Vidha = types of
Parikshya = to be examined
Bhavas = factors
Read – 10 Factors Of Patient Examination – Dasha Vidha Atura Pareeksha

10 factors of examination

The 10 fold methods of examination which every physician should know are as listed below –

Sl NoFactor / fold of investigation(factor to be investigated)Meaning
1KaaranaReason / the one responsible for treatment i.e. doctor
2Karanathe instruments / equipments which are used in the treatment, mainly the medicines
3Karya Yonisource of action i.e. disease / imbalances in tissues and body components on which the physician operates
4Karyaaction i.e. treatment so as to bring equilibrium in the body components and establish health
5Karya Phalaresult of action, i.e. establishment of comfort, happiness or health
6Anubandhaassociation of the patient with lifespan
7DeshaHabitat / land
8KalaTime factor
9PravrittiInitiation of action
10UpayaMeans of action

These factors should necessarily be assessed and analyzed by the physician before treatment process. By doing so, the tasks will be accomplished to perfection. If these factors are not assessed, the physician may face failure in his clinical practice.

Among the above mentioned ten factors, Desha pareeksha or examination of habitat includes Dasha Vidha Pareeksha or tenfold treatment of the patient.

According to master Charaka, desha i.e. habitat is of two types,
Bhumi desha – the land, earth or the place in which we live and
Atura Desha – the human body, which itself is a land

Thorough examination of both habitats is mandatory if effective treatment has to be planned and implemented.
Read – Stool Examination In Ayurveda

Importance

Benefits of knowledge10 fold examination methods

When a physician has a comprehensive knowledge of these 10 factors of investigation and treats patients, he or she would get short and long term success with very little effort. Short term success implies the immediate success obtained by treating the patients. Long term success implies with ‘the foundation’ which the physician would get on instant success, that foundation which would help to build a good client and base for earning life for many years.

These physicians would get good name, fame, wealth and recognition in the society since they will be appreciated not only by the experts of the medical field but also by the patients for handling the cases on the basis of comprehensive knowledge of 10 fold investigation methods.
Read – Roga, Rogi Pareeksha: Examination Of Disease And Patient

Sanskrit verses

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 2.DashavidhaParikshyaBhavas.Final_.jpg
Sl NoFactor / fold of investigation(factor to be investigated)Meaning
1KaaranaCause or reason / the one responsible for treatment i.e. doctor
2Karanathe instruments / equipments which are used in the treatment, mainly the medicines
3Karya Yonisource of action i.e. disease / imbalances in tissues and body components on which the physician operates
4Karyaaction i.e. treatment so as to bring equilibrium in the body components and establish health
5Karya Phalaresult of action, i.e. establishment of comfort, happiness or health
6Anubandhaassociation of the patient with lifespan
7DeshaHabitat / land
8KalaTime factor
9PravrittiInitiation of action
10UpayaMeans of action

These factors should necessarily be assessed and analyzed by the physician before treatment process. By doing so, the tasks will be accomplished to perfection. If these factors are not assessed, the physician may face failure in his clinical practice.

Among the above mentioned ten factors, Desha pareeksha or examination of habitat includes Dasha Vidha Pareeksha or tenfold treatment of the patient.

According to master Charaka, desha i.e. habitat is of two types,
Bhumi desha – the land, earth or the place in which we live and
Atura Desha – the human body, which itself is a land

Thorough examination of both habitats is mandatory if effective treatment has to be planned and implemented.
Read – Stool Examination In Ayurveda

Benefits of knowing 10 fold examination methods

When a physician has a comprehensive knowledge of these 10 factors of investigation and treats patients, he or she would get short and long term success with very little effort. Short term success implies the immediate success obtained by treating the patients. Long term success implies with ‘the foundation’ which the physician would get on instant success, that foundation which would help to build a good client and base for earning life for many years.

These physicians would get good name, fame, wealth and recognition in the society since they will be appreciated not only by the experts of the medical field but also by the patients for handling the cases on the basis of comprehensive knowledge of 10 fold investigation methods.
Read – Roga, Rogi Pareeksha: Examination Of Disease And Patient

Sanskrit verses

Scientific and research perspective

Any kind of research broadly comprises three steps. They are –

1. Planning
2. Operation
3. Reporting

When we look at the 10 fold investigations explained by Master Charaka, they look like they serve the same purpose of research. Master Charaka’s 10 methods of investigation can be scattered amongst the 3 steps of research. They can in fact be considered as ‘research methods’.

Sl NoResearch stepAspects of 10 factors of examination to be considered in correlation
1PlanningKaarana, Karana, Karyayoni, Desha Kala
2Operation Karya, Pravritti, Upaya
3ReportingKaryaphala, Anubandha

Therefore the ten factors of examination explained by Master Charaka are used as tools of clinical research in Ayurveda and are essential aspects of the same.

This shows that Ayurveda being a science of life, has long back thought about examination of these 10 factors as a part of comprehensive clinical approach towards knowing and understanding various aspects related to the treatment process and also to analyze the association of ayu i.e. lifespan and the integrity of body, mind, senses and soul which is a tool for understanding the health status and longevity of the patient in the treatment process. This will also help in analyzing the curability and incurability of the diseases i.e. to understand the prognosis of the disease and also in selection of curable diseases to provide comprehensive treatment and also make plans to manage the manageable and difficult to cure conditions.

This shows that even in the ancient era the Ayurveda seers and masters have considered and given importance to the comprehensive approach and involvement of various factors in the treatment process in a scientific way. Being a science of life and health, and in spite of being the oldest school of medicine, Ayurveda adopts scientific approach and scientific method to acquire knowledge.

Dashavidha Parikshya Bhavas are the most significant contributions by Master Charaka towards comprehensive learning of Ayurveda treatment protocols and has opened up gates for learning and implementing research methods in Ayurveda. This wisdom helps us make protocols for documentation and research in Ayurveda.

These methods of examination of 10 factors though includes methods of planning, operation and reporting, it can be mainly correlated with ‘planning for research’. Charaka’s explanation of examination of 10 factors enables us to understand that proper planning should be done before the treatment process and the same is the main principle of modern day research protocols.

When the physician and treatment protocol is replaced by researcher and research protocol, the ten factors explained by master Charaka can be understood as explained below.

1. Kaarana is the physician in the treatment process and is the researcher in the research study.

2. Karana refers to the equipment used in the treatment, mainly the medicines which are the key tools used by the physician. When it comes to research – the research methods, investigation products and different procedures involved define the karana aspect of research.

3. Karyayoni means source of treatment. The imbalance of the body components i.e. doshas, tissues and excreta, mainly the doshas is the source of action i.e. the target for the physician to operate upon. The source of action for a researcher is the research problem and formulation of hypothesis which forms the source of research.

4. Karya means action. In the treatment process it pertains to bringing the disturbed doshas and body components back to a state of equilibrium. It is the action taken by the physician to establish the balance of doshas and establish health in patients. In research study, the aims and objectives of the study and purpose of research study form the actions of the researcher and hence can be considered as karya.
Read – External Treatments To Keep Doshas In Balance

5. Karyaphala means results of any action. In treatment the attainment of happiness / health in the patient is the expected outcome. In research works the expected outcomes of research shall be considered as outcomes of action.

6. Anubandha means association or subsequent manifestation. In treatment it is the association of the patient with ayu – longevity or constant and stable association of body, mind, senses and soul. This also defines the long term effects of the outcome of an action. In research studies, the long term effects of research study, impact of research on society and teleological ethics are included in subsequent manifestations.

7. Desha means habitat. In this, both the land and the body of the patient are considered as the habitat and they both should be examined in the treatment process. For examination of the body as the habitat, 10 more examinations are explained which form the basis of comprehensive patient examination protocol i.e. dasha vidha pariksha. In research, the site of study, geographical distribution and selection of representative samples forms the examination of habitat.
Read – 11 Factors That An Ayurveda Doctor Considers To Decide On Treatment

 8. Kala means season or time. In treatment process, this comprises examination of the year consisting of various seasons and also the examination of the different states of the disease / patient. In research study, the time period of study undertaken, the duration of study and epidemiological studies, types of correlational or analytical study are taken into consideration as far as examination of kala is concerned.

9. Pravritti means initiation of action. In the treatment process, consistent efforts of the physician towards conducting treatment are called pravritti. In research, the motivation needed for conducting research, the scientific and ethical aspects involved in research towards accomplishment of the objective of the study can be correlated to pravritti.

10. Upaya means action. In the treatment process the excellence of the physician and involvement of all four limbs of treatment adorned with their excellent qualities getting indulged in achieving the action i.e. towards success of treatment and the correctness of the therapy is considered as means of action. The same means of action in terms of research includes excellence of research, proper definition or selection of research problem and formulation of hypothesis i.e. overall research planning includes the means of action.

It is very essential to demonstrate to the modern world the applicability of ancient methods of research. This should be done in various fields of research including literary, clinical, fundamental and drug research. The Ayurveda concepts need to be validated in a scientific manner. Ayurveda as a comprehensive medical science can be established only by validation of ancient methods of investigation or research. This will help in expanding the horizons and dimensions of research methodology in Ayurveda. Dashavidha Parikshya Bhava is one of the doors towards establishing the Ayurveda clinical principles through research methods.
Click to Consult Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu) 

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