By Dr Raghuram Y. S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B. A. M. S
Vata, pitta and kapha are three doshas. They form basic functional and physical composition of an individual. Vata, pitta and kapha are said to be representatives of natural forces existing outside us i.e. air, fire and water elements respectively. They also represent air, sun and fire respectively.
Read – Dosha Types, Imbalance Symptoms – Ashtanga Hrudaya Sutrasthana 12
Table of Contents
Sattva, Rajas and Tama are three gunas or qualities. They are basically cosmic qualities. Entire creation, including human being has been created by involvement of these three qualities. These three qualities also form our mental qualities. They are also called as Mahagunas or greater qualities. Among three rajas and tama are considered as contaminants of mind i. e. manasika doshas, just like 3 doshas are physical contaminants.
Read – Mind – Qualities And Functions As Per Ayurveda
Since three greater qualities create nature and elements of same nature represent in form of three doshas in physical body, there needs to be some relation between 3 doshas and 3 great qualities.
Triguna – Dosha relation
Three doshas are made up of 5 elements of nature.
- Vata is a combination of air and ether elements.
- Pitta is a combination of fire and water elements.
- Kapha is a combination of water and earth elements.
Three doshas are further nourished and maintained by food substances which are also made up of elements of nature. Each food substance is made up of predominance of one or more of elements of nature, which will accordingly nurture related dosha following law of similarity.
Read – Diet And Lifestyle Advice For Vata Dosha Body Type
Vata dosha is nurtured and formed by substances which are predominantly made up of air and ether elements. Pitta dosha is formed and nurtured by food substances which are fiery and watery. Kapha dosha is formed and nurtured by food substances which are watery and earthy.
Nature is made up of three super qualities i. e. sattva, raja and tama. Therefore everything which is created by nature and everything in nature has inherited these three qualities.
Read – Ayurvedic Pitta Diet – food suitable for Pitta body type
- Sattva quality – reflects knowledge of an individual
- Rajas quality – represents all actions, movements and activities which happen in body
- Tamas quality – balances and controls above mentioned qualities from their over-expression
Since all movable and immovable things of creation are derived from nature, they also inherit sattva, rajas and tamas qualities from nature.
These great qualities also influence five basic elements of nature, since these elements are also a part of creation. Thus, these three elements are also made up of these three qualities.
Read – Panchamahabhuta: Application, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda treatment
Five basic elements
Make up of five basic element of nature by three great cosmic qualities
- Ether element is predominantly made up of satva quality
- Air element is predominantly made up of rajas quality
- Fire element is predominantly made up of sathva and rajas qualities
- Water element is made up of sattva and tamas qualities
- Earth element is made up of tamas quality
Make up of three doshas by three qualities
Vata is made up of air and ether elements, with predominance of air element. Since air element has more of rajas quality, vata has more of rajas quality in it.
Pitta is made up of fire and water elements, with predominance of fire element. Since fire element has more of satva and rajas qualities, pitta has more of satva and rajas qualities in it.
Kapha is made up of water and earth elements, with predominance of water element. Since water element has more of satva and tamas qualities and earth element made up predominantly tamas quality, combination of these elements leads to expression of more of tamas quality. Thus, kapha has more of tamas quality in it.
Manasika Doshas – Contaminants Of Mind
Sattva, Raja and Tama are considered to be ‘trigunas’. They are also called as Maha Gunas i.e. three great qualities. They take part in creation of universe. They also make up qualities of human mind. Thus, these three greater qualities are embedded in each and every thing in this creation. Raja and Tama are also called Rajas and Tamas respectively.
Among these three cosmic qualities present in our mind, rajas and tamas are said to be manasika doshas i.e. contaminants of mind. They, in a state of their imbalance are said to vitiate mind just like three physical doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha contaminate and damage body when they get vitiated.
Sattva, good quality
Sattva, a quality which is always enlightening and a cause for positive vibes is not considered as a mind dosha.
Sattva quality reflects knowledge. Everything known and learnt depends on sattva. This quality enables one to acquire true knowledge of all objects and subjects. This quality is unperturbed. But it may be masked by increased raja or tama qualities. When sattva quality is masked by other qualities which are also doshas, person becomes or appears ignorant.
Properties and pathological manifestations of mind doshas
Rajas / Rajo Guna
Rajas quality represents all movements and activities which occur in body. This quality has to be in balance. If rajas is disturbed towards higher scale and dominates mind, it leads to hyperactivity of mind. This may lead to outrageous thoughts and high-end emotions like anger, over anxiety, aggressiveness etc.
Mind may also become restless. Mind always keeps functioning even during sleep. Thought process is active and keeps rolling in mind just like advertisements keep rolling at bottom of television. In extreme conditions, person may become indecisive or take erroneous decisions which are not beneficial for self or others in the community. Destructive thoughts may also dominate leading one to commit many crimes and offences.
Below mentioned qualities are imbibed due to predominance of rajo guna –
Excessive indulgence in physical and mental activities
Expression of desires, hatred, grief, happiness, greed, egoism, stubbornness, anger, pride, jealousy, anxiety, loss of discrimination power and fluctuation of mind
When these qualities are excessively expressed, they harm mind. In due course of time, body doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha too will be involved and disturbed. These doshas lead to manifestation of physical diseases.
Tamas, Tamo Guna
Tamas quality balances and controls qualities of rajas from their over-expression. It is considered to be antagonistic to functions and expressions of rajo guna. If rajas represent activeness, tamas represents slowness. If raja quality is responsible for aggressiveness, tama quality is responsible for calmness. If rajas cause hyperactivity, tamas causes deficit functions.
If tamas over-expresses, it will mask expression of raja. Thus activities will slow down. Increased tama quality will also mask basic intelligence and wisdom caused by sattva quality. Person will thus lose reasoning power and behave like a stupid. Coordination between thoughts and actions will be broken.
Below mentioned qualities are imbibed due to predominance of tamo guna –
Causes nourishment, brings calmness, unifies things and binds them
Controls and induces liquidity and unctuousness in body
Over-expression causes ignorance, laziness, sleep, stupor, idiocy and depression
Mind – Physical relation
Mind contaminants also contribute towards physical ailments
As already discussed, physical doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha first produce diseases pertaining to body and later affect mind. Similarly, mind doshas i.e. raja and tama first produces mental disorders and later afflict body.
Why does this happen?
This is because everything which is created in world is made up of these three superior qualities i.e. sattva, raja and tama, including five elements of nature. Earth element is predominantly made up of tamas quality, air element of rajas, water element by satva and tamas, fire element by sattva and rajas and space element by sattva quality predominance.
These five elements of nature, made up of permutations and combinations of these three greater qualities create the human body too.
Bodily doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha are also made up of five elements. It means that three doshas are also made up of tirgunas.
Vata is made up of air element predominantly and ether element. Due to predominance of air element, vata is made up of rajas quality.
Pitta is made up more of fire element and less of water element. Due to predominance of fire element, pitta too has more proportion of sattva and raja qualities.
Kapha is made up of water and earth elements, with predominance of water element. Due to predominance of water element, kapha too is made up of tamas quality.
By mix and match, body doshas, mind doshas and five elements are interrelated. Thus, body and mind doshas impact each other.
Classical evidence –
Raja and Tama are mind doshas. They, when out of balance cause many disorders like excessive possessiveness, lust, anger, greed, jealousy, egoism, intoxication, grief, worry, fear, ecstasy etc.
Similarly, vata, pitta and kapha are body doshas. When they go out of balance, they cause disease of likes of diarrhea, fever, depletion of tissues, phthisis, tuberculosis, dyspnea, diabetes, urinary disorders, skin diseases etc.
These diseases when existing for long duration and get chronic, get associated with each other i.e. mind disorders get associated with physical disorders or physical disorders get associated with mind disorders. This means to tell that, physical disorders may cause mental disorders and vice versa over a period of time. This happens due to affliction of rajas and tamas by vata, pitta and kapha or the other way around.