Urine In Ayurveda – Functions, Importance, Pathology, Treatment

Article by – Renita D’Souza
Ayurveda considers Dosha, waste products and tissues as tripods of life which supports the body in its normal state. Urine is considered one among the waste products that as to expelled out timely in normal state. 


Urine is the liquid waste product excreted from the body by process of urination, which is one among the natural urges that should neither be suppressed nor attended forcefully.

As per Ayurveda, urine should be produced in the kidney and stored in the bladder and excreted out of the body in specific amount of time.

Abnormal formation of waste products is caused by certain factors that alters its qualities, quantity, frequency of expulsion along with other associated symptoms that disturbs the normal functioning of body and mind.
Read related – Benefits And Usage of Water As per Ayurveda: Complete Compilation

Causes for vitiation of urinary system

  • Suppression of urge for urination
  • Intake of in food and drinks during the urge for micturition
  • Emaciation
  • Trauma
  • Excess traveling
  • Indulging in sex during urge of micturition
  • Unwholesome and incompatible food
  • Malnutrition
  • Fried, spicy contaminated food
  • Intake of more or less water
  • Infections
  • Mental factors – excess stress, grief, fear, anger etc which leads to vitiation of particular doshas
  • Late night sleep, night vigils
  • Dehydration
  •  Excess physical and mental strain
  • Exposure to sun and cold wind
  • Smoking
  • Intake of alcohol
  • Certain medications
  • Read – Effects Of Constant Holding Urine: Ayurvedic Treatment

Normalcy of urine

Normal function of urine (Su 15/9)
Basti purana – fills the bladder
Vikledakrth – eliminates uncoustness

Normal quality of urine

  • Taste – pungent, salty
  • Potency – hot
  • Odour – aromatic
  • Action – penetrating (tikshna)
  • Light to digest
  • Color – pale yellow
  • Ph – 6
  • Specific gravity – 1.010 – 1.035

Synonyms of urine – Mutra, bastimala, meha, nrijala, strava and prastrava.
Read Importance of Stool (Faeces) in Ayurveda

Panchabhautika elements of urine
Jala – water
Agni – fire

Symptoms on supression

Symptoms of suppression of urine (Cha. Su 7/6)

  • Pain in urinary bladder and genitals
  • Pain during urination
  • Headache
  • Bending of body
  • Bloating


  • Swedana – sudation  therapy
  • Avaghaha – sitz bath
  • Abyangha – oil massage
  • Sarpishah Avapiidaka – nasal instillation with ghee
  • Trividha bastikarma – unctous enema, detective enema and urethral douches (uttara basti)

Read related – High Potassium, Kidney Disease and Leaching of Vegetables

Urine formation

Formation of urine
As we all know urine is the waste liquid part of food, it is called so when it is filtered and reach urinary bladder. As the earthen pot immersed in water gets filled with it similarly, urine gets drained into bladder continuously by urinary ducts (mutra vaha nadis).
Urge for urination is caused by action of apana vata when the bladder is filled with urine.

Quantity of urine – 4 anjali. 1 anjali is the amount of liquid that can be help when the hands are made into bowl shape.
Average volume of urine excreted – 1500 ml/day
Average capacity of bladder – 700 – 800 ml

Urinary system (mutravaha strotas)(Cha. Vi 5/20, 8,)
These are the channels which carry urine. It includes urinary bladder, kidneys, ureter, urethra and groin region.
Read: Cow urine Therapy Benefits, Research

Roots of urinary channels
Basti – urinary bladder
Vankshana – kidneys (Cha. vi 5/8)

Effects of hampered system

Symptoms of vitiated urinary channels

  • Excessive urination
  • Absence of urination
  • Frequent scanty urination
  • Painful urination
  • Voiding large quantity of urine

Injury to the channels cause – (Su. sha 9/12)

  • Basti sthabda – stiffness of bladder
  • Mutra nirodha – obstruction for urination
  • Sthabdha medra – numbness in penis

Treatment –Treatment is same as in  mutrakrichra

Increased urine

Symptoms of increased urine (Su. su 15/15)

  • Mutra vriddi – increase in quantity of urine
  • Muhurmuhu pravritti – frequent urination
  • Basti thodha – pain in urinary bladder
  • Aadhmana – Abdominal distention

Causes for increase in quantity of urine

  • Excess intake of liquid diet
  • Cold season

Read related – Urinari calculi – Home Remedies, Ayurved Treatment, Diet, Recipes

Decreased urine

Decreased urine symptoms (C. su 17/71, A.S su 19/6, S. su 15/11)

  • Mutra vaivarnya – discoloration of urine
  • Mutrakrichra – painful urination
  • Pipaasa – thirst
  • Mukha shosha – dryness of mouth
  • Basti nisthodha – pain in urinary bladder
  • Sa rudhira mutra – voiding urine mixed with blood
  • Alpa mutra – voiding less quantity of urine

Cause of decrease in quantity of urine

Urinary system diseases


In a research is conducted by Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing, human urine is analyzed for proteome and used as a tool to discover potential biomarkers (1)

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka have conducted a research on human urine as a low cost nitrogen fertilizer for bean cultivation. They found this to be low cost and comparatively more effective than the regular chemicals and fertilizers used in bean production. (2)

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