Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Dosha vitiation leads to the manifestation of diseases. Dosha dushti initiates samprapti or pathogenesis of a disease and eventually cause disease after damaging the tissues (dhatus, dushyas) in which they get lodged. Dosha is the chief contributory factor for a disease.
Read related: Contributory Factors for a Disease – Ayurvedic View Point
The dosha dushti occurs in various types. According to the type of vitiation, these doshas tend to cause diseases of various types and forms.
Dosha Dushti Prakara
Dosha Dushti Prakara (types of vitiation of doshas)
Dosha vitiation can occur in one or the other below mentioned ways –
- Prakruta and Vaikruta Dushti
- Swatantra and Paratantra Dushti
- Prakritigata and Vikritigata Dushti
- Dushti according to Doshagati
- Sama and Nirama
- Samsarga and Sannipata Dushti
Note – The first 6 types of dosha dushti are mentioned in Madhava Nidana chapter 1. The 7th one can be considerd as a type of dosha dushti.
Actually the above said 7 forms of dosha dushti (instead of dosha dushti) are mentioned as Dosha Bhedas in Madhava Nidana. For the convenience of understanding I have taken them as dosha dushti since all 7 types represent vitiation in one or the other form or one among the duals is a vikriti (vitiated form) of dosha. The prakriti (normal form) and vikriti (abnormal or vitiated form) of doshas are understood hand-in-hand or side-by-side for convenient understanding of what is normal and what is abnormal in relation to it.
Read related: Samprapti Meaning, Definition, Types, Examples
Prakruta and Vaikruta Dushti
Prakruta dushti or normal vitiation of dosha is a form of dosha vitiation which occurs due to natural factors like change in seasonal and diurnal factors etc.
On the other hand, Vaikruta Dushti or abnormal vitiation of dosha is a form of dosha vitiation which occurs in abnormal seasons not natural to its vitiation.
Read related: Role of Dosha in causation of a Disease
Swatantra and Paratantra Dushti
Swatantra Dushti means independent vitiation of doshas. It is also called as Anubandhya Dushti. As the name tells, the doshas get independently vitiated by the specific etiological factors responsible for its vitiation.
Paratantra Dushti means dependent or secondary vitiation of doshas. It is also called Anubandha Dushti. Here, the doshas get vitiated by the etiological factors responsible for vitiation of some other (major) dosha.
Prakritigata and Vikritigata Dushti
Prakritigata Dushti is a type of dosha vitiation in which the vitiation of dosha is identical to one’s prakriti or constitution. Example, vitiation of kapha in kapha prakriti person is prakritigata dushti.
Vikritigata Dushti is a type of dosha vitiation in which the vitiation of dosha is not identical to one’s prakriti or constitution. Example, vitiation of Vata in Pitta prakriti person is vikritigata dushti.
Dosha Dushti according to Dosha Gati
Dosha Gati means location, movement, direction of flow or positioning of doshas. Dosha vitiations also takes place in rhythm with dosha gati. Such type of dosha dushti may present in one or more of the below mentioned forms.
- Kshaya (decrease of doshas), Sthana (equilibrium of doshas) and Vriddhi (increase of doshas)
- Urdhwa gati (upward movement of doshas), Adhah (Adho) Gati (downward movement of doshas) and Tiryak Gati (oblique movement of doshas)
- Koshta gati (movement of doshas into the visceral organs), Shakha Gati (movement of doshas into the tissues) and Marma-Asthi-Sandhi gati (movement of doshas into the vital organs, bones and joints of the body)
- Sanchaya or Chaya (accumulation of doshas), Prakopa or Kopa (aggravation of doshas) and Prashamana (regression or auto-pacification of doshas)
- Prakriti (normalcy of doshas) and Vikriti (abnormality, morbidity of doshas)
It means ‘being pulled away from the original seat’. Ashayapakarsha is caused by vitiated vata. When the vitiated vata pulls the other normal doshas (normal kapha or pitta) from their original normal seat to other places of the body, the doshas which have been displaced from their seats by vayu, in spite of being normal tend to produce disease in the new areas of the body where they are thrown by the vitiated vata. This condition is called Ashayapakarsha and the displaced dosha will be called as Ashayapakrushta Dosha.
Read related: Ashayapakarsha By Vata: Displacement of Pitta, Kapha Dosha
Sama and Nirama Dosha
Ama is a substance formed in the stomach due to weak digestion of the food by jatharagni – belly fire. This is produced in the form of immature essence or bi-product of the food. The same ama is put into circulation and gets deposited in various tissues of the body. By the virtue of its sticky nature the ama tends to stick to the walls of the cells and channels of the body and cause multiple blocks. These blocks caused by ama deprives the body of its nutrition and essential building blocks and materials needed to carry on day to day activities. This further damages the cells and causes diseases.
When the doshas are associated with this ama, they are called sama doshas. When this ama is separated from the doshas by administration of deepana (medicines improving appetite and kindling the digestive fire) and pachana (medicines to digest and destroy ama), the doshas devoid of ama are called nirama doshas. Both sama and nirama doshas are pathological conditions and tend to cause diseases. Therefore they can be considered as forms of dosha dushti.
Samsarga and Sannipata Dushti
Samsarga Dushti is a type of dosha vitiation in which two doshas are simultaneously vitiated. This type of dosha dushti is also called as Dwidoshaja or Dwandwaja Dosha Dushti.
Sannipata Dushti is a type of dosha vitiation in which three doshas are simultaneously vitiated. This type of dushti of dosha is also called Tridoshaja Dushti.
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