Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is an inflammatory condition of reproductive organs in women. The inflammation of pelvic organs mainly uterus, uterine tunes and ovaries along with pelvis occurs after infection caused mainly by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection ascends into the pelvis from vagina and cause painful condition called PID. The inflammation presents with pain in lower tummy, pelvic pain, vaginal discharges, fever and other disturbing symptoms.
Prevention of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Knowing the disease and the causes of infection is the best method of keeping PID away. Below mentioned are the key strategies for preventing PID.
Regular testing for sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged
Risk of getting PID can be reduced by the following methods or measures –
Using Barrier methods and safe sexual practices – example use of condoms
Medical attention – One should seek immediate medical attention if the symptoms of PID are experienced. For this one should have knowledge of the disease. One should also seek medical attention after learning that a present or former sex partner has or is suspected to have sexually transmitted infection.
Hormonal contraceptives – Using hormonal combined contraceptive pills helps in reducing the chances of hiring PID
STI history – One should get a STI (sexually transmitted infection) history from the sexual partner and strongly encourage them to get tested and treated for the same before having sexual intercourse.
Reducing partners – Reducing the number of sexual partners will lessen the risk of developing PID
Avoiding vaginal activity – Being careful in avoiding vaginal activity, particularly intercourse, after the end of a pregnancy, delivery, miscarriage or abortion or certain other gynecological procedures will help. These measures should be taken to ensure that the cervix of the uterus closes.
Sexual monogamy – helps in total avoidance of outside sex partners. It restricts and confines the sexual activities to 2 virgin partners and reduces or nullifies the chances of getting PID.
Abstinence (not having sex or keeping away from sex) – Abstinence from sex really helps, especially when one is prone to get PID.
Screening – Women who are at the risk of chlamydial infection followed by treatment should be screened. Suspected cases should be efficiently treated. Woman’s sexual partners should also be treated.
In mild to moderate symptoms – Single injection of ceftriaxone (antibiotic) combined with 2 weeks of doxycycline and metronidazole are recommended
Early treatment – If you are at risk of having a sexually transmitted infection or disease, consult your doctor at the earliest for early diagnosis and proper treatment. Early treatment can help prevent pelvic inflammatory disease.
Treatment for sexual partner – When suffering from PID, ask your sex partner to get tested for any infections. If needed, get it treated.
Complete antibiotic course – The prescribed antibiotics should be taken and the course completed and should not be discontinued in between.
Avoid vaginal douche – Vaginal douching should be avoided as it upsets the balance of good bacteria in your vagina
Regular bath – Bathe regularly. Every time you use the bathroom, every time wipe from front to back. This will help in preventing the bacteria from rectum from entering the vagina.
Quit smoking – Smoking increases the risk of PID. Therefore quit smoking immediately.
Caution during menstrual period – Avoid unprotected intercourse, especially during the periods.
Contraception caution – Some forms of contraception may increase your risk of developing PID. Therefore you should speak to your doctor so as to have a correct choice of contraception.
Avoid iron supplements – Bacteria are said to feed on iron. Therefore you should avoid iron supplements unless if they are advised to be taken by a qualified doctor.
Avoid sugar foods – For quick recovery from PID, avoid taking sugar rich foods and beverages, as they tend to worsen the condition.
Healthy diet – Maintaining a healthy diet is the secret of prevention of many health issues, for recovering too. Thus healthy diet can be considered as a preventive measure as well as home remedy for PID.
Avoid – alcohol, coffee, tobacco, all foods that trigger allergy, junk foods processed foods, trans-fatty acids etc
Home Remedies for PID
There is no alternative than taking an opinion and properly getting diagnosed from a qualified physician. Since PID is involved with infection and its own set of complications treating the condition becomes the key. Home remedies shall be used as supportive line of intervention rather than mainstream remedies.
Below mentioned are some effective home remedies which may help in easing the symptoms related to PID –
Garlic is one of the best and effective remedy for symptoms related to PID. It has strong antibacterial and antibiotic properties. It is said to regulate the good and protective bacteria of the vagina. Use of garlic prevents recurrence of infection.
How to use?
- Take 2-3 minced garlic cloves
- Fry them in approximately 2 teaspoon full olive oil
- Fry until the garlic cloves turn brown in color
- Strain the oil, allow it to cool
- Soak a sterile cotton ball in this strained oil
- Insert this oil dipped cotton ball in the vagina
- Remove the cotton ball; leave the oil in the vagina for couple of hours
- Rinse the vagina after couple of hours
- This should be repeatedly done until the infection reduces
Alternatively, garlic shall be added to the meals. Garlic supplement also shall be taken, but after the consultation and opinion of consulting doctor.
Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric has powerful antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Turmeric is also proved to be good for immune system. It can thus help in preventing recurrences of episodes or symptoms of PID.
How to use?
1 teaspoon of turmeric powder should be boiled in a glass of milk. It should be taken once daily and continued until the symptoms reduce.
Alternatively, turmeric supplements can be taken in the dose of 500 mg twice or thrice daily, in consent with the doctor
Read related: Turmeric: Curcuma longa Benefits, Usage, Dose, Side Effects
It has strong antimicrobial properties. It helps to ward off the unwanted discharges from vagina. Its antibacterial properties will help in fighting with infection related to PID.
How to use?
Add 2 teaspoons of dry ginger powder to approximately 250ml of water. Boil it and reduce till the water is reduced to half. This solution should be consumed on daily basis until the infection clears. Ginger can be used as daily inclusion in the diet.
Read related: Ginger Benefits, Research, Home Remedies, Side Effects
Probiotic yoghurt contains live cultures or good bacteria which are beneficial for the body. This yoghurt is a good remedy to fight bacterial infection. Yoghurt has good bacteria. This helps in fighting the bad bacteria and also to restore good bacteria in the vagina. It helps to maintain healthy pH in vagina.
How to use?
- Apply ½ cup of probiotic yoghurt to your vulva and vagina
- Wait for few hours
- Rinse the parts with cool water
- Use this remedy once daily for few weeks or until symptoms ease
Alternatively eat 2-3 bowls of plain yoghurt everyday
Tea Tree Oil –
Tea tree oil has strong antimicrobial properties; hence it can be used in treating PID. It helps in fighting the infection causing bacteria. It even reduces vaginal odor.
How to use?
- Take small bowl filled with warm water
- Mix 2-3 drops of tea tree oil in the warm water contained in the bowl
- Use this water to rinse your vagina
- Follow this remedy once daily for at least one month or until the symptoms get reduced
Castor oil –
Castor oil eases the pain caused by PID. Castor oil contains ricinoleic acid. This has good analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce pain associated with PID.
How to do?
- Take a large flannel cloth
- Fold it into layers
- Pour 2-3 tablespoons of castor oil on it
- Warm this cloth to a comfortable temperature in a microwave
- Lie down on an old towel
- Put the warm flannel cloth on your lower abdomen
- Cover the cloth with a plastic wrap
- Wait for 20 minutes
- Repeat this remedy once or twice daily for a week
Alternatively, castor oil massage can be given over the pelvic region to ease pain
Other method – Place a cloth dampened with castor oil on your abdomen. Cover the cloth with saran wrap. Place a heating pad on it for half hour (or 3 hours if no heating pad is used). It shall not be used for more than 3 days. The remedy may be resumed after giving a gap of 1-2 days (after 3 days treatment).
Read related: Castor Oil Benefits, Research, Side Effects, How To Use, Dose
Beta-carotene rich foods –
Foods rich in beta-carotene should be included in your diet not only to fight the disease, but also to promote quick healing. Beta-carotene helps in healing the damaged mucous membranes of the reproductive tract. It also strengthens the cervical cells; this in turn helps in preventing infections.
Foods high in beta-carotene content are carrots, mangoes, sweet potatoes, spinach, pumpkin etc
Baking Powder –
It is an alkaline compound which helps to alkalize colon and also other organs. It reduces acidity. Its properties of alkalizing help in eliminating the bacteria and cure the infection. It also helps in balancing the pH levels of the body.
How to use?
To a glass of water, add half teaspoon baking powder
Stir in 1 teaspoon of psyllium fiber
Drink it on an empty stomach once daily for few weeks
Baking soda –
Baking soda is highly effective in the treatment of PID. It helps to balance pH levels and to get rid of foul smell of vaginal discharge.
How to use?
Add 1-2 teaspoons of baking soda to your glass of water mix it well and drink it daily.
It can also be used to treat PID by adding it to the bath water. For this, 1 cup of baking soda shall be added to your bathwater and soaked for 30 minutes before bath.
This herb has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulant properties that help fight infection. It also helps to ease the symptoms of PID and also enable fast recovery.
How to do?
Drink 1-2 cups of Echinacea tea daily for 1 week. Continue the recipe again after a gap of 1 week.
Alternatively you can take Echinacea supplements. Before taking the supplements take the consultation of your doctor.
Other beneficial inclusions which have been tried over a period of time –
Vitamin C – One should also eat vitamin C rich foods to boost their immune system and prevent infections. Vitamin C supplements also can be taken.
Cranberry juice – Cranberry juice and supplements are good for those suffering from PID.
Calcium rich foods and antioxidants –Foods rich in calcium include dark green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale, broccoli, almonds and beans. Dairy products are the best sources of calcium.
Antioxidant rich foods are blueberries; tomatoes, bell pepper, squash, cherries etc are anti-inflammatory in nature. By consuming wide variety of vegetables and fruits one can access antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids.
Multivitamins & minerals – If sufficient nutrients are not obtained through diet, you should rely on multivitamins that contain vitamins A, B-complex, C, E and small quantities of minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium. Vitamins should be supplemented on daily basis.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids – It helps in reducing inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids are available in food sources like walnuts, flax seeds, salmon, chia seeds, tofu and sardine. Fish oil capsules containing the said content can also be taken.
Probiotic supplements containing Lactobacillus acidophilus – Probiotic supplement which contains between 5-10 billion colony forming units (CFU’s) per day will help to maintain good gastrointestinal health and immunity.
Grapefruit seed oil (Citrus padadisi) – Grapefruit seed oil in capsule of 100 mg capacity per day will help in boosting immunity. It also fights inflammation with its antibacterial properties. The oil can also be used in the dose of 5-10 drops mixed in any of your preferred drink.
Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) – Green tea is rich in antioxidant properties. Optimum benefits can be obtained in PID on consuming 250-500 mg standardized extract of green tea each day. Alternatively tea made from green tea leaves can be used for drinking.
Apple Cider Vinegar – It is one of the most effective remedies for curing vaginal infections. It is antimicrobial and antifungal in nature. It also balances the pH levels. It can be used by adding to the bath tub. Add 3 large cups of vinegar to your bath water and soak for at least 20 minutes. This should be done for 4-5 times in a week for better results. It can be consumed by making a dilution with water in the ratio of 1:8 (water being 8 portions). Diluted apple cider vinegar oil can also be applied directly to the inner parts of vagina.
Hydration – Keep hydrated throughout the day. Keep consuming filtered water and green tea often.
Animal oils – Animal based cooking oil such as lard or butter should be substituted for healthy plant based alternatives like olive oil or coconut oil.
Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) – It has rich antifungal and antibacterial activity. This will help in reducing inflammation. 20mg of standardized extracts thrice a day will help immensely in PID.
Bromelain (Ananus comosus) – When this is used in the dose of 40mg (standardized extract), it helps to combat inflammation and pain effectively.
Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) – It helps in boosting immunity and fighting inflammation. It should be taken in the dose of 150-300 mg extract, 2-3 times a day.
Olive leaf (Olea europaea) – It is also rich in antibacterial and immunity boosting properties when taken in 250-500 mg (standardized extract), 1-3 times each day. It can also be taken in the form of brew teas.
Pelvic Massage –
Pelvic massage and massage of lower abdomen helps in tightening the muscles. It also helps in increasing blood flow to the reproductive organs. The maneuvers help in easing pain, provide relaxation and hasten healing.
How to do?
- Mix few drops of lavender essential oil in olive oil
- Lie on the bed, stretch your body
- Apply this mixture of oil on the lower abdomen
- Gently massage the pelvic area and lower abdomen in circular motions
- Gently massage for 5-10 minutes
- This shall be repeated once or twice daily until the symptoms and pain comes down
The massage can be done taking the help and assistance of any family member
Sitz Bath –
A contrast sitz bath wherein hot bath is altered with cold bath is extremely helpful in relieving the symptoms of PID. The hot water bath helps in relaxing the pelvis, abdominal and pelvic muscles. The cold bath on the other hand helps in alleviating pain.
How to do?
- Take 2 large bath tubs
- Fill one bathtub with warm water and the other tub with cold water
- See that the water is filled up to your waist high.
- To each tub, add few drops of lavender essential oil, stir well
- First sit in the hot water tub for at least 3 minutes
- Next, sit in the tub having cold water for at least 1 minute
- Repeat this few times
- End the session with cold water tub bath
Have this contrasting sitz bath daily for a week or more, or until the symptoms of PID reduce
Acupuncture also helps.
Ayurveda and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
There is no condition explained in Ayurveda which directly fits into the explanation of PID. But in this article I have tried to compare certain conditions mentioned in Ayurveda which closely resemble PID. This comparison is done only with an intention to short list the possible Ayurvedic remedies for PID by trying to see the condition through Ayurvedic perspective.
Related Reading: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis
A gross look at PID from an Ayurvedic eye
Looking at the symptoms of PID it can be said that it falls grossly under the below mentioned conditions (as per Ayurveda) –
Vata dushti – Vitiation of Vata and damage caused by it, especially pain, difficulty in intercourse, painful intercourse etc
Pitta dushti – Vitiation of Pitta and damage caused by it, especially inflammation and related symptoms like burning sensation, fever, abnormal and foul smelling discharges from vagina etc
Vata-Pitta Dushti – Combined vitiation of both Vata and Pitta wherein the above said individual symptoms pertaining to Vata and Pitta vitiation are jointly present.
Apana Vata Dushti – Vitiation of lower Vayu which controls the functions of the lower portions of the body, i.e. Apana Vata.
When we analyze any pathological condition based on the symptoms pertaining to the vitiation of one or more doshas (exactly the way which Ayurveda does in diagnosis of different morbid conditions) it will be easy to control or treat the vitiated dosha and thus halt the progression of the disease and stop the worsening of symptoms.
Pain in the pelvic organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries) and pelvis, lower abdominal pain are the main symptoms of PID from which the patient wants to get rid of. Vata is the culprit in the causation of these painful conditions.
In the name of the disease, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, the term ‘Inflammatory’ is self explanatory. According to Ayurveda, Inflammation, burning and corrosive manifestations in the body cannot be manifested without the vitiation of pitta and the insult caused by it. Pitta too causes burning type of pain and discomfort. Post-inflammation we can consider the involvement of Vata, resulting in worsening of pain.
Usually in the pathology of PID, there is combined vitiation of Vata and Pitta (one of these will be predominantly vitiated or both can be equally vitiated) in the pelvic region or Kati pradesha. Mainly the apana vata which is responsible for proper and undisturbed functions of pelvic organs is disturbed.
Read related: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Preventive measures, Home Remedies
It would not be wrong if we coin this condition as –
- Katigata Vata-Pitta Dushti (vitiation of vata and pitta in the pelvic region or pelvic organs)
- Garbhashayagata or Yonigata Vata-Pitta Dushti (vitiation of vata and pitta in the uterus or vagina)
The dosha analysis in this condition is very important from treatment perspective. Properly knowing the quality and quantity of dosha or doshas vitiated in the pelvic region and organs will help in comprehensively planning the line of treatment, for selecting precise medicines and treatments for combating PID.
Doshic approach in treatment of PID
The main aim in the treatment of PID is to reduce pain and inflammation associated with PID. For this to happen, we should comprehensively control the aggravation of pitta and vata. The pattern of treatment of PID on doshic pattern will be of 3 folds –
Role of panchakarma in PID
Shodhana and Role of Panchakarma –
Measures to expel the vitiated doshas, halt the progression of disease, reduce the damage and provide relief from the symptoms are included in shodhana. Shodhana means body cleansing or dosha-expelling treatments. Virechana and Vasti should be preferred in PID.
Virechana for PID:
Virechana or therapeutic purgation is the best method of expelling the morbid pitta and taking control of inflammation. When the recipe or formulation is in oil or ghee base (snigdha virechana), it also helps in combating the morbid vata and apana vata vitiation. When vitiated vata and pitta are controlled, the inflammation and pain subsides and the patient starts feeling better with symptoms.
In long term disease, krama virechana should be given i.e. Virechana should be given after administration of Snehana (medicated ghee, oil or both in metered doses until saturation of the body is achieved in 3-7 days) and Swedana (fomentation, sudation, sweating therapy). This will help in total expulsion of morbid doshas. The medicines used in Snehana are also anti-inflammatory and analgesic in nature along with vata-pitta alleviating properties and disease modifying properties. Therefore the relief will be noticed right from the day of snehana or snehapana.
In acute or short term condition or in the follow up (of stubborn conditions or when PID is recurring on and off), nitya virechana (daily virechana in small doses) shall be given.
Vasti treatment for PID:
Vasti or medicated enemas are extremely helpful in the PID. Vasti is not only the remedy for morbid Vayu but is also useful in expelling all the morbid doshas, to support and strengthen the tissues, to destroy the disease process and prevent recurrence. It is a wholesome recipe in PID. Vasti shall be done following Virechana for better impact on pain and inflammation. Blend of Virechana and Vasti is always useful.
All 3 forms of Vasti i.e. Kashaya Vasti (decoction enemas), Sneha Vasti (enemas using medicated ghee and oils) and Uttara Vasti (enemas given into the uterus) are highly beneficial.
While Kashaya Vasti expels the morbid Vayu and Pitta, Sneha Vasti would support the organs and tissues and strengthen them. They shall be used alternatively in one course. The number of days of treatment shall be decided by the physician after having analyzed the disease and diseased. Always Kashaya Vasti and Sneha Vasti will be used in combination.
Uttara Vasti has a high utility factor in the treatment of PID. In fact it is the best in business. In this, the medicated enemas and or ghee / oil are introduced into the uterine cavity through the vaginal route. This would be disease specific and disease modifying.
Matra Vasti i.e. small doses of sneha vasti or oil and ghee enema when given on daily basis would be supportive, strengthening apart from pacifying the morbid vata and pitta. Matra Vasti shall be preferred in short term conditions or conditions which are not associated with complications or in follow up of stubborn, chronic PID’s which are showing a nature of recurrence. Matra Vasti and Uttara Vasti too shall yield best results when given after Virechana.
Ksheera Vasti or medicated milk enemas are highly effective against pitta and inflammation. The relief it provides in PID is unparalleled. It can be skillfully blended with sneha vasti.
Shamana or Palliative medicine – Shotha Chikitsa
Shamana or palliative medicines or formulations form the second line of intervention. These are oral medicines which are given with an interntion of pacifying the vitiated doshas (not trying too much to push them out) and also to pacify the disease.
Shamana can be preferred when the patient is not suitable or ready for Shodhana or when shodhan is contraindicated in a given patient.
Shamana also becomes the main line of treatment in mild to moderate conditions of PID or when the morbidity is less.
Shamana Chikitsa also forms the follow up line of medications given after shodhana as a part of maintenance and to keep a continuous check on the disease pathology. Shaman can be planned in between 2 courses of shodhana and also be administered during shodhana too.
Shamana medicines and formulations are also disease modifying in nature and will do mild cleansing in terms of expelling the morbid doshas and malas (contaminants, excreta, waste substances, toxins).
Classical formulations for PID
- Dashamula Kashayam
- Guggulutiktakam Kashayam / Guggulutiktakam Ghritam
- Sukumaram Kashayam / Sukumaram Ghritam
- RasnaSaptakam Kashayam
- Dhanwantaram Kashayam / Dhanwantaram Ghritam
- Gandharvahastadi Kashayam
- Punarnava Madura
- Shotari Mandura
- Pushyanuga Churna
- Gandharvahastadi eranda tailam
- Nimbamritadi Eranda Tailam etc
Proprietary medicines for PID
- Tab / Cap / Syrup Meryton (Vasu)
- Syp Ovoutoline (Zandu)
- Syrup Rodhrashok (Rajashree)
- Syrup Ashoka Kalpa (Nanjangud)
- Tablet / Syrup Ashotone (Solumiks)
- Syrup Evatone (Alopa)
- Cap / Syrup Evecare (Himalaya)
- Cap Femotone (Fizikem)
- Cap Gynol (Kumar)
- Cap Gynovedan (Sagar)
- Syrup Lodhra (Kesari)
- Tab Menocramp (Solumiks)
- Tab Myostal (Solumiks)
- Syrup Lobak (Pentacare)
- Syrup Vatahara Kwatha (Pentacare)
- Tab Rumastal (Gufic)
- Tab Raasna Gugul (KAPL)
- Neurocare drops (Pentacare)
Single herbs for PID
- Ashoka – Saraca asoka
- Punarnava – Boerhavia diffusa
- Dashamula – Roots of 10 drugs
- Rasna – Alpinia galanga
- Guggulu – Commiphora mukul
- Shallaki – Boswellia settata
- Eranda – Ricinus communis
- Haridra – Turmeric
- Daruharidra – Berberis aristata
- Vidanga – Embelia ribes
- Nimba – Neem
- Pippali (long pepper)
- Guduchi – Tinospora cordifolia
- Devadaru – Cedrus deodara
- Amalaki (Emblica officinalis)
- Haritaki (Terminalia chebula)
- Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica)
- Shunti (ginger)
- Aragwadha – Cassia fistula
- Kushta – Saussurea lappa
- Agnimantha – Clerodendrum phlomidis
- Shatavari – Asparagus racemosus
- Kokilaksha – Asteracantha longifolia
- Vasa – Adhatoda vasica
- Chandana (sandal wood)
- Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
- Patola – pointed gourd
- Rasayana or Rejuvenators (disease modifying medicines, anti-ageing medicines) –
Rasayanas are used after Shodhana either in combination with shaman medicines or independently. Many Rasayanas are as such good disease modifying medicines. Rasayanas boost up the immunity in the body and help in preventing the progression of the disease. They also help in preventing the recurrences of the disease.
Important Rasayanas which could be used in PID –
- Kushmanda Rasayanam
- Draksha Avaleha
- Brahma Rasayanam
- Narasimha Rasayanam etc
Conditions resembling PID
Specific conditions explained in Ayurveda which resemble the clinical picture of PID and their management
Management of PID on the lines of treatment of Yoni Vyapad (treatment of diseases related to female genital system, i.e. Vagina, Uterus) –
Yoni means vagina in actual terms. But the term Yoni also involves other structures related (in and around the vagina) in broader terms. These structures are uterus, fallopian or uterine tubes, ovaries, pelvic cavity and pelvic floor. Vyapad means diseases. Yoni Vyapad means vaginal disorders or disorders of female genital system. They are 20 in number.
Among the 20 Yoni Vyapads, the Yoni Vyapads which closely resemble PID are –
Vipluta Yoni Vyapad – caused by Krimi (microorganisms, pathogens, bacteria, infection) and presents with pain in yoni on regular basis, as occurs in PID
Paripluta Yoni Vyapad – caused by vitiated vata (and pitta) and presents with pain during sex, pain in the pelvis and fever, resembling the clinical picture of PID
Acharana Yoni Vyapad – caused due to unhygiene of female genital system or yoni and provides floor for infection to occur, ascend up into the female genital tract and pelvis and cause pain and inflammation as said in PID
Vatala Yoni Vyapad – caused due to severe vitiation of Vata and presents with severe pain and tiredness as seen in PID
Pittala Yoni Vyapad – caused by vitiated Pitta and presents with signs and symptoms of inflammation i.e. burning sensation, corrosive pain, suppuration, fever etc as evident in PID
Management of Yoni Vyapat
Management of Yoni Vyapads while treating PID
While treating PID through Ayurveda focus should be there on the above said types of Yoni Vyapads also in spite of handling the morbid doshas. There is no doubt that the doshic pattern should be addressed and the vitiation of involved dosha should be controlled in treatment of PID, keeping in mind the specific Yoni Vyapads which fall in the category of PID also will help in proper diagnosis and comprehensive treatment.
Related reading – Treating PID on the lines of Yoni Vyapad Chikitsa
Causes of PID
Causes of PID, Ayurvedic perspective –
Vata Prakopa Karanas –
All the causative factors which vitiate Vata can cause or trigger or worsen Yoni Vyapad especially Vatala, Vipluta and Paripluta Yoni Vyapats. Acharya Charaka tells that Yoni Vyapad doesn’t occur without the involvement of morbid Vata. Even in the treatment of Yoni Vyapad, Charaka emphasis on addressing Vata, immaterial of the type of Yoni Vyapad (in all 20 types of Yoni Vyapads).
Read related: Different Causes For Vata Dosha Imbalance, Increase
Pitta Prakopa Karanas –
All the causative factors which vitiate Pitta may be considered as aggravating or triggering factors or directly causative towards PID. Pitta, as said already is invariably involved in diseases presenting with inflammation. PID has a strong inflammatory component.
Read related: Lifestyle, Food And Factors That Cause Pitta Dosha Increase
Vata-Pitta Prakopa Karanas –
In PID there is involvement of both Vata and Pitta. Either Vata or pitta is predominant at a given point of time depending on the severity and extent of the disease. All causative factors which either independently or jointly vitiate both Vata and Pitta can be considered to be contributory towards manifestation or worsening of PID. Paripluta, a Yoni Vyapad which resembles PID is Vata-Pittaja in origin.
Yoni Adhavanam –
Not cleansing the vagina regularly can cause acharana yoni vyapad. Unhygienic conditions of vagina (genital tract) can form a suitable background for development of infections. These infections ascend through the vagina and uterus to the fallopian tubes, ovaries and pelvis so as to cause PID. We have seen the role of infection in the manifestation of PID.
Krimi or Jantu –
Vagbhata has mentioned involvement of Krimi (microorganisms, bacteria, infection) in Vipluta Yoni Vyapat and Charaka has mentioned involvement of Jantu (microorganisms) in case of Acharana Yoni Vyapat. Acharana, as already discussed is caused due to unhygiene of the vagina or genital tract. This predisposes to the formation of krimi or jantu. The krimis enter the yoni (vagina, uterus) and spread (ascend) towards the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and pelvis causing infection. This further causes pain and inflammation in PID along with other signs and symptoms. Vipluta is a painful condition (so as paripluta) which resembles PID.
Note – The causative factors mentioned in the context of Vata, Pitta and Vata-Pitta Prakopa Karanas may not be causing PID directly. But once the infection occurs leading to inflammation of pelvis and pelvic organs in women, one or the other of Vata and Pitta or both together get vitiate on the backdrop and give rise to the pain and inflammation related symptomatology of PID.
Prevention of PID
Prevention of PID, Ayurvedic perspective
Below mentioned strategies shall be followed in order to prevent PID –
- Keeping away from the Vata vitiating factors
- Keeping away from Pitta vitiating factors
- Regularly keeping the vagina clean and sterile