Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Sthanarohita Marma is a vital point of the body, 2 in number, located above the nipples.
Sthanarohita Marmas are located in the Madhya shareera (middle part of the body). Since they are located in the chest, they are also considered under Uro-Gata Marmas.
स्तन चूचकयोः ऊर्ध्वं द्वि अङ्गुलं उभयतः स्तनरोहितौ तत्र लोहित पूर्ण कोष्ठतया (कास श्वासाभ्यां) च म्रीयते।(सु.शा.६)
Sthanarohita Marmas are located above the Stana Chuchukas i.e. nipples of the breasts. They are 2 in number and are located one on either side in the chest region. Each Sthanarohita Marma measures 2 angula in dimension. The location is the same on both right and left sides.
Categories in which the Sthanarohita Marma is included
Sthanarohita Marma is classified into various categories. They are as below mentioned –
i) Madhya Shareera Gata Marma, Uro Gata Marma (Madhya Shareera = Middle portion of the body, trunk, Uro = chest)
ii) Mamsa Marma – Sthanarohita marma is predominantly made up of Mamsa dhatu i.e. muscles, which form the structural component of this Marma. Therefore it is classified under Mamsa Marma. The other elements namely Sira (blood vessels, veins), Snayu (ligaments), Asthi (bone) and Sandhi (joints) are also present but in a lesser proportion.
iii) Kaalantara Praanahara Marma – (Kaalantara – Gradual, Pranahara – life taking) Sthanarohita Marma is said to produce death over a period of time, gradually.
Pramana (measurement of Sthanarohita Marma) –
Sthanarohita Marma occupies a space of 2 angula dimension (approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger). Each Sthanarohita Marma (right and left) has same dimensions.
Effect of Injury
तत्र लोहित पूर्ण कोष्ठतया (कास श्वासाभ्यां) च म्रीयते।(सु.शा.६)
Injury of Sthanarohita Marma causes gradual death. When Sthanarohita Marma is injured it leads to Lohita Poorna Koshtataa (filling up of thoracic cavity or lungs with excessive blood, excessive bleeding into the thoracic or chest cavity) leading to Kasa (cough), shwaasa (dyspnoea, severe breathlessness) and gradual death.
Causes for gradual death:
- Excessive bleeding into the thoracic cavity or into the lungs or into pleurae (coverings of the lungs
- Blockage of respiratory passages and cells with blood
- Obstruction to the breathing and gas exchange phenomenon due to excessive blood accumulation and congestion in lungs and chest cavity and breathing passages
- Lung congestion with blood
- Deficit oxygenation of blood, deficit clearance of carbon dioxide due to blood pooling
- A condition of systemic hypoxia i.e. less aeration to the body cells in the form of less oxygenation
- Oxygen deprivation of the cells and air hunger
- Failure of tissues and organs to thrive in an environment of deficit oxygenation
- Gradual organ failure and death
Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Sthanarohita Marma
Structures falling in the area of Sthanarohita Marma –
- Lungs and Pleurae
- Intercostals muscles
- Phrenic nerves
- Vagus nerves
- Superior vena cava,
- Descending aorta
- Pulmonary vessels
- Pulmonary plexus of nerves
- Lymphatics around the lungs
- Lymph glands around the lungs
Though all the elements which comprise a marma i.e. snayu (ligaments), siraa (blood vessels, veins) asthi (bones) and sandhi (joints) are all present in the site of this Marma, it is predominant in the Mamsa or muscles making up the Sthanarohita Marma, therefore it is a Mamsa Marma.
When Sthanarohita marma gets damaged, the effect of injury will chiefly involve the important muscles located in the vicinity of Sthanarohita Marma in comparison to the extent of damage caused to other tissues.
Just Before Finishing:
The breathing and exchange of gases takes place in these organs. When there is damage to these Marmas, excessive bleeding, accumulation of blood and congestion occurs in the chest cavity and lungs. This hampers the breathing and oxygenation phenomenon as the airways are blocked by the blood. The body and cells get deprived of oxygen in due course of time. This may lead to gradual death. Therefore any lung pathology or disease related to organs of breathing should not be neglected as they may involve damage to the Sthanarohita Marma.
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