Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Jaanu Marma is one of the delicate and vital points of the body located in the lower limbs, especially in the knee joints.
जङ्गोः वा सन्धाने जानु नाम तत्र खञ्जता।(सु.शा.६)
Jaanu Marma is located both in lower limbs, in the Janu Sandhi – knee joints.
In the upper limb, this marma is represented by Koorpara Marma or marma located at the – elbow joint.
Number of marma – 2.
Exact location of Jaanu Marma in the limbs:
Jaanu Marma is located in right and left knee joints. The Marma is located exactly at the junction of the sakthi / Uru (thigh) and Jangha (leg), i.e. at the exact anatomical location of the modern day ‘Knee joint’. This Marma thus represents the knee joint. The location of Jaanu Marma is the same in both right and left lower limbs.
Categories in which the Janu Marma is included
Jaanu Marma is classified into various categories. They are as below mentioned –
i) Shaka Gata Marma (Shaaka=Limb) – Since Jaanu Marma is located in the limbs, they are classified under shaaka gata marmas i.e. Marmas located in the limbs. They are present in the lower limbs at the knee joints.
ii) Sandhi Marma – Jaanu marma is predominantly made up of Sandhi, components making the knee joint. The bony joint formed at the knee joint forms the structural component of this Marma. Therefore it is classified under Sandhi Marma. The other tissues are recessive or present in less proportion, namely Sira (blood vessels), Asthi (bone), Snayu (ligaments, tendons, nerves) and Mamsa (muscles).
iii) Vaikalyakara Marmas – (Vaikalya – deformity, Kara – forming) – Jaanu Marmas on getting injured causes deformity of the structures, the knee joint to be precise. Since injury to the Jaanu Marma causes deformity, it is classified under Vaikalyakara Marma (deformity forming Marma).
Pramana (measurement of Manibandha Marma) –
3 angula dimension (1 angula is approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger)
Effect of Injury
Injury to the Jaanu Marma leads to Khanjata or limping. The flexibility of the knee joints is hampered and the smooth movements are disturbed. The person, whose Jaanu Marma has been injured limps. Arthritis and other crippling conditions which afflict the knee joints involve the damage of Jaanu Marma. When the Marma located at the Jaanu Marma gets injured, the activities of knee joint are hampered leading to functional impairment leading to limp.
Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Jaanu Marma
Structures falling in the area of Jaanu Marma –
- Knee Joint
- Articular capsule of knee joint
- Ligamentum patellae
- Medial menisci
- Lateral menisci
- Oblique popletial ligament
- Interior cruciate ligaments
- Posterior cruciate ligaments
- Tibial collateral ligaments
- Fibular collateral ligaments
- Coronary ligament
- Arculo-popliteal ligament
The muscles, blood vessels and other tissues too are present around the Jaanu Marma. But the Marma mainly comprises of the joints and the bony ends involved in making the elbow joint. Therefore it is a Sandhi Marma.
When the Jaanu Marma is injured, all the structures involved around this marma i.e. sira (blood vessels), asthi (bones), mamsa (muscles) and snayus (ligaments, tendons etc) may get damaged but the sandhi which chiefly make up the structure of Jaanu Marma tends to get severely injured in comparison to other structures. The impact of injury too will be due to the effect of injury to the sandhi component.
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