Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Kakshadhara Marma is one of the delicate and vital points of the body located in the upper limbs.
वक्षः कक्षयोः मध्ये कक्षधरम्, तत्र लोहित क्षयेण पक्षाघातः।(सु.शा.६)
Kakshadhara Marma is located both in the upper limbs, near the axilla or the arm-pit.
Kakshadhara Marmas are 2 in number, near the arm-pits.
Exact location of Kakshaadhara Marma in the limbs:
Kakshadhara Marma is exactly located between the Vaksha (thorax, chest, chest wall) and Kaksha (arm pit or axilla). It is represented by Vitapa Marma in the lower limb (located close to the groin or thigh fold or hip joints).
Categories in which the Kakshadhara Marma is included
i) Shaka Gata Marma (Shaaka=Limb) e. Marmas located in the limbs. ii) Snayu Marma – Kakshadhara marma is predominantly made up of Snayu i.e. tendons and nerves, which form the structural component of this Marma. Therefore it is classified under Snayu Marma. The other tissues are recessive are present in less proportion, namely Sira (blood vessels), Asthi (bone), Sandhi (joints) and Mamsa (muscles).
iii) Vaikalyakara Marmas – (Vaikalya – deformity, Kara – forming) – Kakshadhara Marmas on getting injured causes vaikalya or deformity of the structures in the upper limb. Since Kakshadhara Marma causes deformity, it is classified under Vaikalyakara Marma (deformity forming Marma).
Pramana (measurement of Kakshadhara Marma) –
Kakshadhara Marma occupies a space of 1 angula dimension (1 angula is approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger)
Effect of Injury
तत्र लोहित क्षयेण पक्षाघातः।(सु.शा.६)
Injury to the Kakshadhara Marma leads to Pakshaghata or Paralysis of the upper limb due to loss of blood. This means to tell that if Kakshadhara Marma is injured it causes severe bleeding which leads to paralysis of the upper limb.
Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Kakshadhara Marma
Structures falling in the area of Kakshadhara Marma –
- Brachial plexus of nerves (lateral, medial and posterior cords)
- Pectoralis minor muscle
- Median nerve
- Ulnar Nerve
We can see the muscles, blood vessels and other tissues too being present in this area comprising of Kakshadhara Marma but it is rich in ligaments, tendons and nerves. Therefore it is a Snayu Marma.
When the Kakshadhara Marma is injured, all the structures involved in any place of marma i.e. sira (blood vessels), asthi (bones), mamsa (muscles) and sandhi (joints) may be susceptible to get damaged but the snayu (ligaments or tendons) which chiefly make up the structure of Kakshadhara Marma tends to get injured to a severe extent in comparison to other structures. The impact of injury too will be chiefly due to the effect of injury to the snayu component.
Just Before Finishing
Kakshadhara Marmas are very sensitive Marmas. Injury around this marma, as said already causes blood loss and paralysis of the upper limb. This subsequently leads to the functional impairment of the upper limb hampering the day to day activities. Any injury and or swelling around the axilla should be immediately brought to medical attention so as to avoid long standing and permanent structural and functional damage of the limb.
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