Pashanabheda – Bergenia ligulata: Uses, Research, Side Effects

Pashanabheda – Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. is a small plant used in the treatment of renal calculi, retention of urine, wounds, diseases of the vitiated Rakta and Pitta dosha.
Latin Name- Bergenia ligulata
Family- Saxifragaceae (Pashanabheda kula)

Home remedies

This article is written by Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD(Ayu), PhD.
Even though several advanced techniques are adopted to treat the urinary calculi, hundreds of years back people were fully dependent upon the ayurvedic herbal medicines.

Pashana refers to stone.
Bheda means breaking down.
Used part – whole plant.

The plant is Tridoshashamaka in nature. The drug is of cold potency and undergoes a pungent kind of bio transformation.

Bhavaprakasha appreciated this as a cleanser of urinary bladder, lithotriptic and anti-flatulent. He recommends it in gaseous tumors, dysuria, vaginal/uterine disorders, urinary disorders, splenic disorders and ulcers
Pashanabheda kashaya and Ashmarihara kashaya are the well known formulations of this drug.

Dysuria, back ache

Hot infusion of Pashanabheda in dysuria, back ache and diarrhoea:
Whole plant of the drug is taken and crushed well. 1 tablespoon of this is added with a cup of hot water and kept for a while. Macerated well, filtered. This is very effective in diarrhea, dysuria, backache etc.

Urinary calculi, UTI

Decoction of Pashanabheda for urinary calculi and in UTI:
Pashanabheda coarse powder is taken and decoction is made. This is administered in the dose of 40-50 ml twice or thrice daily for 5-7 days. This reduces the size of the urinary calculi and relieves even the recurrent urinary tract infection.
General method of preparation of decoction (kashaya) – 1 tablespoon of powder is added with 2 cups of water, boiled and reduced to 1 cup, filtered.
Read related: Urinari calculi – Home Remedies, Ayurved Treatment

Teething problems

Application of the fine powder with honey in teething problems:
Fine powder of Pashanabheda is mixed with honey and rubbed to the gum while during eruption of the teeth. This pacifies pain and swelling caused during this period.

Phosphaturia and spermatorrhoea

Fresh juice/paste prepared by adding coconut water in phosphaturia and spermatorrhoea:
Pashanabheda fresh drug is taken and by adding coconut water fine paste or juice is obtained. 10-15 ml of this is administered twice daily. This is found to be effective in phosphaturia and spermatorrhoea.

Leucorrhoea, haematuria

Decoction of Pashanabheda and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) in leucorrhoea and haematuria:
The herbal drugs- Pashanabheda and Gokshura are taken in equal amounts and decoction is made as per the classical method of preparation of Kashaya. This pacifies the complaints like leucorrhoea, haematuria, burning during urination etc.

When the patient cannot afford costly treatments for urinary calculi or when the stones are smaller in size, Ayurvedic remedies are very useful.
Click to consult Dr MS Krishnamurthy MD(Ayu), PhD

Sanskrit verse

Pashanabedha - Berginia ligulata

Properties, part used, dosage

Pashan Bhed Properties:
Rasa (taste) – Kashaya – astringent, Tikta – bitter
Guna (qualities)- Laghu (lightness), Snigdha (oiliness)
Vipaka- Katu – Undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion
Veerya – Sheeta – Coolant
Effect on Tridosha –  Tridosahara, (Balances all the three Doshas), Mootravirecaniya (helps in easy micturition)
Prabhava (Special action)- Ashmari bhedana (crush the renal stone)

Useful part: Root
Dosage, how to use it?
 30-40 ml of the decoction of the rhizome – 1 tablespoon of rhizome powder is added with 2 cups of water, boiled and reduced to half a cup, filtered and administered.
Its fine powder is also directly used in the dose of 3-6 g of the powder.

Chemical constituents

The rhizome of the plant Bergenia ligulata contains bergenin, gallic acid, starch, glucose, tannins, mucilage and wax; a C- glycoside and beta- sitosterol.
The leaves are rich with tannic acid, gallic acid, calcium oxalate etc.

Uses of Pashanabheda

  • The paste of the root of the plant Berginia ligulata is applied over localized swelling and wounds for treatment.
  • The decoction of the root of Berginia ligulata is given in dosage of 40-50 ml per day in divided dose to treat renal calculi, burning micturition and retention of urine in the bladder.
  • The paste of the root of Pashanabheda is applied with honey in small children to reduce the pain of gums during the eruption of milk teeth.
  • The paste of the root of Pashanbheda is given as an antidote for opium poisoning.
  • The paste is applied over the eyes to treat the disease conjunctivitis.
  • The decoction of the plant Berginia ligulata is given in a dosage of 50 ml in divided dose to treat diarrhea, piles, fever and dysmenorrhea.


Traditional Ayurvedic indications of Pashanbhed:
Bastishodhana – cleanses urinary bladder
Bhedana – piercing,
Indicated in –
Arsha – Hemorrhoids
Gulma – abdominal tumor, distension
Mutrakrichra – dysuria, difficulty to pass urine
Hrudruja- Hrudroga – Cardiac disorders
Yoniroga – Gynecological disorders
Prameha – Urinary tract disorders, diabetes
Pleeha – Spleen related disorders, splenomegaly
Shoola – abdominal colic
Vrana – ulcers, wounds
Another variety – Kshudrapashana is useful in
Vrana – ulcers, wounds
Mutrakrichra – dysuria, difficulty to pass urine
Ashmari – urinary calculi


Habit- Paṣaṇabheda is much branched perennial herb

Root-Red in colur and 2 to 5 cm thick

Stem- Short thick, fleshy and procumbent.

Leaves- Ovate, 12 to 25 cm in diameter, sessile, ban rounded at the apex, fringed with short hairs.

Flowers- White, Pink or purple in color and flowering occurs in April and May. Flowers are 3 cm in diameter forming a cymose panicle.

Fruit- Drupes, orange or red in color.

Useful part- Rhizome/Root- Transversely cut pieces of dried rhizome will be up to 6 cm long and 1 to 2 cm in diameter. External surface is reddish brown in color, wrinkled or irregularly shriveled, bearing leaf scales in the upper part and root scars below. A transversely cut portion shows 2 to 3 mm thick bark, followed by a light colored cambium ring and a woody portion which surrounds a central pith. Breaking is difficult and on breaking exposes a light brick red surface. Has characteristic faint odor, tastes bitter and astringent.

Ayurvedic formulations

Formulation containing Pashanabheda:

  • Ashmarihara kashaya- Ashmarihara Kashaya is an Ayurvedic medicine in water decoction form. It is used in the treatment of urinary calculi. It has to be taken in a dosage of 40-50 ml per day in a divided dose.
  • Diureston tablet- It is an Ayurvedic proprietary tablet which contains Pashanabedha and can be effectively used in the conditions of urinary calculi, retention of urine.
  • Vastyamayantaka Ghrita- It is an Ayurvedic medicine in medicated ghee form used to treat the diseases related to the urinary bladder like urine retention, stones in the urinary bladder.
  • Mootravirechaniya kashaya- It is a Kashaya used to relieve retention of urine, cleanse the bladder and treat urinary tract infections. It has to be taken in a dosage of 40-50 ml per day in divided dose.
  • Ural syrup and Capsules- An Ayurvedic proprietary medicine which can be effectively used against renal calculi, burning micturition, and treating urinary tract infection.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Research, adverse effects

Research articles on Bergenia ligulata:
Antiurolithic effect- The study indicates the anti urolithic effect of Berginia ligulata possibly through crystal inhibition, diuretic and anti- oxidant effects.

It imparts different properties i.e. diuretic, anti-diabetic, astringent, cardio tonic, wound healer, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, antiprotozoal,  anti-inflammatory, kidney stone due to certain phytochemical constituents Bergenin, Tannic acid, Gallic acid, Stigmesterol, ?-Sitosterol, catechin, (+)-Afzelechin, 1, 8-cineole, Isovalaric acid, (+)-(6S)-parasorbic acid, Arbutin, Phytol, Caryophyllene, Damascenone, ?-eudesmol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (Z)-asarone, Terpinen-4-ol, Paashaanolactone present in it. The aim of the present article is to explore the medicinal importance of the plant Bergenia ligulata wall.

Hepato protective, diuretic and anti- pyretic action: The ethanolic extract of the plant Berginia ligulata was assessed for hepato protective, diuretic and anti- pyretic action and was compared with the standard drug. The extract of the plant showed significant action to control the diseased condition in albino rats

Anti microbial activity-  The rhizome of Bergenia ligulata, belonging to the family Saxifragaceae was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion method. Methanol extract exhibited larger inhibition zone 21mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as compared to Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Ethanol extract showed a larger inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. Acetone extract showed larger inhibition of the 24mm zone against Escherichia coli as compared to Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Water extract showed the largest inhibition zone of 25mm against Staphyloccus aureus as compared to Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus pneumoniae.

Adverse effect of Pasanbhed:
There is no contraindication known to take this herb or any adverse effects reported so far after taking this herb in any form as medicine.

Vernacular names

Names in different languages:
Hindi Name- Pakhanbheda, Patharchoor
Gujarati Name- Pakhanbheda
Bengali Name- Patharkuchi
Sinhalese Name- Pahanabeya
Arabian Name- Junteyenah
Assamese Name- Patharkuchi
Kannada Name- Pashanbhedi, Hittaga, Pasanaberu, Hittulaka
Tamil Name-Sirupilai
Punjabi Name- Kachalu
Telugu Name- Kondapindi
Malayalam Name-Kallurvanchi, Kallurvanni, Kallorvanchi

Sanskrit synonyms

Ashmagna- It destroys the renal stone
Sailobheda- It penetrates through the stones
Upalabhedaka- It destroys the flat surface of stone
Shilabheda- It grows between the wedges of stones

All the synonyms explain about the urolithic action of the herb and also about the growing pattern of the herb in between the stones.
Drushadbheda, Prasthara, Nagabheda,
Pashanabheda is a small shrub found in the plains and mountain region of Himalaya growing at an altitude of 900-3000 meters. The plant grows in between the wedges of the stones of the mountains. The root of the plant is reddish in color.

Classical categorization

Charaka- Mutravirechaniya – group of herbs useful in cleansing urine / bladder
Susruta- Viratarvadi
Vagbhata- Viratarvadi
Bhavaprakasha- Haritakyadi varga
Dhanwantari Nighantu- Guduchyadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadi varga
Raja Nighantu- Parpatadi varga 


1. Aerva lanata Juss – Whole herb
2. Didymocarpus pedicellatus R.Br – Root
3. Coleus amboinicus Benth – Root
4. Bergenia ciliata – Root
5. Bergenia stracheyi – Root


Pāṣaṇabheda is one of the most controversial drugs Ayurveda. Different species are used as Paṣaṇabheda in various parts of India. 

Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail:

Sthanika Karma (Systemic Action)

Internal administration-
External use – It has Anti inflammatory wound healing action. Indicated in conjunctivitis. For children having teeth eruption, it can be administered along with honey to provide relief.
Digestive system – Absorbent, Indicated in Diarrhea, Hemorrhoids etc.
Circulatory System – Acts as a blood purifier, Indicated in bleeding disorders
Respiratory system – Helps to expel out vitiated kapha dosha from the respiratory pathway. Indicated in cough

Reproductive system- Indicated in Leukorrhea, Menorrhagia, Dysmenorrhea etc.
Excretory system – Especially indicated in renal calculi, also beneficial in Dysuria, UTI, etc.
Tapakrama – Jvaraghna (indicated in fever)
Satmikarana – Anti poisonous, indicated in Ahiphena (opium) poisoning.

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