Shami Tree, also called Banni Mara, Khejri tree, is immensely known for its spiritual uses. In Dasara, the 10 day long Hindu festival, on the 10th day, the leaves of this are distributed among one another to share mutual love and respect and to forget past bitterness. No wonder the tree has been given synonyms such as Lakshmi, Shiva, Seeta etc.. suggesting to its auspiciousness.
Botanical name- Prosopis cineraria (Linn).Druce (Prosopis spicigera Linn)
Names in different languages:
English name – Indian Mesoquite, shamee, sponge tree.
Hindi name-Chikur, Rhejri, Chonkar, Sami, Shami, Chinkur, chokara, chonkara, chounkar, chourkara, sepada, taant, safet kikar, shame, jhand
kannada name – Banni mara, Banni ele, Shamee patre, Perumbe, Perunje, Vunne, vanni Kashanti
Telugu name-Jammi chettu
Marathi name – Saunder, savandad, shamee, shambaree
Bengali name – Shami,
Punjabi name – Jund, Bishnois, Janti
Gujarati name – Samadi, Khijadi
Tamil name – Vanni, Jambu, kalisam, kulisam, parambai, perabe, perumbe, Sami, seemaimullu, sivaa, thamali,
Malayalam name – Parampu, Marampu, Thawi Vanni,
Telugu name – Jammi chettu, Jammi, Jambi, priyadarshini, shamichetta
Arabic name – Ghaf
Rajastani name – Khejri, Rhejri, Loong
Sindh name – Kandi
Burmese name – Gandasein
Konkani name – Konkani – Shami, shemi, xembi
Marvadi name – Khejdo, jaaj, jaati
Shami – Shamayati Rogan Iti, Shamu Upashame – pacifies diseases.
Saktuphala – Saktuvat Phalavasyaha Iti – its fruit tastes like flour
Agnigarbha – SHami wood is useful as fuel.
Vai. Sha. Dru. Shamipura Shamikashta Sangharshaad Agnispaghate sma |
kaalidaso api shameemiva abhyantara leenapaavakam iti Raghuvamshe ||
Lakshmi, Shiva, Seeta, Mangalya, Shankari, Shivaphala, Pavitrapatra, Suphali, Para- Auspicious tree
Papanashini – Cleanses out sins
Tunga – tall tree
Keshamathani, Keshahrut Phala – Fruit increases Pitta, hence not good for hairs. It acts as a good depilator.
Shankuphala, Ishani, Shameera, Kacharipuphala.
Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Oshadhi Varga,
Dhanvantari Nighantu – Amradi Varga, Panchabhringa..
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga
Raja Nighantu – Shalmalyadi Varga
Taxonomical Identification (Family Features)
Taxonomic Hierarchy for: Prosopis Cineraria (L.) druce
Kingdom – Plantae- plants
Sub kingdom – Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
Super division – Spermatophyta-Seed plants
Division – Magnoliophyta-flowering plants
Class – Magnoliopsida-dicotyledons
Subclass – Rosidae
Order – Fabales
Family – Fabaceae-Pea family
Genus – Prospis L.-Mesquite
Species – Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce-Jand
Found in desert areas of Afghanistan, Iran, India, Oman, Pakistan, UAE.
The following drugs also have the synonyms shami.
The above herbs are more similar to khadira i.e. acacia suma also the drug mimosa suma has all the properties similar to that of khadira and hence is taken as a substitute.
Raja Nighantu, mentioned a type of shami that is called as shanta and has syn like shanta, shuba bhadra, aparajita and vijaya, and has the same guna’s as that of prosopis cineraria. This can be taken to be synonymous.
Bhava prakash nigantu mentions a small variety of shami called as samira and is botanically named as prosopis stephaniana. This occurs in Punjab and Gujrat provinasin India.
Prosopis cineraria chemical Constituents
Flowers- Patulitrin, Patuletin, prosogerins A,B. Paluritin a flavone glycoside patulitrin prosogerins A, B and C Glucoside patulitrin.
Seeds- Specigerin, fixed oil(4.5%), Prosogerine. Specigerin, fixed oil 4.5% posogerine prosapanal G, Flavone prosogerin C.
The tree contains – 5-hydroxytryptamine, apigenin, isorhamnetin-3-diglucoside, l- arabinose, quercetin, tannin and tryptamine.
Wood ash – 31% of soluble potassium salts, used as a source of potash.
Stem – Ursolic acid, glycosides of campestral, stigmasterol, B- Sitoterol
Properties, part used, dosage
Shami – medicinal properties:
Guna (qualities) – Laghu – light to digest, Rooksha – Dryness
Rasa (taste) – Kashaya, Madhura – sweet
Vipaka- Katu – Undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion
Veerya -Sheeta – Coolant (bark)
Fruit-ushna – hot
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Pitta.
Part used- Bark, fruit
Decoction of Khejri tree bark: 50-100 ml;
Khejri fruit powder 3-6 g, in divided doses per day.
Prosopis cineraria medicinal uses:
Shami tree Bark –
Katu – Pungent
Tikta – bitter
Anushna – not very hot
Kashaya – Astringent
Rochani – improves taste, useful in anorexia
Laghu – light to digest
Kapha – balances Kapha, useful in productive cough, asthma, bronchitis, chest congestion.
Kushta – skin diseases
Arsha – haemorrhoids
Shwasa – asthma and chronic respiratory disorders
Kasa – cough, cold
Bhrama – Delusion, Dizziness
Krumi – worm infestation
Raktapitta –Bleeding disorders such as nasal bleeding, heavy periods, etc
Atisara – diarrhoea, dysentery, Irritable Bowel syndrome with diarrhea
Banni tree fruits medicinal uses:
Swadu – sweet taste
Guru – heavy to digest
Rooksha – dry
Ushna – hot
Medhya – improves intelligence
Keshaghna – bad for hair
Pittala – Increases Pitta Dosha
As per Kaiyadeva Nighantu, the twigs of Shami tree should not be used as tooth brush. (read related: Ayurvedic way of tooth brushing and tongue scraping)
As per Dhanvantari Nighantu, Shami is one among five tree group called Panchabhringa – Devadali, Shami, Bhrunga, Nirgundi, Sanaka. These five herbs are used for bathing after the person has been cured of his disease. The hot water for bathing is prepared with bark of these herbs. It acts as a measure of disinfection and it promotes strength.
- Flowers are triturated and mixed with sugar candy and are given to a pregnant woman to avoid unexpected abortion.
- The bark is used in the central provinces as a remedy for rheumatism (watt)
- The pod is used for making vegetable curry in Bharwad and Punjab.
- In western India, the bark of Shami is used in treating osteo arthritis.
Conch shell (Shankha) rubbed with breast milk in a copper vessel and fumigated with ghee smeared shami leaves is applied to the eye. It relieves severe irritation and pain. A. Hr. Uttaratantra 16.35.
Fruit of udumbara rubbed with breast milk in an iron vessel and fumigated with ghee smeared sami leaves removes burning, pain, redness, lacrymation, and irritation. ( A. Hr. Uttaratantra 16.36)
Pediatric Disorders – The child should be bathed in night with the decoction of bark and leaves of Shami, Ksheeravruksha, Araluka, Bilva, Kapittha. A. Hr. U. 59.
Others – Siddha Name – Vanni Used part – Bark, Fruit, leaf Uses – Giddiness, diarrhea, dysentery, piles, worm infestation, haemorrhage, cough, dyspnoea, skin diseases.
- It is used for the treatment of vertigo and as a brain tonic.
- A paste of bark is applied to scorpion sting.
- Ash of fruit is applied locally to remove hairs.
- Flowers are mixed with sugar and administered to prevent miscarriage.
- Pods are eaten green, dried or after boiling and are considered to possess, astringent, demulcent, and pectorel properties.
- Pods are used as fodder for livestock
- Pulp before ripened is rich in sweetish farinaceous pulp, which is consumed as food especially in times of scarcity.
- During famine bark is used as food.
- Bark is ground into flour and made into cakes.
- Bark as well as the galls formed on the leaves are used for tanning.
- Leaves are much used for fodder.
- Leaves are useful for green manuring.
The bark possess antihyperglycemic, and antioxidative potential, hence useful for treating diabetes.
Leaves possess antihyperlipidaemic activity. Hence useful in controlling blood lipid levels. It is useful for lowering LDL and increasing HDL.
Dried pods are known to possess anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi.
The powdered plant material possesses analgesic, anti-depressant, muscle relaxant and anti-pyretic effect.
Methanolic extract of dried stem bark of possess nootropic, anti-convulsant activity. (Source)
Prosopis cineraria side effects:
Bark should not be used in people with constipation.
People undergoing hair growth treatment should avoid fruits.
Fruit is contra indicated in high Pitta disorders and Pitta body type persons (with excess burning sensation, prone to gastritis, with migraine etc).
Seek medical guidance for its use during pregnancy. It is relatively safe for use in children and lactating mothers.
Interaction with medicines, supplements
Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.
this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets,
Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.
Use in auspicious rituals:
The Khejri leaves are soaked in water and take bath on Diwali festival day. This is considered as auspicious and sin-cleansing. The tree is prayed with the following verse –
Shami Shamayate papam shami lokhitkantaka
Dharinyarjunbananam Ramasya priyavadini |
Karishmanyatraya yathakal such mya
Tatra nirvighanktri twam bhav Sree Rampujite ||
Meaning: The Shami tree cleanses sins, helps to defeat enemies. It is Lord Rama’s favourite tree and in such a tree Pandavas hid their arms. O Shami, Lord Rama has worshipped you. I now embark upon my journey to victory. May you make it pleasant and free from obstacles! (Source)
Wood is a good source for fuel.
Leaves are consumed by livestock
Tree is well-suited for an agro forestry setting, because it has a single-layered canopy, it is a nitrogen fixer (thus enriching the soil), and its deep roots avoid competition for water with crops.
The dried pods locally called Kho-Kha are eaten. Dried pods also form rich animal feed, which is liked by all livestock. Green pods also form rich animal feed, which is prepared by drying the young boiled pods. Source
History of the herb
In Kritayuga, all Devatas approached Varuna and requested him to be the lord of Soma – water element.
According to the rites laid down in the scriptures, Varuna took residence in the ocean and began to protect seas, lakes, rivers and other receptacles of water and all aquatic creatures. Hence, the water in those rivers, oceans etc became a place of worship.
Baladeva, the slayer of pralamba, after having bathed in the rivers; the abode of varuna proceeded to Agni tirtha which was the spot where agni, had entered ghee, frightened at the curse of rishi bhrigu, had conceded himself within the Shami wood. At the disappearance of agni, the Gods went to Brahma reported their problem of absence of fire. Vasava or Vrihaspati at their head searched for the missing Agni and found him hiding in the shami wood. Since then because of bhrigu’s curse, Agni became an eater of everything, Balarama after bathing at the agni thirtha, the spot where agni had entered the shami wood proceeded to brahmayoni, where brahma had exercised his functions of creation. In Mahabharat the Pandavas while going for pilgrimage for one year had kept these weapons on this Shami tree.
In ancient times kings sometimes performed sacrifices and for that altars were constructed at short distance from one another. The distance were measured by hurling a heavy piece of shami wood and altar. The site of next altar was fixed at the spot of the wood of shami had fallen.
Shami is considered as an incarnation of devi, the goddess, since shami, has fire in it and rudra is an embodiment of fire, shiva or rudra is considered as yupa post of shami wood (an evil spirit is believed to reside in it but is evil only if a bed is made or repaired with its wood. Such a bed cannot be slept in.
- Shami is mentioned in works of Kalidasa, Banabhatta and Varahamihira.
- It is not mentioned in Rugveda but found profusely in vedic samhitas, brahmanas and kalpasutras.
- The sheopards believe this tree as the place for gods residence hence they do not cut this tree.
- During dussera people perform prayer with respect to this tree.
Pods, called “Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of Rajasthani dish – The Panchkuta.
In present study, Sangri pods were studied for various phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, flavanols and total phenolics. As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient area) so antioxidant potential of pods has also been investigated. Acetone and methanol extracts of Sangri pods are the most potent bio active extracts. Nutritional analysis shows it as a good source of proteins and minerals like calcium, sodium and potassium. This study demonstrates that P. cineraria pods may be employed as nutraceutical food with rich nutrition, disease prevention and health promoting effects.
Anti oxidant potential
Antioxidant activity of different solvent fractions obtained from the leaves of Prosopis cineraria was evaluated. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide were performed to determine the potential of the extracts. All six fractions showed to have scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts showed to have maximum scavenging activity.
Increase in crop yield: It has been shown that prosopis ceneraria helps to increase the crop yield (singh et al 1969) where acacia nilotica ssp indica reduces yield levels.