Astringent taste is called Kashaya Rasa in Sanskrit. Let us learn in detail about Astringent taste, what are the general qualities of substances having Astringent taste, how it affects health, mind, Tridosha and diseases, adverse effects on excessive intake etc.
Origin of the word Kashaya
When you taste any substance with astringent taste, such as a betel nut, it dries up the saliva and causes choking like feeling in the throat.
Effect on Tridosha
Astringent taste decreases Kapha and Pitta. It increases Vata Dosha.
Rooksha, Sheeta, Laghu – dry, cold and light
Astringent taste is composed of Vayu (air) and Pruthvi (solid) elements.
When you think of air and ether together, you could imagine heaviness (due to solidity), coldness and dryness (due to air). These three are the qualities of food having Kashaya Rasa.
Because it as air element, it increases Vata dosha.
Because it has air and solid elements, it causes roughness and dryness. Both these are against the qualities of Kapha dosha (which has smoothness and oiliness), hence it pacifies Kapha Dosha.
When you put sand (solid) or blow air forcibly to fire (Pitta), the fire extinguishes. Hence, astringent taste pacifies Pitta Dosha.
Effect on body and mind
Samshamana – calming, healing
Sangrahi – absorbing, constipative
Peedana – causes pressure on body parts
Shoshana – dries up moisture
Jihva Vaishadyakara – clarifies tongue. Relieves excess salivation.
Mukha, Kanta Shoshaka – causes dryness in oral cavity and throat
Hrut Shoolakara – may cause or worsen chest pain
Ropana – healing
Kaphanashaka – helps to relieve sputum
Gauravakara – imparts heaviness to the body
Stambhana – causes stoppage of blood flow in case of bleeding, causes constipation
Avrushya – decreases sexual interest and performance
Raktapitta prashamana – useful in bleeding disorders
Shareera Kleda Upayokta -uses up body moisture
Sandhaneeya – helps to heal fractured bones and wounds
Ahrudya – not good for heart.
Mutra sangrahaneeya – decreases urine production and flow
Dhatushoshaka – dries up the body tissue
Glapayti – weariness
Astringent taste inactivates the tongue (diminishes capacity of taste perception) and causes obstruction of the passage in the throat. Astringent taste balances Pitta and Kapha, it is not easily digestible; cleanses the blood, causes squeezing and healing of ulcers (wounds), has cold potency, dries up the moisture and fat, hinders the digestion of undigested food.
Astringent taste is water absorbent, thereby causing constipation, dryness and cleanses the skin too much.
When used in excess, it causes stasis of food without digestion, flatulence, pain in the heart region, thirst, emaciation, loss of virility, obstruction of the channels and constipation.
Astringents are usually cold (in potency) and obstructive – except Abhaya – Chebulic Myrobalan (fruit rind) – Terminalia chebula.
Example for astringent substances
Haritaki, Bibhitaki, Khadira – Black catechu (heart wood extract) – Acacia catechu,
Madhu (honey), Mukta Bhasma (pearls), Pravala (Coral),
dates, lotus stalk, lotus, mango seed kernel
Gambhari flower – Gmelina arborea
Symptoms of excess astringent taste
Excess of Astringent causes increase of Vata, leading to following symptoms –
Asyam shoshayati – dries up mouth
Dhatushosha – emaciation and dryness of tissues
Mukhashosha – dryness of mouth.
Hrit Shoola – chest pain
Hrudayam Peedayati – causes pressure pain in chest, heart
Adhmana – bloating
Udaram adhmapayati – distension of abdomen
Swarabheda – altered voice
Vacham nigruhnati – obstruction of speech
Srotovibandha – obstruction to body channels
Vishtambha – constipation
Srotamsi avabadhnati – constriction of channels
Shyavatvam apadayati – imparts black complexion
Mutra avarodha – obstruction of urine flow, depleted urine production
Shukra avarodha – obstruction to ejaculation, depleted sperm and semen production
Karshya – weight loss
Trushna – excessive thirst
Pumstvam upahanti – causes infertility
While taking food, Astringent taste should be consumed in the last part of the diet, after having consumed sweet, sour, salt, pungent and bitter tastes. This is because, soon after food intake, digestion process begins. In this early part of digestion, Kapha dosha will be high (that is why you feel heaviness, dizziness and laziness soon after food). Astringent food at the end leads to food satisfaction (due to heaviness) and balances the Kapha dosha.
Vata imbalance (because, Astringent taste increases Vata and causes further imbalance), lean, emaciated person, constipation, excessive thirst and in hungry person.
Astringent taste is characterized by
Vaishadya – non-sliminess,
Stambha – stiffness,
Jadya – inaction in the tongue and
Badhnateeva Kantham – obstruct the throat as it were; they are not good for heart.
Herbs with astringent taste
Pathya – Chebulic Myrobalan (fruit rind) – Terminalia chebula,
Aksha – Terminalia bellirica,
Khadira – Black catechu (heart wood extract) – Acacia catechu,
Madhu (honey), Kadamba, Udumbara,
Mukta (Pearls), Pravala (Coral),
Anjana – Aqueous extract of Berberis aristata (antimony),
Gairika – Purified Red Ochre,
Kharjura – dates,
Bisa – lotus stalk,
Padma – Nelumbium speciosum,
Utpala – Nymphaea stellata etc
Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana 10th chapter
Astringent taste and Kapha dosha
Q: Astringent has coldness. Kapha also has coldness. How astringent, being a coolant, can decrease Kapha Dosha?
A: Being hot or being cold is one way in which substances affect Doshas. There is another thing called Maha Bhutas – basic elements.
If you analyse, Astringent taste is made of air and earth elements – If you think about earth and air element, it causes dryness, harshness, roughness etc. – These qualities are opposite to Kapha Dosha. Hence, astringent taste decreases Kapha Dosha.
If, for example, earth was associated with water element (as in case of sweet taste), there is moistness, there is cushioning, there is coolant effects – which are qualities of Kapha Dosha. Hence sweet increases Kapha Dosha.