Rasa Bhediya Adhyaya – Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana 10

The 10th chapter of Sutrasthanam of Ashtanga Hridayam is named as Rasabhediya Adhyayam. Rasa means taste (of a dravya or substance) and Bheda means types. This chapter discusses in detail regarding the types of tastes and their properties.

Pledge by the author

अथातो रसभेदीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः।
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः।(गद्यसूत्रे)॥२॥
athāto rasabhedīyamadhyāyaḥ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|
iti ha smāhurātreyādayo maharṣayaḥ|(gadyasūtre)||2||

अथातो रसभेदीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः – athāto rasabhedīyamadhyāyaḥ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ – after having offered prayers to the God, henceforth we are going to explain the chapter pertaining to the tastes, their qualities and effects
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः – iti ha smāhurātreyādayo maharṣayaḥ|(gadyasūtre) – thus say (pledge)atreya and other sages.

Shloka Recitation Video

Origin of tastes fom the mahabhutas

AH Su 10.1

Origin of tastes from the mahabhutas (elements of nature)

क्ष्माम्भोग्निक्ष्माम्बुतेजःखवाय्वग्न्यनिलगोनिलैः।
द्वयोल्बणैः क्रमाद्भूतैर्मधुरादिरसोद्भवः॥१॥
kṣmāmbhognikṣmāmbutejaḥkhavāyvagnyanilagonilaiḥ|
dvayolbaṇaiḥ kramādbhūtairmadhurādirasodbhavaḥ||1||

र्मधुरादिरसोद्भवः – madhurādi rasodbhavaḥ – the origin of sweet and other tastes
क्रमाद्भूतै द्वयोल्बणैः – kramādbhūtair dvayolbaṇaiḥ – in the order of sweet, sour, salt, bitter, pungent and astringent take place due to the combination (and predominance) of two bhutas (primary elements)
क्ष्मा अम्भोः – kṣmā ambho – madhura rasa or sweet taste has its origin from the predominance of earth and water
अग्नि: क्ष्मा – agnikṣmā – amla rasa or sour taste is formed by the combination of (predominance) fire and earth elements
अम्बु तेजः – ambu tejaḥ – lavana rasa or salt taste is formed by the combination of (predominance) water and fire elements
ख वायुः – kha vāyu – tikta rasa or bitter taste is formed by the combination of (predominance) ether (space) and air elements
अग्नि अनिलः – agni anila  – katu rasa or pungent taste is formed by the combination of (predominance) fire and air elements
गो अनिलैः – go anilaiḥ – kashaya rasa or astringent taste is formed by the combination of (predominance) earth and air elements

Origin of taste – Rasa utpatti

The tastes are formed due to the combination of two Bhutas (primary elements).

Madhura (sweet) – Prithvi   + Ap  (earth + water)
Amla        (sour) – Tejas    + Ap (fire + water)
Lavana (salt) – Ap + Tejas  (water + fire)
Tikta  (bitter) – Akasa + Vayu (ether + air)
Katu (pungent) – Tejas  + Vayu   (Fire and air)
Kashaya   (astringent)  – Prithvi + Vayu (earth + air)    –  1.

Rasa Lakshana – Characteristics of tastes  

Madhura Rasa

AH Su 10.2-3.a ½

Madhura / Swadu Rasa (sweet taste)

तेषां विद्याद्रसं स्वादुं यो वक्त्रमनुलिम्पति।
आस्वाद्यमानो देहस्य ह्लादनोऽक्षप्रसादनः॥२॥
प्रियः पिपीलिकादीनाम्
teṣāḥ vidyādrasaḥ svāduḥ yo vaktramanulimpati|
āsvādyamāno dehasya hlādano’kṣaprasādanaḥ||2||
priyaḥ pipīlikādīnām

तेषां – teṣāḥ – Among these (6 tastes),
यो रसं आस्वाद्यमानो वक्त्रमनुलिम्पति – yo rasaḥ āsvādyamāno vaktramanulimpati – that taste which on consumption, sticks in the oral cavity (forms a coating in the mouth due to the sticky nature)
विद्यात् स्वादुं – vidyād svāduḥ – is identified (understood) as svadu or sweet
देहस्य ह्लादनोऽ – dehasya hlādano – (it also) provides nourishment and feel of refreshing (contentment and pleasure) to the body and
अक्षप्रसादनः – akṣaprasādanaḥ – provides comfort to the sense organs, and
प्रियः पिपीलिकादीनाम् – priyaḥ pipīlikādīnām – is favorite to the ants (and other insects)

Swadu / Madhura (sweet) is understood by its sticking in the oral cavity, providing a feeling of contentment and pleasure to the body and comfort to the sense organs. It is liked even by ants

Amla Rasa

AH Su 10.3.a ½ – 3.b

Amla Rasa (sour taste)

अम्लः क्षालयते मुखम्।
हर्षणो रोमदन्तानामक्षिभ्रुवनिकोचनः॥३॥
amlaḥ kṣālayate mukham|
harṣaṇo romadantānāmakṣibhruvanikocanaḥ||3||

अम्लः क्षालयते मुखम् – amlaḥ kṣālayate mukham – sour taste causes watering of mouth,
हर्षणो रोम – harṣaṇo roma – horripulation (erection of body hairs as in goosebumps)
हर्षणो दन्तानाम् –  harṣaṇo dantānām – tingling of teeth and
अक्षि भ्रुव निकोचनः – akṣi bhruva nikocanaḥ – contraction (closing) of the eyes and eyebrows

Amla (sour) makes the mouth watery, causes horripilation, tingling of the teeth and leads to closing of the eyes and brows.

Lavana Rasa

AH Su 10.4.a

Lavana Rasa (salt taste)

लवणः स्यन्दयत्यास्यं कपोलगलदाहकृत्।
lavaṇaḥ syandayatyāsyaḥ kapolagaladāhakṛt|

लवणः स्यन्दयत्यास्यं – lavaṇaḥ syandayatyāsyaḥ – salt taste causes more moistness in the mouth (increased salivation)
कपोल गल दाहकृत् – kapolagaladāhakṛt – and burning sensation in the cheeks and throat

Lavana (salt) causes more moisture in the mouth (increase salivation) and burning sensation in the cheeks and throat.

Tikta Rasa

AH Su 10.4.b

Tikta Rasa (bitter taste)

तिक्तो विशदयत्यास्यं रसनं प्रतिहन्ति च॥४॥
tikto viśadayatyāsya rasanaḥ pratihanti ca||4||

तिक्तो विशदयत्यास्यं – tikto viśadayatyāsyam – bitter taste cleanses the mouth
रसनं प्रतिहन्ति च – rasanaḥ pratihanti ca – and destroys the organ of taste (makes the perception of other taste impossible)

Tikta (bitter) cleanses the mouth and destroys the organs of taste (makes perception of other tastes impossible).

Katu Rasa

AH Su 10.5

Katu Rasa (pungent taste)

उद्वेजयति जिह्वाग्र कुर्वश्चिमिचिमां कटुः।
स्रावयत्यक्षिनासास्य कपोलौ दहतीव च॥५॥
udvejayati jihvāgra kurvaścimicimāḥ kaṭuḥ|
srāvayatyakṣināsāsya kapolau dahatīva ca||5||

कटुः जिह्वाग्र उद्वेजयति – kaṭuḥ jihvāgram udvejayati – the pungent taste stimulates the tip of the tongue,
कुर्वश्चिमिचिमां – kurvaścimicimāḥ – causes irritation (tingling),
स्रावयत्यक्षिनासास्य – srāvayatyakṣināsāsya – brings out secretions from the eyes, nose and mouth कपोलौ दहतीव च – kapolau dahatīva ca – causes burning sensation of the cheeks

Katu (pungent) stimulates the tip of the tongue, causes irritation, brings out secretions from the eyes, nose and mouth and causes burning sensation of the cheeks.

Kashaya Rasa

AH Su 10.6.a

Kashaya Rasa (astringent taste)

कषायो जडयेज्जिह्वां कण्ठस्रोतोविबन्धकृत्।
kaṣāyo jaḍayejjihvāḥ kaṇṭhasrotovibandhakṛt|

कषायो जडयेज्जिह्वां – kaṣāyo jaḍayejjihvāḥ – astringent taste inactivates the tongue (produces stiffness due to deficit secretions, lessens capacity of taste perception)
कण्ठ स्रोतो विबन्धकृत् – kaṇṭha sroto vibandhakṛt – cause obstructions of the passage in the throat

Kashaya (astringent) inactivates the tongue (diminishes capacity of taste perception) and causes obstructions of the passage in the throat.

Action of tastes – Rasa Karma

AH Su 10.6.b, ½

रसानामिति रूपाणि कर्माणि
rasānāmiti rūpāṇi karmāṇi

रसानामिति रूपाणि – rasānāmiti rūpāṇi – Thus  explained are the symptoms of different tastes

कर्माणि – karmāṇi – functions of different tastes will be explained in the upcoming verses

Madhura Rasa karma

AH Su 10.6.b ½ – 9

Functions of Madhura Rasa (Sweet Taste)

मधुरो रसः॥६॥
आजन्मसात्म्यात्कुरुते धातूनां प्रबलं बलम्।
बालवृद्धक्षतक्षीणवर्णकेशेन्द्रियौजसाम्॥७॥
प्रशस्तो बृंहणः कण्ठयः स्तन्यसन्धानकृद्गुरुः।
आयुष्यो जीवनः स्निग्धः पित्तनिलविषापहः॥८॥
कुरुतेऽत्युपयोगेन स मेद श्लेष्मजान् गदान्।
स्थौल्याग्निसादसन्न्यासमेहगण्डार्बुदादिकान्॥९॥
madhuro rasaḥ||6||
ājanmasātmyātkurute dhātūnāḥ prabalaḥ balam|
bālavṛddhakṣatakṣīṇavarṇakeśendriyaujasām||7||
praśasto bṛḥhaṇaḥ kaṇṭhayaḥ stanyasandhānakṛdguruḥ|
āyuṣyo jīvanaḥ snigdhaḥ pittanilaviṣāpahaḥ||8||
kurute’tyupayogena sa meda śleṣmajān gadān|
sthaulyāgnisādasannyāsamehagaṇḍārbudādikān||9||

मधुरो रसः आजन्मसात्म्यात्कुरुते – madhuro rasaḥ ājanmasātmyātkurute – the sweet taste being accustomed since birth, bestows (provides, produces),
धातूनां प्रबलं बलम् – dhātūnāḥ prabalaḥ balam – greater strength in the tissues of the body,
प्रशस्तो बाल वृद्ध क्षत क्षीण – praśasto bāla-vṛddha-kṣata-kṣīṇa – good (best) for children, the aged people, those wounded, the emaciated,
वर्ण केशेन्द्रियौजसाम् – varṇa-keśendriyaujasām – the color (improves color), hairs, strength of sense organs and ojas (essence of the tissues), it is also
बृंहणः – bṛḥhaṇaḥ – bulk promoting,
कण्ठयः – kaṇṭhayaḥ – good for the throat,
स्तन्य – stanya – increases breast milk
सन्धानकृद्गुरुः – sandhānakṛdguruḥ – unites the fractured bones, hard to digest,
आयुष्यो – āyuṣyo – promotes longevity of life,
जीवनः – jīvanaḥ – helps easy going of life activities (alleviates fainting etc)
स्निग्धः – snigdhaḥ – unctuous,
पित्तनिल विषापहः – pittanila-viṣāpahaḥ – mitigates vitiated pitta, vata and destroys poison (effects of poisoning),
कुरुतेऽत्युपयोगेन स – sa kurute’tyupayogena – by excessive (and prolonged) use, it causes
मेद श्लेष्मजान् गदान् – meda śleṣmajān gadān – diseases arising from vitiated fat and kapha,
स्थौल्याग्निसाद – sthaulyāgnisāda –  obesity, deficit digestion (indigestion),
सन्न्यास मेह गण्डार्बुदादिकान् – sannyāsa meha gaṇḍārbudādikān – loss of consciousness and awareness, diabetes (urinary disorders), enlargement of neck glands, malignant tumors and many such disorders

Sweet taste being accustomed since birth, produces greater strength in the body tissues. It is very good for children, the aged, the wounded, the emaciated, improves skin complexion, hairs, strength of sense organs and Ojas (essence of the tissues, immunity).
Sweet taste causes stoutness of the body, good for the throat, increases breast milk, unites fractured bones.
Sweet taste is not easily digestible, prolongs life, helps life activities;
It is unctuous, mitigates Pitta, Vata and poison.
By excess use it produces diseases arising from fat and Kapha, obesity, Asthma, unconsciousness, diabetes, enlargement of glands of the neck, malignant tumor (cancer) and such others. 7-9

Amla Rasa karma

AH Su 10.10-12.a

Functions of Amla Rasa (Sour Taste)

अम्लोऽग्निदीप्तिकृत्स्निग्धो हृद्य: पाचनरोचनः।
उष्णवीर्या हिमस्पर्शः प्रीणनः क्लेदनो लघुः॥१०॥
करोति कफपित्तास्रं मूढवातानुलोमनः।
सोऽत्यभ्यस्तस्तनोः कुर्याच्छैथिल्यं तिमिरं भ्रमम्॥११॥
कण्डुपाण्डुत्ववीसर्पशोफविस्फोटतृड्ज्वरान्
amlo’gnidīptikṛtsnigdho hṛdyaḥ pācanarocanaḥ|
uṣṇavīryā himasparśaḥ prīṇanaḥ kledano laghuḥ||10||
karoti kaphapittāsraḥ mūḍhavātānulomanaḥ|
so’tyabhyastastanoḥ kuryācchaithilyaḥ timiraḥ bhramam||11||
kaṇḍupāṇḍutvavīsarpaśophavisphoṭatṛḍjvarān|

अम्लोऽग्निदीप्तिकृत्स्निग्धो – amlo’gnidīptikṛtsnigdho – sour taste stimulates the digestive activity, is unctuous,
हृद्य: – hṛdyaḥ – good for heart,
पाचनरोचनः – pācanarocanaḥ – digests ama (immature digestive juice), enhances taste,
उष्णवीर्या हिमस्पर्शः – uṣṇavīryā himasparśaḥ – hot in potency, cold on touch (coolant on external applications, relieves burning sensation and heat),
प्रीणनः – prīṇanaḥ – provides satiation and nourishment,
क्लेदनो लघुः – kledano laghuḥ – causes moistening and is light (easy for digestion),
करोति कफपित्तास्रं – karoti kaphapittāsraḥ – causes aggravation of kapha, pitta and blood,
मूढवातानुलोमनः – mūḍhavātānulomanaḥ – makes the inactive vata (which is not moving downward) move downwards,
सोऽत्यभ्यस्त: – so’tyabhyastastanoḥ – (sour taste) when consumed in excess or when habituated to sour taste, it causes
तनोः कुर्याच्छैथिल्यं – kuryācchaithilyaḥ – looseness in the body (loss of strength),
तिमिरं भ्रमम् – timiraḥ bhramam – blindness, giddiness
कण्डु – kaṇḍu – itching,
पाण्डुत्ववीसर्प – pāṇḍutvavīsarpa – pallor, herpes,
शोफ – Śopha – swelling,
विस्फोट – visphoṭa – blisters (eruptions),
तृड्ज्वरान् – tṛḍjvarān – thirst and fever

Sour taste stimulates the Agni – (digestive activity), is unctuous, good for the heart, digestive, appetizer, hot in potency, cold on touch (coolant on external applications, relieves burning sensation),
Sour taste satiates, causes moistening, it is easy for digestion, causes aggravation  of Kapha, Pitta and Asra (blood) and makes the inactive Vata move downwards. Sour taste if used in excess, causes looseness of the body, loss of strength, blindness, giddiness, itching (irritation), pallor (whitish yellow discoloration as in anemia), Visarpa – Herpes, spreading skin disease, swellings, Visphota (small pox), thirst and fevers. 10 – 11½.

Lavana Rasa karma

AH Su 10.12.b-14.a

Functions of Lavana Rasa (Salt Taste)

लवणः स्तम्भसङ्घातबन्धविध्मापनोऽग्निकृत्॥१२॥
स्नेहनः स्वेदस्तीक्ष्णो रोचनश्छेदभेदकृत्।
सोऽतियुक्तोऽस्रपवनं खलतिं पलितं वलिम्॥१३॥
तृट्कुष्ठविषवीसर्पान् जनयेत्क्षपयेद्बलम्।
lavaṇaḥ stambhasaṅghātabandhavidhmāpano’gnikṛt||12||
snehanaḥ svedastīkṣṇo rocanaśchedabhedakṛt|
so’tiyukto’srapavanaḥ khalatiḥ palitaḥ valim||13||
tṛṭkuṣṭhaviṣavīsarpān janayetkṣapayedbalam|

लवणः स्तम्भ सङ्घात बन्ध विध्मापनोऽग्निकृत् – lavaṇaḥ stambha saṅghāta bandha vidhmāpano’gnikṛt – salt taste removes (destroys) rigidity / stiffness (inactivity), hardness, blocks in the channels and pores in the body, increases digestive activity,
स्नेहनः – snehanaḥ – acts as a lubricant,
स्वेदस्तीक्ष्णो – svedastīkṣṇo – causes sweating, is intense and deep penetrating in nature (penetrates deep into the cells)
रोचनश्छेद भेदकृत् – rocanaścheda bhedakṛt – improves taste, cuts and breaks open (the new growths and abscesses etc)
सोऽतियुक्तोऽस्रपवनं – so’tiyukto’srapavanaḥ – when used in excess, the salt taste vitiates blood and vata,
खलतिं पलितं – khalatiḥ palitaḥ – causes baldness, graying,
वलिम् – valim – wrinkles of the skin,
तृट्कुष्ठ – tṛṭkuṣṭha – thirst, skin diseases,
विषवीसर्पान् – viṣavīsarpān – herpes,
जनयेत्क्षपयेद्बलम् – janayetkṣapayedbalam – and causes decrease in the body strength

Salt relieves rigidity, clears the obstructions of the channels and pores, increases digestive activity, lubricates, causes sweating, penetrates deep into the tissues, improves taste,  new growth, abscess etc.).

Used in excess, it causes vitiation of Asra (blood) and Vata, causes baldness, graying of hair, wrinkles of the skin, thirst, skin diseases, effect of poison, Visarpa – Herpes, spreading skin disease and decrease of strength of the body. 12 – 13.

AH Su 10.14.b-16

Functions of Tikta Rasa (Bitter Taste)

तिक्तः स्वयमतोचिष्णुररुचि कृमितृड्विषम्॥१४॥
कुष्ठमूर्च्छाज्वरोत्क्लेशदाहपित्तकफान् जयेत्।
क्लेदमेदोवसामज्जशकृन्मूत्रोपशोषणः॥१५॥
लघुर्मेध्यो हिमो रूक्षः स्तन्यकण्ठविशोधनः।
धातुक्षयानिलव्याधीनतियोगात्करोति सः॥१६॥
tiktaḥ svayamatociṣṇuraruci kṛmitṛḍviṣam||14||
kuṣṭhamūrcchājvarotkleśadāhapittakaphān jayet|
kledamedovasāmajjaśakṛnmūtropaśoṣaṇaḥ||15||
laghurmedhyo himo rūkṣaḥ stanyakaṇṭhaviśodhanaḥ|
dhātukṣayānilavyādhīnatiyogātkaroti saḥ||16||

तिक्तः स्वयमरोचिष्णुररुचि जयेत् – tiktaḥ svayamarociṣṇuraruci jayet – the bitter taste by itself is not tasty but destroys anorexia (tastelessness), it also destroys
कृमि तृड्विषम् – kṛmitṛḍviṣam – worms, thirst, poison (effect of poisoning)
कुष्ठ मूर्च्छा – kuṣṭha mūrcchā – skin disease, unconsciousness,
ज्वरोत्क्लेश – jvarotkleśa – fever, nausea (feel of vomiting),
दाह – dāha – burning sensation,
पित्तकफान् – pittakaphān – vitiated pitta and kapha,
क्लेद मेदो वसा मज्ज शकृन्मूत्रोपशोषणः – kleda medo vasā majja śakṛnmūtropaśoṣaṇaḥ – dries up the moisture (water content in the body), fat, muscle-fat, marrow, feces, urine,
लघुर्मेध्यो – laghurmedhyo – bitter taste is light to digest (easily digestible), increases intelligence,
हिमो रूक्षः – himo rūkṣaḥ  – cold in potency, dry (causes dryness),
स्तन्य कण्ठ विशोधनः – stanya kaṇṭha viśodhanaḥ – cleanses the breast milk and throat,
धातुक्षयानिलव्याधीनतियोगात्करोति सः – dhātukṣayānilavyādhīnatiyogātkaroti saḥ – when used in excess, the bitter taste causes depletion of tissues and diseases of Vata origin

Bitter taste by itself is not tasty, but it cures anorexia, worms, thirst, poison, skin diseases, loss of consciousness, fever, nausea, burning sensations;
Bitter mitigates Pitta and Kapha, dries up moisture, fat, muscle-fat marrow, feces and urine;
Bitter taste is easily digestible, increases intelligence, cold in potency, dry (causes dryness), cleanses breast milk, and throat.
Used in excess, it causes depletion of Dhatus (tissues) and diseases of Vata origin. 14 – 16.

Katu Rasa karma

AH Su 10.17-19

Functions of Katu Rasa (Pungent Taste)

कटुर्गलामयोदर्दकुष्ठालसकशोफजित्।
व्रणावसादनः स्नेहमेदःक्लेदोपशोषणः॥१७॥
दीपनः पाचनो रुच्यः शोधनोऽन्नस्य शोषणः।
छिनत्ति बन्धान् स्रोतांसि विवृणोति कफापहः॥१८॥
कुरुते सोऽतियोगेन तृष्णां शुक्रबलक्षयम्।
मूर्च्छामाकुञ्चन कम्पं कटिपृष्ठादिषु व्यथाम्॥१९॥
kaṭurgalāmayodardakuṣṭhālasakaśophajit|
vraṇāvasādanaḥ snehamedaḥkledopaśoṣaṇaḥ||17||
dīpanaḥ pācano rucyaḥ śodhano’nnasya śoṣaṇaḥ|
chinatti bandhān srotāḥsi vivṛṇoti kaphāpahaḥ||18||
kurute so’tiyogena tṛṣṇāḥ śukrabalakṣayam|
mūrcchāmākuñcana kampaḥ kaṭipṛṣṭhādiṣu vyathām||19||

कटुर्गलामयोदर्द – kaṭurgalāmayodarda  – pungent taste cures the diseases of throat, allergic rashes,
कुष्ठालसक – kuṣṭhālasaka  – leprosy (skin diseases), alasaka (a digestive disorders),
शोफजित् – śophajit – swelling (edema),
व्रणावसादनः – vraṇāvasādanaḥ  – reduces the swellin around the wounds or ulcers,
स्नेह मेदः क्लेदोपशोषणः – sneha medaḥ kledopaśoṣaṇaḥ – dries up (destroys) the unctuousness (greasiness), fat, and moisture (water) content of the body,
दीपनः पाचनो रुच्यः – dīpanaḥ pācano rucyaḥ – increases hunger, is digestive (digests ama), improves taste,
शोधनोऽन्नस्य शोषणः – śodhano’nnasya śoṣaṇaḥ – is cleansing (eliminates the doshas), dries up the moisture of the food,
छिनत्ति बन्धान् – chinatti bandhān  – destroys joints of the body,
स्रोतांसि विवृणोति – srotāḥsi vivṛṇoti  – dilates (expands) the channels of the body,
कफापहः – kaphāpahaḥ – destroys vitiated kapha,
कुरुते सोऽतियोगेन – kurute so’tiyogena  – when used in excess, the pungent taste causes
तृष्णां – tṛṣṇāḥ – thirst,
शुक्र बलक्षयम् – Śukra balakṣayam – depletion of reproductive tissue (semen, sperms), and strength,
मूर्च्छामाकुञ्चन – mūrcchāmākuñcana  – fainting (loss of consciousness), contractures,
कम्पं – kampaḥ – tremors and
कटि पृष्ठादिषु व्यथाम् – kaṭi pṛṣṭhādiṣu vyathām – pain in the waist, back etc

Pungent cures diseases of throat, allergic rashes, leprosy and other skin diseases, Alasaka (a kind of indigestion), swelling (odema); reduces the swelling of the ulcers, dries up the unctuousness (greasiness), fat, and moisture (water); Pungent taste increases hunger, it is digestive, improves taste, Shodhana (cleansing, eliminates the Dosas), dries up moisture of the food, breaks up hard masses, dilates (expands) the channels and balances Kapha.

By over use, it causes thirst, depletion of Sukra (reproductive element, sperm) and strength, fainting (loss of consciousness) contractions, tremors and pain in the waist, back etc. 17 – 19.

Actions of astringent taste

Kashaya Rasa karma

AH Su 10.20-22.a

Functions of Kashaya Rasa (Astringent Taste)

कषायः पित्तकफहा गुरुरस्रविशोधनः।
पीडनो रोपणः शीतः क्लेदमेदोविशोषणः॥२०॥
आमसंस्तम्भनो ग्राही रूक्षोऽतित्वक्प्रसादनः।
करोति शीलितः सोऽतिविष्टम्भाध्मानहृद्रुजः॥२१॥
तृट्कार्श्यपौरुषभ्रंशस्रोतोरोधमलग्रहान्
kaṣāyaḥ pittakaphahā gururasraviśodhanaḥ
pīḍano ropaṇaḥ śītaḥ kledamedoviśoṣaṇaḥ||20||
āmasaḥstambhano grāhī rūkṣo’titvakprasādanaḥ|
karoti śīlitaḥ so’tiviṣṭambhādhmānahṛdrujaḥ||21
tṛṭkārśyapauruṣabhraḥśasrotorodhamalagrahān|

कषायः पित्तकफहा – kaṣāyaḥ pittakaphahā – astringent taste balances pitta and kapha (destroys vitiated pitta and kapha),
गुरुरस्रविशोधनः – gururasraviśodhanaḥ – hard to digest, cleanses the blood,
पीडनो रोपणः – pīḍano ropaṇaḥ  – causes squeezing and healing of wounds (ulcers),
शीतः – śītaḥ  – has cold potency,
क्लेद मेदो विशोषणः – kleda medo viśoṣaṇaḥ – dries up the moisture (water content of the body) and fat,
आम संस्तम्भनो – āma saḥstambhano – hinders the digestion of ama (undigested food),
ग्राही  – grāhī  – astringent is a powerful water absorbent, hence tends to cause constipation,
रूक्षोऽतित्वक्प्रसादनः – rūkṣo’titvakprasādanaḥ – dry (produces dryness) and does too much of skin cleansing
करोति शीलितः सोऽतिविष्टम्भाध्मानहृद्रुजः – karoti śīlitaḥ so’tiviṣṭambhādhmānahṛdrujaḥ – when used in excess, the astringent taste causes stasis of food without digestion, flatulence, pain in the heart region,
तृट्कार्श्य पौरुषभ्रंश स्रोतोरोध मलग्रहान् – tṛṭkārśya pauruṣabhraḥśa srotorodha malagrahān – thirst, loss of virility (sexual power), obstruction of the channels of the body and constipation

Kashaya (astringent) balances Pitta and Kapha, it is not easily digestible; cleanses the blood, causes squeezing and healing of ulcers (wounds), has cold potency, dries up the moisture and fat, hinders the digestion of undigested food.
Astringent taste is water absorbent, thereby causing constipation, dryness and cleanses the skin too much.

Used in excess, it causes stasis of food without digestion, flatulence, pain in the heart region, thirst, emaciation, loss of virility, obstruction of the channels and constipation. 20 – 21½.

Madhura Gana

AH Su 10.22.b-25.a

Madhura Gana – group of sweet substances

घृतहेमगुडाक्षोडमोचचोचपरूषकम्॥२२॥
अभीरुवीरापनसराजादनबलात्रयम्।
मेदे चतस्रः पर्णिन्यो जीवन्ती जीवकर्षभौ॥२३॥
मधूकं मधुकं बिम्बी विदारी श्रावणीयुगम्।
क्षीरशुक्ला तुगाक्षीरी क्षीरिण्यौ काश्मरी सहे॥२४॥
क्षीरेक्षुगोक्षुरक्षौद्रद्राक्षादिर्मधुरो गणः।
ghṛtahemaguḍākṣoḍamocacocaparūṣakam||22||
abhīruvīrāpanasarājādanabalātrayam|
mede catasraḥ parṇinyo jīvantī jīvakarṣabhau||23||
madhūkaḥ madhukaḥ bimbī vidārī śrāvaṇīyugam|
kṣīraśuklā tugākṣīrī kṣīriṇyau kāśmarī sahe||24||
kṣīrekṣugokṣurakṣaudradrākṣādirmadhuro gaṇaḥ|

घृत हेम गुडाक्षोड – ghṛta hema guḍākṣoḍa – ghee (butterfat), gold, molasses, Juglans regia,
मोच चोच परूषकम् – moca coca parūṣakam – banana (plantain), bark of cinnamon, falsa fruit (Grewia asiatica)
अभीरु वीरा पनस – abhīru vīrā panasa – Asparagus racemosus, Roscaea procera,
राजादन बलात्रयम् – rājādana balātrayam – Mimucops hexandra, Sida cordifolia and its varieties,
मेदे – mede  – meda (Polygonatum verticillatum All), Mahameda (Polygonatum verticillatum Allioni)
चतस्रः पर्णिन्यो – catasraḥ parṇinyo – Shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum), Prishniparni (Uraria picta), Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus), Mashaparni (Teramnus labialis),
जीवन्ती – jīvantī  – Leptadenia reticulate,
जीवकर्षभौ – jīvakarṣabhau – Jivaka (Microstylis wallichi), Rishabhaka (Microstylis musifera),
मधूकं – madhūkaḥ  – Madhuka longifolia (flowers),
मधुकं – madhukaḥ – Licorice,
बिम्बी – bimbī  – Coccinia indica,
विदारी – vidārī  – Pueraria tuberose,
श्रावणीयुगम् – śrāvaṇīyugam – Shravani (Sphaeranthus indicus), Mahashravani (Sphaeranthus africans)
क्षीरशुक्ला – kṣīraśuklā  – Ipomea digitata,
तुगाक्षीरी – tugākṣīrī  – Bambusa arundinaceae
क्षीरिण्यौ – kṣīriṇyau  – Kshirakakoli (Lilium polyphyllum), Dugdhika (Euphorbia thymifolia),
काश्मरी – kāśmarī  – Gmelina arborea
सहे – sahe – Kshudrasaha, Mahasaha,
क्षीरेक्षु – kṣīrekṣu  – milk, sugarcane,
गोक्षुर क्षौद्र द्राक्षादिर्मधुरो गणः – gokṣura kṣaudra drākṣādirmadhuro gaṇaḥ – Tribulus terrestris, honey, grapes etc are the members of the madhura gana or group of sweet substances

Ghrita (ghee, butter fat), Hema (gold), Guda (molasses),
Akshoda, Mocha, Chocha, Parushaka,
Abhiru, Vira, Panasa, Rajadana,
the three Bala  (Bala, Atibala and Nagabala),
The two Medas – Meda and Mahameda,
The four Parni – Shalaparni, Prishnaparni, Mudgaparni, Mashaparni,
Jivanti – Leptadenia reticulata,
Jivaka – Malaxis acuminata D.Don / Microstylis wallichii Lindl. ,
Rishabhaka,
Madhuka – Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Madhuka – Madhuka longifolia,
Bimbi – Coccinia grandis / indica,
Vidari – Pueraria tuberosa,
the two Sravani – Mundi and Sravani,
Ksheerasukla, Tugaksiri,
the two Ksheerini, Gambhari,
the two Saha, milk, sugarcane,
Gokshura, Ksaudra, Draksa etc. form the group of sweet substances.

Amla Gana

AH Su 10.25.b-26

Amla Gana – group of sour substances

अम्लो धात्रीफलाम्लीकामातुलुङ्गाम्लवेतसम्॥२५॥
दाडिमं रजतं तक्रं चुक्रं पालेवतं दधि।
आम्रमाम्रातकं भव्यं कपित्थं करमर्दकम्॥२६॥
amlo dhātrīphalāmlīkāmātuluṅgāmlavetasam||25||
dāḍimaḥ rajataḥ takraḥ cukraḥ pālevataḥ dadhi|
āmramāmrātakaḥ bhavyaḥ kapitthaḥ karamardakam||26||

अम्लो – amlo – examples of amla gana (group of sour substances) are –
धात्रीफलाम्लीका – dhātrīphalāmlīkā – dhatriphala (fruit of amla, Indian gooseberry), amlika (tamarind)
मातुलुङ्गाम्लवेतसम् – mātuluṅgāmlavetasam – Matulunga (Citrus medica), Amlvetasa (Garcinia pedunculata)
दाडिमं – dāḍimaḥ – pomegranate
रजतं – rajataḥ – silver
तक्रं – takraḥ – buttermilk
चुक्रं – cukraḥ – Chukram
पालेवतं – pālevataḥ – Palevatam
दधि – dadhi – curds
आम्रमाम्रातकं – āmramāmrātakaḥ – amra (mango), amrataka (wild mango, Hog Plum, Spondias pinnata),
भव्यं – bhavyaḥ – Dillenia indica
कपित्थं – kapitthaḥ – wood apple
करमर्दकम् – karamardakam – Carissa carandas

Amla Gana – group of sour substances

Dhatriphala – Amla,
Amlika – tamarind,
Matulunga,
Amlavetasa – Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. / Rheum emodi Wall.,
Pomegranate, silver, Buttermilk, Chukra, Palevata, curds, mango,
Amrataka,
Bhavya – Dillenia indica,
Kapittha – Feronia limonia / Limonia acidissima, Karamardaka etc. form the sour group. 25 – 26.

Lavana Gana

AH Su 10.27

Lavana Gana – group of salt substances

वरं सौवर्चलं कृष्णं बिडं सामुद्रमौद्भिदम्।
रोमकं पांसुजं शीसं क्षारश्च लवणो गणः॥२७॥
varaḥ sauvarcalaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ biḍaḥ sāmudramaudbhidam|
romakaḥ pāḥsujaḥ śīsaḥ kṣāraśca lavaṇo gaṇaḥ||27||

लवणो गणः – lavaṇo gaṇaḥ – the group of salt substances comprise of different types of salts, including –
वरं – varaḥ – Saindhava Lavana (rock salt)
सौवर्चलं – sauvarcalaḥ – Sochal salt (Unaqua Sodium Chloride)
कृष्णं – kṛṣṇaḥ – Black salt
बिडं – biḍaḥ – Ammonium salt
सामुद्रमौद्भिदम् – sāmudramaudbhidam – Samudra Lavana (sea salt), Audbhida / Oudbhida Lavana (Reha salt, Usa salt, efflorescent salts)
रोमकं – romakaḥ – sambhar salt, earthen salt
पांसुजं – pāḥsujaḥ – salt prepared from saline earth
शीसं – śīsaḥ – lead
क्षारश्च – kṣāraśca – alkalis

Lavana Gana – group of salts

Varam (Saindhava – Rock Salt), Sauvarcala (sochal salt), Krishna (black salt) Bida salt, Samudra (table salt), Audbhida, Romaka, Pamshuja, Seesa (lead) and Kshara (Alkalies) form the salt group.

Tikta Gana

AH Su 10.28-30.a

Tikta Gana – group of bitter substances

तिक्तः पटोली त्रायन्ती वालकोशीरचन्दनम्।
भूनिम्बनिम्बकटुकातगरागुरुवत्सकम्॥२८॥
नक्तमालद्विरजनीमुस्तमूर्वाटरूषकम्।
पाठापामार्गकांस्यायोगुडूचीधन्वयासकम्॥२९॥
पञ्चमूलं महव्याघ्र्यौ विशालाऽतिविषा वचा।
tiktaḥ paṭolī trāyantī vālakośīracandanam|
bhūnimbanimbakaṭukātagarāguruvatsakam||28||
naktamāladvirajanīmustamūrvāṭarūṣakam|
pāṭhāpāmārgakāḥsyāyoguḍūcīdhanvayāsakam||29||
pañcamūlaḥ mahavyāghryau viśālā’tiviṣā vacā|

तिक्तः – tiktaḥ –  the group of bitter substances comprise of –
पटोली – paṭolī – pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica)
त्रायन्ती – trāyantī – Gentiana kurroo
वालकोशीर – vālakośīra – Valaka (Aporusa lindleyana / Coleus vettiveroides), Ushira (Vetiveria zizanioides)
चन्दनम् – candanam – sandalwood
भूनिम्ब – bhūnimba – Andrographis paniculata (the creat, whole plant),
निम्ब – nimbi – Azadirachta indica (neem),
कटुकातगरागुरु – kaṭukātagarāguru – Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa), Tagara (Valeriana wallichi, Indian Valerian), Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha),
वत्सकम् – vatsakam – Holarrhena antidysenterica
नक्तमाल – naktamāla – Pongamia pinnata
द्विरजनी – dvirajanī – Haridra (turmeric) and Daruharidra (tree turmeric),
मुस्त – musta – Cyperus rotundus (nut grass),
मूर्वाटरूषकम् – mūrvāṭarūṣakam – Murva (Marsdenia tenacissima), Atarushaka (Adhatoda vasica),
पाठापामार्ग – pāṭhāpāmārga – Patha (Cyclea peltata), Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera, Prickly Chaff Flower),
कांस्यायो – kāḥsyāyo – Kamsya (bronze), Ayas (iron),
गुडूची – guḍūcī – Tinospora cordifolia,
धन्वयासकम् – dhanvayāsakam – Alhagi camelorum
पञ्चमूलंमह – pañcamūlaḥmaha – Roots of Bilva (Aegle marmelos, Bael root), Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis), Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum), Patala (Stereospermum suaveolens), Gambhari (Gmelina arborea),
व्याघ्र्यौ – vyāghryau – Brihati (Solanum indicum) and Kantakari (Solanum surattense, Solanum xanthocarpum)
विशालाऽतिविषा – viśālā’tiviṣā – Visala (Citrullus colocynthis), Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum),
वचा – vacā – Acorus calamus

Tikta Gana – group of bitters

Patoli,
Trayanti – Gentiana kurroa,
Valaka,
Usira – Vetiveria zizanioides,
Chandana – Sandalwood,
Bhunimba – The creat (whole plant) – Andrographis paniculata,
Neem
Katuka – Picrorhiza kurroa,
Tagara – Indian Valerian (root) – Valeriana wallichi,
Agarwood,
Vatsaka – Holarrhena antidysentirica,
Naktamala,
Turmeric and tree turmeric,
Musta – Nut grass (root) – Cyperus rotundus,
Murva,
Atarushaka – Adhatoda vasica,
Patha – Cyclea peltata,
Apamarga –  Prickly Chaff Flower – Achyranthes aspera,
bronze, iron,
Guduchi – Tinospora cordifolia,
Dhanvayasaka,
Mahat Pancamula – Bilva, Agnimantha, Shyonaka, Gambhari, Patala
the two Vyaghri – Brihati and Kantakari,
Visala, Ativisha, Vacha etc. form the group of bitters.

Katu Gana

AH Su 10.30.b-31.a

Katu Gana – group of pungent substances

कटुको हिङ्गुमरिचकृमिजित्पञ्चकोलकम्॥३०॥
कुठेराध्या हरीतकाः पित्तं मूत्रमरुष्करम्।
kaṭuko hiṅgumaricakṛmijitpañcakolakam||30||
kuṭherādhyā harītakāḥ pittaḥ mūtramaruṣkaram|

कटुको – kaṭuko – the group of pungent substances comprise of –
हिङ्गु – hiṅgu – asafetida
मरिच – marica – black pepper
कृमिजित्पञ्चकोलकम् – kṛmijit pañcakolakam – Krimijit (Embelia ribes), Pippali (long pepper), Pippalimula (root of long pepper), Chavya (Piper retrofractum), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Shunti (ginger)
कुठेराध्या हरीतकाः – kuṭherādhyā harītakāḥ – leafy vegetables such as Kutheraka and others (mentioned in verse 103 of Ashtanga Hridaya Sutra Sthana, chapter 6),
पित्तं – pittaḥ – bile of animals
मूत्रमरुष्करम् – mūtram aruṣkaram – Mutra (urines of animals), Arushkara (Semecarpus anacardium, Marking Nut)

Katu Gana – group of pungents

Hingu – Asa foetida,
Maricha – Black pepper,
Krimijit – Vidanga,
Panchakola – Chitraka, Chavya – Piper chaba, long pepper root and fruit and ginger,
Leafy vegetables such as Kutheraka and others (mentioned in verse 103 of chapter 6 earlier), Pitta (bile of animals), animal urines, Arushkara etc. form the pungent group.

Kashaya Gana

AH Su 10.31.b-32

Kashaya Gana – group of astringent substances

वर्गः कषायः पथ्याऽक्षं शिरीषः खदिरो मधु॥३१॥
कदम्बोदुम्बर मुक्ताप्रवालाञ्जनगैरिकम्।
बालं कपित्थं खर्जूरं विसपध्मोत्पलादि च॥३२॥
vargaḥ kaṣāyaḥ pathyā’kṣaḥ śirīṣaḥ khadiro madhu||31||
kadambodumbara muktāpravālāñjanagairikam|
bālaḥ kapitthaḥ kharjūraḥ visapadhmotpalādi ca||32||

वर्गः कषायः – vargaḥ kaṣāyaḥ – the group of astringent  substances comprise of –
पथ्याऽक्षं – pathyā’kṣaḥ – Pathya, Haritaki (Terminalis chebula), Aksha, Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica),
शिरीषः – śirīṣaḥ – Albizia lebbeck,
खदिरो – khadiro – Acacia catechu,
मधु – madhu – honey,
कदम्बोदुम्बर – kadambodumbara – Kadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba), Udumbara (Ficus racemosa, cluster fig),
मुक्ता – muktā – pearls,
प्रवालाञ्जन – pravālāñjana – Pravala (coral), Anjana (aqueous extract of Berberis aristata),
गैरिकम् – gairikam – Purified red ochre,
बालं कपित्थं – bālaḥ kapitthaḥ – unripe wood apple,
खर्जूरं – kharjūraḥ – dates,
विस –visa – lotus stalk,
पध्मोत्पलादि च – padhmotpalādi ca – Padma (Nelumbium speciosum), Utpala (Nymphaea stellata) etc.

Kashaya Varga (Gana) – group of astringents

Group of astringents consists of
Pathya – Chebulic Myrobalan (fruit rind) – Terminalia chebula,
Aksha – Terminalia bellirica,
Shireesa,
Khadira – Black catechu (heart wood extract) – Acacia catechu,
Madhu (honey), Kadamba, Udumbara,
Mukta (Pearls), Pravala (Coral),
Anjana – Aqueous extract of Berberis aristata (antimony),
Gairika – Purified Red Ochre,
Bala kapittha,
Kharjura – dates,
Bisa – lotus stalk,
Padma – Nelumbium speciosum,
Utpala – Nymphaea stellata etc.

General properties of tastes and exceptions

General properties of tastes and exceptions

AH Su 10.33

Madhura rasa (sweet)

मधुरं श्लेष्मलं प्रायो जीर्णाच्छालियवाद्दृते।
मुद्गाद्गोधूमतः क्षौद्रात्सिताया जाङ्गलामिषात्॥३३॥
madhuraḥ śleṣmalaḥ prāyo jīrṇācchāliyavāddṛte|
mudgādgodhūmataḥ kṣaudrātsitāyā jāṅgalāmiṣāt||33||

प्रायो मधुरं श्लेष्मलं – prāyo madhuraḥ śleṣmalaḥ – generally, the substance having sweet taste increase kapha, with exception of
जीर्णाच्छालियवाद्दृते – jīrṇācchāliyavāddṛte – Jerna Shali (old rice, more than one year old rice), Jeerna Yava (more than one year old Hordeum vulgare, barley),
मुद्गाद्गोधूमतः – mudgādgodhūmataḥ – Jeerna Mudga (more than one year old green gram), Jeerna Godhuma (more than one year old wheat)
क्षौद्रात्सिताया – kṣaudrātsitāyā – kshaudra (honey), sita (sugar),
जाङ्गलामिषात् – jāṅgalāmiṣāt – meat of animals living in desert like lands

AH Su 10.34.a

Amla rasa (sour)

प्रायोऽम्लं पित्तजननं दाडिमामलकाद्दृते|
prāyo’mlaḥ pittajananaḥ dāḍimāmalakāddṛte|

प्रायोऽम्लं पित्तजननं – prāyo’mlaḥ pittajananaḥ – generally substances of sour taste aggravate pitta,
दाडिमामलकाद्दृते – dāḍimāmalakāddṛte – except pomegranate and Indian gooseberry

AH Su 10.34.b

Lavana rasa (salt)

अपथ्यं लवणं प्रायश्चक्षुषोऽन्यत्र सैन्धवात्॥३४॥
apathyaḥ lavaṇaḥ prāyaścakṣuṣo’nyatra saindhavāt||34||

अपथ्यं लवणं प्रायश्चक्षुषोऽन्यत्र सैन्धवात् – apathya lavaa prāyaścakuo’nyatra saindhavāt – generally all salts are bad for the eyes (vision), except the rock salt

AH Su 10.35

Tikta and Katu rasa (bitter and pungent)

तिक्तं कटु च भूयिष्ठमवृष्यं वातकोपनम्।
ऋतेऽमृतापटोलीभ्यां शुण्ठीकृष्णारसोनतः॥३५॥
tiktaḥ kaṭu ca bhūyiṣṭhamavṛṣyaḥ vātakopanam|
ṛte’mṛtāpaṭolībhyāḥ śuṇṭhīkṛṣṇārasonataḥ||35||

तिक्तं कटु च भूयिष्ठम् – tiktaḥ kaṭu ca bhūyiṣṭham – generally, all substances (foods, drugs) predominant in bitter and pungent taste are
अवृष्यं – avṛṣyaḥ – non-aphrodisiacs (not good for semen and sperms), and
वातकोपनम् – vātakopanam – aggravate vata,
ऋतेऽमृता पटोलीभ्यां – ṛte’mṛtāpaṭolībhyāḥ – except Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia), Patoli (pointed gourd),
शुण्ठी कृष्णा रसोनतः – śuṇṭhī kṛṣṇā rasonataḥ – ginger, long pepper and garlic

AH Su 10.36.a

Kashaya rasa (astringent)

कषायं प्रायशः शीतं स्तम्भनं चाभयां विना
kaṣāyaḥ prāyaśaḥ śītaḥ stambhanaḥ cābhayāḥ vinā |

कषायं प्रायशः – kaṣāyaḥ prāyaśaḥ – all astringents are usually
शीतं – śītaḥ – cold and
स्तम्भनं – stambhanaḥ – obstruction, constipating,
चाभयां विना – cābhayāḥ vinā – except abhaya or Terminalia chebula (its fruit rind)

Generally, substances of sweet taste increase Kapha except old Shali (more than one year old rice) and Yava – Barley, green gram, wheat,  honey, sugar,  and meat of animals of desert – like lands.

Generally substances of sour taste aggravate Pitta, except pomegranate and amla fruit.

Generally salts are bad for the eyes (vision) except Saindhava – Rock Salt.

Generally bitters and pungent herbs are non-aphrodisiacs and aggravate (increase) Vata except for Amrita (Indian tinospora), Patoli, ginger, long pepper and garlic.

Astringents are usually cold (in potency) and obstructive – except Abhaya – Chebulic Myrobalan (fruit rind) – Terminalia chebula.

Tastes and potency

AH Su 10.36.b-39.a

Tastes, their potency and qualities

रसाः कट्वम्ललवणा वीर्येणोष्णा यथोत्तरम्॥३६॥
तिक्तः कषायो मधुरस्तद्वदेव च शीतलाः।
तिक्तः कटुः कषायश्च रूक्षा बद्धमलास्तथा॥३७॥
पट्वम्लमधुराः स्निग्धाः सृष्टविण्मूत्रमारुताः।
पटोः कषायस्तस्माञ्च मधुरः परमं गुरुः॥३८॥
लघुरम्लः कटुस्तस्मात्तस्मादपि च तिक्तकः।
rasāḥ kaṭvamlalavaṇā vīryeṇoṣṇā yathottaram||36||
tiktaḥ kaṣāyo madhurastadvadeva ca śītalāḥ|
tiktaḥ kaṭuḥ kaṣāyaśca rūkṣā baddhamalāstathā||37||
paṭvamlamadhurāḥ snigdhāḥ sṛṣṭaviṇmūtramārutāḥ|
paṭoḥ kaṣāyastasmāñca madhuraḥ paramaḥ guruḥ||38||
laghuramlaḥ kaṭustasmāttasmādapi ca tiktakaḥ|

रसाः कट्वम्ल लवणा – rasāḥ kaṭvamla lavaṇā  – the tastes pungent, sour and salt
वीर्येणोष्णा यथोत्तरम् – vīryeṇoṣṇā yathottaram – are of hot potency, each one more so in their succeeding order,
तिक्तः कषायो मधुरस्तद्वदेव च शीतलाः – tiktaḥ kaṣāyo madhurastadvadeva ca śītalāḥ – similarly, the bitter, astringent and sweet tastes are cold in potency, each one more in their succeeding order,
तिक्तः कटुः कषायश्च – tiktaḥ kaṭuḥ kaṣāyaśca – bitter, pungent and astringent tastes
रूक्षा बद्धमलास्तथा – rūkṣā baddhamalāstathā – are dry and cause constipating (each one more so in that order)
पट्वम्ल मधुराः – paṭvamla madhurāḥ – salt, sour and sweet tastes
स्निग्धाः सृष्ट विण्मूत्र मारुताः – snigdhāḥ sṛṣṭa viṇmūtra mārutāḥ – are unctuous and help in elimination of feces, urine and fart (flatus), each one more so in their succeeding order,
पटोः कषायस्तस्माञ्च – paṭoḥ kaṣāyastasmāñca – salt, astringent and
मधुरः परमं गुरुः – madhuraḥ paramaḥ guruḥ – sweet tastes are heavy (hard to digest), each one more so in their succeeding order,
लघुरम्लः कटुस्तस्मात्तस्मादपि च तिक्तकः – laghuramlaḥ  kaṭustasmāttasmādapi ca tiktakaḥ – sour, pungent and bitter tastes are light (easy to digest), each one more so in their succeeding order

Katu (pungent), Amla (sour), Lavana (salt) are of hot potency (Ushna Veerya (potency), each one, more so in their succeeding order;
Similarly Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent) and Madhura (sweet) are cold in potency, each one more in their succeeding order.

Bitter, pungent and astringent tastes are dry and cause constipation (each one more so in their succeeding order)
while salt, sour and sweet tastes are unctuous and help elimination of feces, urine and flatus, each one more so in their succeeding order.

Salt, astringent and sweet tastes are heavy to digest, each one more so in their succeeding order
While sour, pungent and bitter tastes are easy to digest, each one more so in their succeeding order.

Rasa Samkhya

AH Su 10.39.b-40.a

Number of rasas (tastes)

संयोगाः सप्तपञ्चशत्कल्पना तु त्रिषष्टिधा॥३९॥
रसानां यौगिकत्वेन यथास्थूलं विभज्यते।
saḥyogāḥ saptapañcaśatkalpanā tu triṣaṣṭidhā||39||
rasānāḥ yaugikatvena yathāsthūlaḥ vibhajyate|

संयोगाः सप्तपञ्चशत्कल्पना तु त्रिषष्टिधा – saḥyogāḥ saptapañcaśat kalpanā tu triṣaṣṭidhā – the combination (samyoga) of tastes are of 57 types, but the count is again of 63 types
यौगिकत्वेन रसानां –yaugikatvena rasānāḥ – on the basis of the usage (yogas or formulations in daily routine of selection of drugs, planning of therapies etc) of the tastes and
विभज्यते यथास्थूलं – vibhajyate yathāsthūlaḥ – and this classification (of rasas according to combinations and utilization) has been done in a broader and grosser way (they cannot be minutely classified or counted because the permutations and combinations of tastes and sub-tastes become innumerable)

Combination of tastes

AH Su 10.40.b-42

List of Rasa combinations

एकैकहीनास्तान् पञ्चदश यान्ति रसा द्विके॥४०॥
त्रिके स्वादुर्दशाम्लःषट् त्रीन् पटुस्तिक्त एककम्।
चतुष्केषु दश स्वादुश्चतुरोऽम्लः पटुः सकृत्॥४१॥
पञ्चकेष्वेकमेवाम्लो मधुरः पञ्च सेवते।
द्रव्यमेकं षडास्वादमसंयुक्ताश्च षड्रसाः॥४२॥
ekaikahīnāstān pañcadaśa yānti rasā dvike||40||
trike svādurdaśāmlaḥṣaṭ trīn paṭustikta ekakam|
catuṣkeṣu daśa svāduścaturo’mlaḥ paṭuḥ sakṛt||41||
pañcakeṣvekamevāmlo madhuraḥ pañca sevate|
dravyamekaḥ ṣaḍāsvādamasaḥyuktāśca ṣaḍrasāḥ||42||

एकैक हीनास्तान् – ekaika hīnāstān  – eliminating 1 rasa or taste from each combination,
रसा द्विके पञ्चदश यान्ति – rasā dvike pañcadaśa yānti – the number of combination of 2 tastes will sum up to 15 types,
त्रिके – trike – in the combination of 3 tastes each, it will be
स्वादुर्दशाम्लःषट् – svādurdaśāmlaḥṣaṭ – 10 with sweet, 6 with sour,
त्रीन् पटुस्तिक्त एककम् – trīn paṭustikta ekakam – 3 with salt, 1 with bitter (total 20 types in combination of three tastes),
चतुष्केषु – catuṣkeṣu  – in the combination of 4 tastes, it will be
दश स्वादुश्चतुरोऽम्लः पटुः सकृत् – daśa svāduścaturo’mlaḥ paṭuḥ sakṛt – 10 with sweet, 4 with sour and 1 with salt (total 15 types in combination of 4 tastes together),
पञ्चकेष्वेकमेवाम्लो – pañcakeṣvekamevāmlo – in combination of 5 tastes, it will be only 1 with sour and
पञ्च मधुरः सेवते – pañca madhuraḥ sevate – 5 with sweet (total 6 in combination of fives)
द्रव्यमेकं षडास्वादम् – dravyamekaḥ ṣaḍāsvādam – in the combination of 6 tastes, we will get 1 combination,
असंयुक्ताश्च षड्रसा – asaḥyuktāśca ṣaḍrasāḥ – each taste taken individually (not in combination with any other taste) will make 6 types, thus forming a total of 63 combinations

Rasa Samyoga Samkhya – number of combination of tastes :-

The combination of tastes will be fifty seven, but their actual counting will be sixty three, on the basis of their usage (in daily routine of selection of drugs, planning of therapies etc.)

AH Su 10.43

Summary of rasa combinations

षट् पञ्चकाः षट् च पृथग्रसाः स्युश्चतुर्द्विकौ पञ्चदशप्रकारौ।
भेदास्त्रिका विंशतिरेकमेव द्रव्यं षडास्वादमिति त्रिषष्टिः॥४३॥
ṣaṭ pañcakāḥ ṣaṭ ca pṛthagrasāḥ syuścaturdvikau pañcadaśaprakārau|
bhedāstrikā viḥśatirekameva dravyaḥ ṣaḍāsvādamiti triṣaṣṭiḥ||43||

पञ्चकाः षट् – pañcakāḥ ṣaṭ – combination of 5 tastes, we have 6 types,
पृथग्रसाः षट् च – pṛthagrasāḥ ṣaṭ ca – 6 tastes counted individually will make 6 types,
स्युश्चतुर्द्विकौ पञ्चदश प्रकारौ – syuścaturdvikau pañcadaśa prakārau – combination of 4 tastes and 2 tastes will be of 15 types each,
भेदास्त्रिका विंशति: – bhedāstrikā viḥśatir – combination of 3 tastes is of 20 types,
एकमेव द्रव्यं षडास्वादम् – ekameva dravyaḥ ṣaḍāsvādam – 1 taste, each taken individually (without combining), will make 6 types,
इति त्रिषष्टिः – iti triṣaṣṭiḥ – thus making 63 combinations (recipes) of rasas

List of combination of Rasas

(Madhura = sweet, Amla = sour, Lavana = salt, Tikta = bitter, Katu = pungent, Kashaya = astringent)

Each taste taken separately = 6 types

1. Madhura
2. Amla
3. Lavana
4. Tikta
5. Katu
6. Kashaya

Combination of 2 tastes = 15 types

1. Madhura + Amla
2. Madhura + Lavana
3. Madhura + Tikta
4. Madhura + Katu
5. Madhura + Kashaya
6. Amla + Lavana
7. Amla + Tikta
8. Amla + Katu
9. Amla + Kashaya
10. Lavana + Tikta
11. Lavana + Katu
13. Lavana + Kashaya
14. Tikta + Katu
15. Tikta + Kashaya

Combination of 3 tastes = 20 types

1. Madhura + Amla + Lavana
2. Madhura + Amla + Tikta
3. Madhura + Amla + Katu
4. Madhura + Amla + Kashaya
5. Madhura + Lavana + Tikta
6. Madhura + Lavana + Katu
7. Madhura + Lavana + Kashaya
8. Madhura + Tikta + Katu
9. Madhura + Tikta + Kashaya
10. Madhura + Katu + Kashaya
11. Amla + Lavana + Tikta
12. Amla + Lavana + Katu
13. Amla + Lavana + Kashaya
14. Amla + Tikta + Katu
15. Amla + Tikta + Kashaya
16. Amla + Katu + Kashaya
17. Lavana + Tikta + Katu
18. Lavana + Tikta + Kashaya
19. Lavana + Katu + Kashaya
20. Tikta + Katu + Kashaya

Combination of 4 tastes = 15 types

1. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Tikta
2. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Katu
3. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Kashaya
4. Madhura + Amla + + Tikta + Katu
5. Madhura + Amla + Tikta + Kashaya
6. Madhura + Amla + Katu + Kashaya
7. Madhura + Lavana + Tikta + Katu
8. Madhura + Lavana + Tikta + Kashaya
9. Madhura + Lavana + Katu + Kashaya
10. Madhura + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya
11. Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Katu
12. Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Kashaya
13. Amla + Lavana + Katu + Kashaya
14. Amla + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya
15. Lavana + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya

Combination of 5 tastes = 6 types

1. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Katu
2. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Kashaya
3. Madhura + Amla +Lavana +Katu + Kashaya
4. Madhura + Lavana + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya
5. Madhura + Amla + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya
6. Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya

Combination of 6 tastes together – 1 type

1. Madhura + Amla + Lavana + Tikta + Katu + Kashaya

METHOD OF JUDICIOUS USE OF TASTES

AH Su 10.44

Method of judiciously using the tastes

ते रसानुरसतो रसभेदास्तारतम्यपरिकल्पनया च।
सम्भवन्ति गणना समतीता दोषभेषजवशादुपयोज्याः॥४४॥
te rasānurasato rasabhedāstāratamyaparikalpanayā ca|
sambhavanti gaṇanā samatītā doṣabheṣajavaśādupayojyāḥ||44||

ते रसानुरसतो – te rasānurasato – the above mentioned 63 combinations (types) of tastes, along with the sub-tastes (secondary tastes)
रसभेदास्तारतम्य परिकल्पनया च – rasabhedāstāratamya parikalpanayā ca – when combined in their proportional combinations (more, moderate, less), the permutations and combinations
सम्भवन्ति गणना – sambhavanti gaṇanā – become innumerable,
समतीता दोष भेषज वशादुपयोज्याः – samatītā doṣa bheṣaja vaśādupayojyāḥ – these (tastes) are to be selected and used after considering the conditions of the doshas and drugs (and therapies).

These Rasa (primary tastes) and Anurasas (secondary tastes) in their proportional (more, moderate and less) combinations become innumerable. These are to be selected and used after considering the conditions of the Dosas and drugs (and therapies).

इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसून श्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने रसभेदीयो नाम दशमोऽध्यायः॥१०॥
iti śrīvaidyapatisiḥhaguptasūna śrīmadvāgbhaṭaviracitāyāmaṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaḥhitāyāḥ sūtrasthāne rasabhedīyo nāma daśamo’dhyāyaḥ||10||

Thus ends the 10th chapter of Ashtangahridaya Samhita Sutrasthana, named Rasabhediya Adhyaya, written by Shrimad Vagbhata, son of Shri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.


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