Peanut Qualities, Benefits, Research

By Dr Renita D’Souza
Peanut, also well known as groundnut is an important oilseed crop and the best natural source for fat and protein. It is used as food for both humans and animals. It also possesses medicinal value and used to treat inflammation, diabetes, cancer, alzheimer’s and gallstone. They are also used as paints, lubricants and insecticides. Groundnut seeds contain 44-56% oil. Dry seed contains 22-30% of protein.
Read – Ayurveda Mahodadhi: Legumes Green Gram, Chickpea, Peas

Introduction

Botanical Name – Arachis hypogaea L.
Synonyms – Arachidna  hypogaea  (L.)  Moench, Arachis africana Lour, A. americana Ten, A. asiatica Lour.
Family – Leguminosae

Botanical Description

Arachis hypogaea L. is an annual erect/prostrate/ spreading crop which grows up to 30-50 cm in height. Leaves compound and arranged opposite. Leaflets are even in number and elliptical in shape.  Flowers are yellow in color, arranged in axillary clusters. Pods develop underground contain one to three seeds. Each seed is surrounded by thin papery seed coat.
Read – Green Pea (Matar) Medicinal Qualities, Uses, Research

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Distribution

Arachis hypogaea L. is found native to South America. It is cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions.

Pharmacological Activities

Arachis hypogaea L possess Panaleptic, Antiaggregant, Antiapoptotic, Anticariogenic, Antidiabetic, Antidote, Antidote, Anti-inflammatory, Antiischemic, Antioxidant, Antiparkinsonian, Antiradicular, Antitumor, Anxiolytic, Aperient, Aphrodisiac, Apoptotic, Astringent, Bechic, Cardio protective, Cerebro protective, Chemo-preventive, COX-2-Inhibitor, Cyanogenetic, Demulcent, Diuretic, Emollient, Estrogenic, Febrifuge, Fungicide, Goitrogenic, Hemostat, Hypocholesterolemic, Hypotensive, Hypothermic, Hypotriglyceridemic, Ios-Inhibitor, Lactagogue, Laxative, Litholytic, Neuro  protective, Noinhibitor, Osteogenic, Pancrea protective, Pectoral, Peptic, Radioprotective, Serotoninergic, Tonic, Vasoconstrictor and Vasorelaxant.
Read – Chickpea (Bengal gram) – Qualities, Uses, Remedies, Types, Research

Nutritional values

Arachis hypogaea L. seeds contain palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. It also possesses Vitamins E, K, and B and other essential minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium

Part Used

Oil, Seeds, Leaves

Peanut oil/Groundnut oil

Peanuts have high oil content. Peanut oil is stable at high temperature and has higher smoke point due to which it is used worldwide as the best cooking oil. It has high ratio of oleic and linoleic fatty acids which results in a better storage quality of oil and longer shelf-life of the products. (Read more)

Chemical Constituents

Arachis hypogaea contains flavonoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, alkaloids and stilbenes.

Research

Antifungal Activity – A research study conducted to evaluate antifungal efficacy of UPL-Pn-2 peanut seed extract against dandruff causing fungus, Malassezia globose have shown its maximum antifungal activity against Malassezia globos.

Formulations

Patanjali Tasty Peanuts Namkeen – Healthy tasty snack
Patanjali Ground Nut Oil – It is low in saturated fat and free from cholesterol
Hairbac Hair Oil – It is used for hairfall, dandruff and grey hairs.

Scientific Classification

Domain – Eukaryota
Kingdom – Plantae
Phylum – Spermatophyta
Subphylum – Angiospermae
Class – Dicotyledonae

Vernacular Names

English Name – Peanut, Monkey nut
Sanskrit Name
Hindi Name – Chinabadam, Mungphali
Kannada Name – Nelagadale
Gujarati Name – Magaphali, Singdana
Malayalam Name – Kappalanti, Nilakatala
Marathi Name – Badamchini, Bhuimuga
Tamil Name –  Nila Kadalai, Nilakkadalai, Verkkadalai, Ver Kadalai, Kadalai, Kadalai Kottai
Telugu Name – Nelakadale
French Name – Arachide
Spanish Name – Mani, Cacahuete
Italian Name –  Pistacchio  di  terra
German Name –  Erdnuss
Portugese – Amendoim
Arabic Name – Fustic Swdani, Fustik Abeed
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2 thoughts on “Peanut Qualities, Benefits, Research”

  1. Dear Dr. thanks for yet another great article. The Tamil names are totally wrong. Please remove them. Please insert the following : Nila Kadalai, Nilakkadalai, Verkkadalai, Ver Kadalai, Kadalai, Kadalai Kottai
    Thanks

    Reply

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