Ashta Samskara of Parada: 8 Purification Procedures

Special set of pharmaceutical procedures to improve the qualities and to lower the bad effects of Parada is known as samskara. Most of the textbooks have mentioned 18 types of samskaras. Out of which first eight are named as Ashta Samskaras.

18 types of Parada samskara

स्वेदनमर्दनमूर्च्छोत्थापनपातननिरोधनियमाश्च ।
दीपनं गगनग्रासप्रमाणमथ चारण विधानम् च ॥
गर्भद्रुतिबाह्यद्रुतिजारणरसरागसारणं चैव ।
क्रामण वेधो भक्षणंमष्टादशधेति रसकर्म ॥ (र ह्र् त २/१२)
svedanamardanamūrcchotthāpanapātananirodhaniyamāśca |
dīpanaṃ gaganagrāsapramāṇamatha cāraṇa vidhānam ca ||
garbhadrutibāhyadrutijāraṇarasarāgasāraṇaṃ caiva |
krāmaṇa vedho bhakṣaṇaṃmaṣṭādaśadheti rasakarma || (ra hr ta 2/12)

18 Samskaras of Parada are –

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1. Swedana    2. Mardana    3. Murchana    4. Utthapana 5. Patana 6. Rodhana
7. Niyamana 8. Deepana 9. Graasamana 10. Chaarana 11. Garbhadruti 12. Bahyadruti 13. Jarana 14. Ranjana 15. Sarana 16. Kramana 17. Vedha 18. Bhakshana.
Read: Rasa Prakarana (Parada: Section of Mercury)

Eight types of Parada Samskara

स्वेदनं मर्दनञ्चैव मूर्च्छनोत्थापने तथा ।
पातनत्रितयञ्चाथ बोधनं सुनियामनम् ॥
सुप्रदीपनमित्यष्टौ प्रोक्ताः सर्वोपयोगिनः ।
svedanaṃ mardanañcaiva mūrcchanotthāpane tathā |
pātanatritayañcātha bodhanaṃ suniyāmanam ||
supradīpanamityaṣṭau proktāḥ sarvopayoginaḥ |
1. Svedana
2. Mardana
3. Moorcana
4. Utthapana
5. Trividha pathana
6. Bodhana
7. Nitamana
8. Deepana

Among the above 18, the first 8 are called as Ashta Samskaras of Parada. For the purpose of Rasayana, the parada which has undergone these 8 Samskaras should be used.
Read: Introduction To Rasashastra: Using Metals And Minerals To Heal

Parada samskara

Swedana Samskara

Definition –

Paka of Parada by Kshara, Amla or any liquids in Dolayantra is called as Swedana.
Use: it Does malashaithilya – Destabilizes the impurities.

Procedure of Swedana

First,  Asuri (mustard), Saindhava, Trikatu, Mulaka (raddish) Chitraka and Adraka  are taken, each 1/16th part of Parada, triturated with Kanji and a cup shaped bolus is prepared. A cloth piece is taken, over it, Vata leaves are placed in boat shape, over it, the cup shaped bolus is kept. Inside this cup, the Purified Parada is placed and the Whole thing is tied in the form of a Pottali. This Pottali is given Swedana in Kanji for three days. Then it is washed with hot water and Kanji and collected.

Mardana Samskara

उदितैरौषधेः सार्धं सर्वाम्लैः काञ्जिकैरपि ।
पेषणं मर्दनाख्यं स्यात् बहिर्मलविनाशनम् ॥ (र.चू.४/८२)
uditairauṣadheḥ sārdhaṃ sarvāmlaiḥ kāñjikairapi |
peṣaṇaṃ mardanākhyaṃ syāt bahirmalavināśanam || (ra.cū.4/82)

Mardana Samskara
Definition:
Triturition of Parada with specific herbs, along with Amla and kanji is called as Mardana.

Use: Mardana eradicates the external impurities.

Procedure
सैन्धवं सदन धूम आसुरी यामिनी लशुनमार्द्रकं वरा ।
षोडशांशमिह निक्षिपेद्रसान्मर्दयेद्रसवरं दिनत्रयम् ॥ (र.त.)
saindhavaṃ sadana dhūma āsurī yāminī laśunamārdrakaṃ varā |
ṣoḍaśāṃśamiha nikṣipedrasānmardayedrasavaraṃ dinatrayam || (ra.ta.)

Saidhava, Grihadhooma, Mustard, Turmeric, Lashuna, Garlic adn triphala are taken in 1/16th quantity of Parada and triturated with Parada for three days. And then it is washed with hot water and Kanji. 

Murchana Samskara

मर्दनोद्दिष्ट भैषज्यैः नष्टपिष्टत्वकारकम् ।
तन्मूर्च्छनं हि वंगादिभुजकंचुकनाशनम् ॥ (र.र.स.)
mardanoddiṣṭa bhaiṣajyaiḥ naṣṭapiṣṭatvakārakam |
tanmūrcchanaṃ hi vaṃgādibhujakaṃcukanāśanam || (ra.ra.sa.)

Definition: Parada is triturated with certain herbs till the bolus looses its shape and colour and turns to powder.
Purpose: to remove the three types of Parada Doshas.

Procedure
कुमारिका मलं हन्ति वरा दहननाशिनी ।
चित्रमूलं विषं हन्ति तस्मादेभिः प्रयत्नतः ॥
मर्दितं सूतकं द्रव्यैः सप्तवाराणि मूर्च्छयेत् ।
एवं सम्मूर्च्छितः सूतो दोषैः सर्वैः प्रमुच्यते ॥
kumārikā malaṃ hanti varā dahananāśinī |
citramūlaṃ viṣaṃ hanti tasmādebhiḥ prayatnataḥ ||
marditaṃ sūtakaṃ dravyaiḥ saptavārāṇi mūrcchayet |
evaṃ sammūrcchitaḥ sūto doṣaiḥ sarvaiḥ pramucyate ||

Procedure: Kumari removes maladosha, Triphala removes Agni Dosha and Chitraka removes Agnidosha. Hence, Parada is triturated with each of these herbs for seven times., washed with hot water and kanji.
Read : Rasashastra Itihasa (History of Rasashastra)

Utthapana Samskara

स्वेदातपादि योगेन स्वरूपापादनं हि यत् ।
तदुत्थापनमित्युक्तं मूर्च्छा व्यापत्तिनाशनम् ॥ (र.र.स.)
svedātapādi yogena svarūpāpādanaṃ hi yat |
tadutthāpanamityuktaṃ mūrcchā vyāpattināśanam || (ra.ra.sa.)

Definition: The regaining of the original form of Parada, which undergoes Nashtapishta in Murchana by procedures like Swedana, Sun exposure etc is called as Utthapana.
Purpose – To regain the original form of Parada.

Procedure:
रसेन्द्रं काञ्जिकेनेह याम मात्रं विमर्दयेत् ।
सलिलेः क्षालयेत् सम्यगुत्थितो जायते रसः ॥ (र.त.)
rasendraṃ kāñjikeneha yāma mātraṃ vimardayet |
salileḥ kṣālayet samyagutthito jāyate rasaḥ || (ra.ta.)

Parada is triturated with Amla Kanji for three Prahara and washed with water and collected.

Patana Samskara

उक्तौषधैर्मदित पारदस्य यन्त्रस्थितस्योर्ध्वमधश्च तिर्यक् ।
निर्यातनं पातन संज्ञमुक्तं वंगाहि संपर्कज कंचुकघ्नम् ॥ (र.र.स.)
uktauṣadhairmadita pāradasya yantrasthitasyordhvamadhaśca tiryak |
niryātanaṃ pātana saṃjñamuktaṃ vaṃgāhi saṃparkaja kaṃcukaghnam || (ra.ra.sa.)

Definition: Subjecting Parada to patana after processing it with the specified herbs is called as Patana Samskara.

Purpose – To get rid of Naga and Vanga Dosha.
Procedure:
i. Urdhwa patana  

3 parts of Parada is mixed with 1 part Tamra and triturated with lemon juice to obtain a bolus. This is taken in damaru yantra and Subjected to urdhwapatana. Later, Parada is collected from the inside of the upper vessel.

ii. Adhapatana
Hareetiaki, Vibheetaki, Rajika, Saindhava, Chitraka and Shobhanaja (Shigrubeeja)  – each of these are taken in equal quantities to that of Parada trturated by adding Kanji. This Bolus is tken in Adhapatana yantra and patana is done. Parada is collected in the lower vessel having water. It is washed with kanji and hot water and collected.

iii. Tiryakpatana
Parada is mixed wih 1/4th part of Dhanyabhraka powder and triturated in a khalwa by adding Kanji. This mixture is subjected to TiryakPatana in Mrudu, madhya and Teevragni. And later, Parada is washed and collected.

Bodhana (Rodhana) Samskara

मर्दनादिक योगेन जातक्लैब्यस्य शूलिनः ।
क्लैब्यापहं तु यत्कर्म बोधनं कथ्यते बुधैः ॥
mardanādika yogena jātaklaibyasya śūlinaḥ |
klaibyāpahaṃ tu yatkarma bodhanaṃ kathyate budhaiḥ ||

Definition –

Due to mardana etc procedure, Parada losses its potency. To remove this impotency, Bodhana is done.

Purpose – To remove impotency of Parada and make it Bhubhukshu (hungry)

Procedure-

1. Parada is tied in the form of a Pottali and this Pottali is kept immersed in hot water mixed with Saindhava for three days.
2. Parada is added to hot wiater, mixed with Saindhava. This mixture is kept underground for three days.

Niyamana Samskara

रोधना लब्धवीर्यस्य चपलत्वनिर्वृत्तये ।
क्रियते पारदे स्वेदः प्रोक्तं नियमनं हि तत् ॥
rodhanā labdhavīryasya capalatvanirvṛttaye |
kriyate pārade svedaḥ proktaṃ niyamanaṃ hi tat ||

The procedure followed to remove the instability or hyper mobility of Parada is called as Niyamana.

Purpose – To remove the hypermobility.

Procedure –

Maricha, Bhuanga, Saindhava, Rajika, Shobhanjana, Twak & tankana are taken and made into a bolus. Inside which, Parada is kept and tied in the form of Pottali. And Swedana is done in Dolayantra with kanji for three days.

Deepana Samskara

धातुपाषाणमूलाद्यैः संयुक्तो घटमध्यगः ।
ग्रासार्धं त्रिदिनं स्वेदो दीपनं तन्मतं बुधैः ॥
dhātupāṣāṇamūlādyaiḥ saṃyukto ghaṭamadhyagaḥ |
grāsārdhaṃ tridinaṃ svedo dīpanaṃ tanmataṃ budhaiḥ ||

Definition:
The Swedana procedure followed to make the Parada more hungry is called as Deepana.

Procedure:
1.Kaseesa, Maricha, kankshi, Shobhanjana, Tankana, Panchalavana, Chitraka moola and rajika-   all tehse are taken together, made into a bolus and Parada is placed inside it and tied in the fomr of a pottali. It is given Swedana in Dolayantra with kanji for three days.
2. Parada Swedana is done in Chiktraka kwatha and kanji for three days.
Read: Concept Of Shodhana In Rasashastra – Purification Of Metals, Minerals 

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