Tissues Associated with Ama – Saama Dhatu: Symptoms, Treatment

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S


When the tissues are associated with ama, they will be called Saama Dhatus. Saama Dhatus are the pathological states of tissues. The Dhatu Vriddhi or pathological increase in the quantity of tissues is also a pathological state of tissues but will not be associated with ama. 

Saama = associated with ama
Dhatus = tissues

Ama is a byproduct of erroneous digestion. When the food is not digested properly in the stomach owing to the weak digestion, immature byproducts of digestion are formed. These products are dangerous to health as they tend to block the tissues and channels of the body due to their sticky nature.
Related Reading – Ama, word meaning, definition

Saama Dhatu Lakshana

Saama Dhatu Lakshanas – Symptoms produced by tissues associated with ama
In Ayurvedic texts, we do not get to see the symptoms of saama tissues described in the same name. The verses explaining pradoshaja lakshanas i.e. symptoms of contamination of each and every dhatu are taken as sama dhatu lakshanas. The references of these symptoms can be found explained in Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana chapter 28 and Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana chapter 24.

Below mentioned are the symptoms of tissues associated with endo-toxins produced due to sluggish digestion.

Saama Rasa Lakshana

Saama Rasa Lakshanas – Ama mixed with nutritious part of food, in blood circulation
Symptoms of lymph or plasma associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – lack of interest in food, anorexia, nausea, heaviness of the body, anemia, fever, premature graying of hairs, emaciation etc

Saama Rakta Lakshana

Sama Rakta Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with blood tissue
Symptoms of blood tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – skin diseases, herpes, menorrhagia, spleen enlargement, abscess, pigmentation disorders, gout, piles etc

Saama Mamsa Lakshana

Sama Mamsa Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with muscle tissue
Symptoms of muscle tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – tumors, muscle overgrowth, neck swellings, lymphadenitis, goiter, etc

Saama Meda Lakshana

Saama Meda Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with fat
Symptoms of fat tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – 8 types of despicable, abused personalities, premonitory symptoms of diabetes, cysts, tumors, obesity, excessive sweating, goiter etc

Saama Asthi Lakshana

Sama Asthi Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with bone tissue
Symptoms of bone tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – bone overgrowth, tooth overgrowth, bone pain, discoloration, excessive hair fall etc

Saama Majja Lakshana

Saama Majja Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with marrow
Symptoms of bone marrow tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – pain in small joints of the hands, giddiness, loss of consciousness etc

Saama Shukra Lakshana

Saama Shukra Dhatu Lakshanas – Ama with reproductive tissue
Symptoms of reproductive tissue associated with immature juices of food derived due to bad digestion include – impotency, lack of sexual interest, formation of immature fetus, seminal vesicles etc

Saama Dhatu treatment

Treatment strategies to deal with Saama Dhatus and diseases caused by them
The saama tissues should not be treated without separating the ama from its association with respective tissues. Therefore the first and foremost plan would be to detach the ama from the tissues. For this, ama pachana or medicines, diet and lifestyle activities which would help in dissolving and separating the ama should be administered.

Once the ama has been dealt with, snehana i.e. oleation therapy should be given in which the patient is made to drink medicated ghee. Following this, swedana i.e. sweating therapy should be given. The oleation and sudation therapies would help in liquefying and mobilizing the ama from the cells to the stomach.

From the stomach, the ama and morbid doshas should be removed by administration of cleansing treatments. Vamana i.e. therapeutic emesis and Virechana i.e. therapeutic purgation are the most useful treatments in this direction.

In some stages deepana – digestion strength improving medicines are needed. These medicines would enhance the quality and quantity of the digestive fire and strengthen it. This strengthened fire would easily digest the food and doesn’t allow the formation of ama in future days.

Need of knowledge of Saama Dhatus

The knowledge of saama dhatus would help a physician to differentially diagnose these pathological states of tissues from the pathological increase of tissues i.e. dhatu vriddhi. Both these are pathological states but their presentation is different including the symptom complex. Also their treatment differs from each other.

The danger lay in administering cleansing therapies in saama dhatu conditions. When the cleansing treatments are directly administered, they would try to forcibly pull the ama from the tissues and in the process damage the tissues. This happens because the aama has adhered to the tissue walls in a stubborn way owing to its sticky quality. Therefore ama dissolving treatments or medicines should be administered before cleansing treatments. This rule may not be applicable in dhatu increase conditions.

Just Before Finishing –
In this article we have focused on the pathological conditions of the tissues of the body wherein they are associated with metabolic toxins derived from the improper digestion of food along with the symptoms of identification of such conditions. The treatment protocol to manage such conditions also has been emphasized.
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