Kala Samprapti – Understanding Pathogenesis On Basis Of Effect Of Time On Doshas

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Kala means time period). Kala includes day, night and different seasons also.
Samprapti means the entire process of formation of the disease right from the exposure to the causative factors to the manifestation of disease (pathogenesis of a disease).

Kala Samprapti is one among the 5 types of Samprapti.

Related Reading – Samprapti

Kala Samprapti

Time factor has its impact on the doshas which govern our body, so does the kala has its impact on the diseases we suffer from and also on their cure.

Kala Samprappti helps a physician to understand the pathogenesis of a disease on the basis of the changes occurring in a doshas due to the effect of time.

Kala Samprapti confirms the role of a particular dosha in a disease in relation to time factor. Kala Samprapti shows that the doshas which have produced the disease get increased in terms of their intensity with change in time like day and night, change in seasons and in accordance with the stages of digestion.

Example, the first, second and third parts of the night increase kapha, pitta and vata respectively.

Effect of day and night

Effect of day and night (dina-ratri rupa kala) on the doshas and vyadhi (disease)

Due to the effect of time, the behavior of doshas change. These changes occur naturally during different parts of the day and night. They either tend to increase or decrease at different parts of day and night.  As a natural tendency, the doshas which have undergone changes as said above will come back to their normal, natural and healthy status when that part of the day not suitable to them or antagonistic to them have passed away. But due to indulgence in different disease causing etiological factors, doshas which have undergone increase or decrease fail to come back to normalcy. In such condition, these doshas behave in a pathological way, undergo pathological states, pass through 6 stages of kriyakala (pathological states) and cause diseases.

Related Reading – Kriyakala

It is quite natural that Kapha is predominant in the early morning and earlier part of the day. Pitta is predominant in the mid-part of the day (noon) and Vata is predominant in the later part of the day (evening). Similarly, the first part of the night is occupied by the predominance of kapha, 2nd part of the night by pitta and vata dominates the last one third part of night.

Kapha which has increased in the earlier part of the day will naturally subside by noon. Pitta which has increased by noon will naturally subside by evening. Vata which has increased by evening will naturally regress by the mid part of the night. These changes in doshas will naturally occur in everyone.

But when the person takes incompatible foods and lifestyle practices which tend to vitiate the doshas as a habit, not following the rules and regulations of dinacharya (daily regimen) and ratricharya (night regimen) and leads a life against the advised etiquettes of healthy living, the doshas will not come back to their normal states even when the part of the day or night changes. In due course of time this will lead to vitiation of doshas, migration of doshas to the other places, contamination of the tissues and causing their damage (after getting localized in them) and subsequently cause diseases at the seats of their lodgment.

Such people will suffer from initial disturbance of doshas and will have symptoms of dosha increase or decrease constantly. Initial symptoms will comprise of metabolic disturbances in the form of loss of appetite, indigestion, bloating, distension of abdomen, sounds in abdomen and constipation. In due course of time, the severe symptoms specific of dosha aggravation are found in the form of inflammatory and degeneration changes, slowing down or increase in certain body activities, blocks at various places, formation of mucus and phlegm and acids etc. When the aggravated doshas damage the weak and susceptible tissues, diseases get manifested.

If a person is already a victim of certain chronic diseases, the symptoms of the diseases as caused by vitiation of particular doshas will get vitiate in their favorable time.

Effect of seasons

Effect of various seasons and change of seasons (rutu rupa kala) on doshas and vyadhi

Similarly the behavior of the doshas change due to the effect of seasons on them.

These changes in doshas occur naturally during different seasons. The doshas either undergo increase or decrease during different seasons or during seasonal changes or in the junctions between two seasons.

As a natural tendency, the doshas which have undergone changes during one season will come back to their normal, natural and healthy status when the next season favorable for its pacification (or antagonistic to its nature and qualities) comes.

Following the rules and regulations of seasons is called Rutucharya (Ritucharya). When the Ritucharya is followed properly, the doshas which have naturally undergone increase in particular season will pacify naturally in the other season. For this to happen one needs to strictly abide to the principles of diet and living as advised in particular seasons.

Example, Kapha undergoes chaya or accumulation during Shishira ritu (late winter). In the following season, i.e. Vasanta Ritu (Spring Season) due to the heat, the kapha melts and undergo prakopa (severe vitiation).

When seasonal regimen of Vasanta Ritu (Vasanta Ritucharya) is followed properly and religiously, the Kapha will be under control and will not produce any disease. In its following season i.e. Greeshma Rutu (Summer Season), the Kapha will disintegrate due to excessive heat and will undergo natural pacification (shamana). If the seasonal regimen is not followed in Vasanta Rutu, the kapha which has undergone vitiation will further increase and tend to leave its place (prasara) and encroach into the other parts of the body (where its presence is not intended). The Kapha which has overflowed from its sites will undergo other stages of pathogenesis (kriyakala or samprapti) and produce diseases. The prasarita doshas will get lodged in the weak and susceptible tissues (dhatus), and produce the stage of lodgment of doshas (sthanasamshraya or dosha-dushya sammurchana). Due to the amalgamation of this kapha and tissues, the premonitory symptoms of the disease are formed. When this condition is not addressed, the doshas will damage the tissues and cause the disease in the place of their lodgment, along with its signs and symptoms. Further, the disease, when not treated at proper time and with proper interventions will progress to produce bheda stage of complications (upadravas).

Similarly, the effect of seasons on pitta and vata shall be understood.

Related reading – Rutucharya

Effect of timings of food (bhojana kala or ahara sevana kala) on doshas and vyadhi

The timings of food also have an impact on the doshas.

Example, the kapha is high immediately after taking the food. The same kapha comes back to its normal proportions once the digestion has set in. When the digestion process is on, pitta is active and is high in terms of quantity and activity. The same pitta comes down to normal after the digestion of food. After the completion of digestion, vata is more in the body. The same vata comes back to its normal terms after consumption of food. These changes take place in cycles in all individuals with changes in pattern in different prakritis (constitutions). When after the digestion of the previously taken food, one feels hungry, both vata and pitta are high. This is applicable for all individuals, as a normal phenomenon.

A person of pitta prakriti (pitta constitution) feels hungry frequently owing to the presence of excessive pitta and its frequent activation (which is normal). This is due to teekshna agni (severe digestive fire). These people have to take food in proper time (when hunger is manifested) or else the excess (high) pitta will cause burnouts and produce serious disorders pertaining to vitiation of pitta. When the person practices to hold his hunger when it is manifested, the pitta which has been produced in excess will start damaging the digestive system. In due course of time, this pitta is put into circulation. On reaching various tissues, the vitiated pitta will produce burnouts and inflammation leading to many inflammatory disorders.

Similarly a kapha prakriti person cannot take food frequently since they have moderate to mild appetite (mandagni) and a Vata person has to follow the nature of his appetite and address it accordingly since the feel of hunger is erratic i.e. vishamagni (and not the same at all points of time) in vata people.

When the meal time is erratic way and the food time discipline is not followed the doshas remain vitiated and cause many systemic diseases on long run.

Impact of time factor on the ‘already existing disease’

Similarly an existing disease also worsens in its un-favorable or antagonistic season or part of day and night.

Example, bouts of asthmatic attack (tamaka shwasa) can occur or worsen in the earlier part of the day, mid-noon or midnight owing to the predominance of kapha in the morning and early part of midnight which leads to further congestion. At the same time, the attack can ease in the noon due to melting of phlegm and clarity of channels of breathing due to excessive heat. Similarly the kapha rogas or diseases caused by vitiated kapha including tamaka shwasa worsens in vasanta ritu (spring season) due to sharp heat (not excess heat which can dry the phlegm as in summer) which liquefies the kapha which has accumulated in the previous season i.e. hemanta / shishira (winter).

Symptoms of peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer (parinama shoola) to be precise, exacerbate at midnight or during ongoing digestion process (during both these periods, pitta is high and the disease is also caused by high pitta).

Importance of Kala Samprapti

Significance of having knowledge of Kala Samprapti

Kala Samprapti helps in knowing the time of aggravation of doshas during day and night.

Kala Samprapti helps in knowing the time of aggravation of doshas during different seasons.

The knowledge of Kala Samprapti will help us in treating a disease or dosha aggravation according to the time of their manifestation or aggravation.

Kala Samprapti helps in understanding the kriya kala (six stages of progression of dosha vitiation and formation of diseases) and samprapti (pathogenesis of disease) which in turn forms the basis of administering comprehensive treatment.

Kala Samprapti helps us to follow dinacharya and ritucharya properly so as to avoid the diseases caused during different seasons or to prevent the worsening of the already vitiated doshas or already existing diseases.

Kala Samprapti helps us in formatting a disciplined diet schedule and follow timely food schedules. This will prevent many diseases caused due to improper and untimely food consumption in rhythm with time protocol.

Just Before Finishing –
In this article we have tried to put forth the knowledge of understanding and managing aggravation of doshas and the vyadhis (diseases) on the basis of their relative aggravation and pacification with the kala or time factor (day, night and season). This forms the basis of a comprehensive clinical evaluation of a disease in all dimensions and also to address the diseases and expel them in totality.
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