Rogabhisagjitiyam Vimana: Charaka Samhita Vimana Sthana 8th chapter

Roga Bhishagjitiyam Vimana is the 8th chapter of Vimana Sthana of Charaka Samhita. It explains about patient examination, argument and discussion methods, types and herbs of different tastes.

Table of Contents

Specific Requirements For Treatment

अथातो रोगभिषग्जितीयं विमानं व्याख्यास्यामः॥१॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः॥२॥
athāto rogabhiṣagjitīyaṃ vimānaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1|| iti ha smāha bhagavānātreyaḥ||2||

We shall now explore the chapter on the “Determination of the specific Requirements for the Treatment of Diseases”. Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]

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Selection of a suitable medical text

बुद्धिमानात्मनः कार्य गुरु लाघवं कर्मफलमनुबन्धं देशकालौ च विदित्वा युक्ति दर्शनाद्भिषग्बुभूषुः शास्त्रमेवादितः परीक्षेत।
विविधानि हि शास्त्राणि भिषजां प्रचरन्ति लोके; तत्र यन्मन्येत सुमहद्यशस्विधीर पुरुषासेवितमर्थ बहुलमाप्तजन पूजितं त्रिविध शिष्य बुद्धि हितमपगतपुनरुक्त दोषमार्षं सुप्रणीत सूत्रभाष्य सङ्ग्रह क्रमं स्वाधारमनवपतित शब्दमकष्टशब्दं पुष्कलाभिधानं क्रमागतार्थमर्थतत्त्वविनिश्चयप्रधानं सङ्गतार्थमसङ्कुल प्रकरणमाशुप्रबोधकं लक्षणवच्चोदाहरणवच्च, तदभिप्रपद्येत शास्त्रम्।
शास्त्रं ह्येवंविधममल इवादित्यस्तमो विधूय प्रकाशयति सर्वम्॥३॥

buddhimānātmanaḥ kārya guru lāghavaṃ karmaphalamanubandhaṃ deśakālau ca viditvā yukti darśanādbhiṣagbubhūṣuḥ śāstramevāditaḥ parīkṣeta|

vividhāni hi śāstrāṇi bhiṣajāṃ pracaranti loke; tatra yanmanyeta sumahadyaśasvidhīra puruṣāsevitamartha bahulamāptajana pūjitaṃ trividha śiṣya buddhi hitamapagatapunarukta doṣamārṣaṃ supraṇīta sūtrabhāṣya saṅgraha kramaṃ svādhāramanavapatita śabdamakaṣṭaśabdaṃ puṣkalābhidhānaṃ kramāgatārthamarthatattvaviniścayapradhānaṃ saṅgatārthamasaṅkula prakaraṇamāśuprabodhakaṃ lakṣaṇavaccodāharaṇavacca, tadabhiprapadyeta śāstram|śāstraṃ hyevaṃvidhamamala ivādityastamo vidhūya prakāśayati sarvam||3||

Examination of a treatise or medical text –

A wise man, desirous of becoming a physician should, first of all, select a suitable medical text or treatise after having examined it thoroughly (whether it suits him or not, whether he can understand it or not, whether he can bring the knowledge gained by the text into practice or not), after having skillfully analysed every perspective.

The selection of the text should be done depending upon

  • his competence to undertake light / easy or serious / tough type of work,
  • the nature of results that the work undertaken would give
  • the benefits which he would get from the results of having done that work / his willingness for short term or long term results,
  • the nature of the habitat in which he is going to do the work
  • the time / season in which he would do the work

There are several such medical texts available for the physicians. Only the texts having the below mentioned qualities or those texts having immense good qualities (many of the below mentioned qualities) should be chosen for the purpose of learning –

  • those which are great and has become popular
  • those which are read and followed by great, illustrious, famous, courageous and wise physicians
  • those which have enriched ideas, precise meaning and perfect explanation
  • those which are praised and respected by reputed scholars, teachers, masters and experts
  • those which could be easily read and understood by the students of all three categories i.e. highly intelligent, moderately intelligent and less intelligent students
  • those which are free from the defects of repetition
  • those written and advocated by great seers
  • those which have well knit aphorisms together with precise introduction, commentaries and compilation in proper order
  • those having perfect and elegant ideas to convey
  • those which are free from vulgar and difficult expressions
  • not having words which are difficult to pronounce  and whose meanings are ambiguous / verydifficult to understand (those which give clear meaning and easy to pronounce)
  • the topics and subjects are clearly explained
  • those which convey ideas in a clear and orderly manner
  • those which primarily deal with the  determination of real objects
  • those which are free from contradictions
  • those wherein there is no confusion relating to contexts
  • those which explain things in an easy way and convey ideas quickly
  • those which are equipped with definitions (of etiology, symptomatology  and therapeutics) and illustrations

Any text comprising of these qualities (most of the above said qualities) may be compared to the Sun which removes darkness and illuminates everything around. [3]

Selection of a suitable preceptor

ततोऽनन्तरमाचार्यं परीक्षेत; तद्यथा- पर्यवदातश्रुतं परिदृष्टकर्माणं दक्षं दक्षिणं शुचिं जित हस्तमुपकरणवन्तं सर्वेन्द्रियोपपन्नं प्रकृतिज्ञं प्रतिपत्तिज्ञमनुपस्कृतविद्यमनहङ्कृतमनसूयकमकोपनं क्लेश क्षमं शिष्य वत्सलमध्यापकं ज्ञापन समर्थं चेति।
एवङ्गुणो ह्याचार्यः सुक्षेत्रमार्तवो मेघ इव शस्यगुणैः सुशिष्यमाशु वैद्यगुणैः सम्पादयति॥४॥

tato’nantaramācāryaṃ parīkṣeta; tadyathā- paryavadātaśrutaṃ paridṛṣṭakarmāṇaṃ dakṣaṃ dakṣiṇaṃ śuciṃ jita hastamupakaraṇavantaṃ sarvendriyopapannaṃ prakṛtijñaṃ pratipattijñamanupaskṛtavidyamanahaṅkṛtamanasūyakamakopanaṃ kleśa kṣamaṃ śiṣya vatsalamadhyāpakaṃ jñāpana samarthaṃ ceti|

evaṅguṇo hyācāryaḥ sukṣetramārtavo megha iva śasyaguṇaiḥ suśiṣyamāśu vaidyaguṇaiḥ sampādayati||4||

Examination of a teacher / preceptor – After the examination and selection of a precise medical text / treatise one should examine and assess the qualities of the teacher / preceptor.

Below mentioned are the qualities of an ideal preceptor –

  • has excellent knowledge of all scriptures in depth
  • is well equipped with precise practical knowledge,
  • is wise and skilful,
  • his prescriptions are infallible
  • is pure and pious in nature
  • has good success rate / always indulged in works related to medicines
  • is popular
  • equipped with all the necessary instruments, equipments and necessary things needed for treatment
  • has all the sense organs intact and healthy (his perception of objects and subjects is very good)
  • is well acquainted with human constitution and nature
  • is well acquainted with the rationale of treatment
  • has comprehensive knowledge of various scriptures
  • is free from vanity, envy and anger
  • tolerates hardships of life / hard working
  • is very affectionate towards his disciples
  • is capable of teaching the subjects and expressing his views with clarity

A preceptor who is enriched with the above said good qualities infuses good medical knowledge to a good disciple just like a seasonal cloud about to burst into a good shower of rain brings about good crop in a fertile land. [4]

तमुपसृत्यारिराधयिषुरुपचरेदग्निवच्च देववच्च राजवच्च पितृवच्च भर्तृवच्चाप्रमत्तः।
ततस्तत्प्रसादात् कृत्स्नं शास्त्रमधिगम्य शास्त्रस्य दृढतायामभिधानस्य सौष्ठवेऽर्थस्य विज्ञाने वचन शक्तौ च भूयो भूयः प्रयतेत सम्यक्॥५॥

tamupasṛtyārirādhayiṣurupacaredagnivacca devavacca rājavacca pitṛvacca bhartṛvaccāpramattaḥ|

tatastatprasādāt kṛtsnaṃ śāstramadhigamya śāstrasya dṛḍhatāyāmabhidhānasya sauṣṭhave’rthasya vijñāne vacana śaktau ca bhūyo bhūyaḥ prayateta samyak||5||

Learning discipline while serving the teacher – One should approach such a preceptor and with a strong will and desire to serve and worship him, so that the preceptor becomes happy and content, should respect the preceptor as if worshiping fire, god, king, father and master with utmost care and caution. After having made the preceptor happy and having obtained the knowledge of the scriptures through his blessing, one should put repeated efforts so as to achieve depth in scriptures, clarity of expressions, and comprehension of the various concepts and power of oration. [5]

Three methods of obtaining knowledge

तत्रोपायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः- अध्ययनम्, अध्यापनं, तद्विद्यसम्भाषा चेत्युपायाः॥६॥
तत्रायमध्ययनविधिः- कल्यः कृतक्षणः प्रातरुत्थायोपव्यूषं वा कृत्वाऽऽवश्यकमुपस्पृश्योदकं देवर्षि गो ब्राह्मण गुरु वृद्ध सिद्धाचार्येभ्यो नमस्कृत्य समे शुचौ देशे सुखोपविष्टो मनःपुरःसराभिर्वाग्भिःसूत्रमनुक्रामन् पुनः पुनरावर्तयेद् बुद्ध्वा सम्यगनुप्रविश्यार्थतत्त्वं स्वदोष परिहारार्थं परदोष प्रमाणार्थं च; एवं मध्यन्दिनेऽपराह्णे रात्रौ च शश्वदपरिहापयन्नध्ययनमभ्यस्येत्।
इत्यध्ययनविधिः॥७॥

tatropāyānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ- adhyayanam, adhyāpanaṃ, tadvidyasambhāṣā cetyupāyāḥ||6||

tatrāyamadhyayanavidhiḥ- kalyaḥ kṛtakṣaṇaḥ prātarutthāyopavyūṣaṃ vā kṛtvā”vaśyakamupaspṛśyodakaṃ devarṣi go brāhmaṇa guru vṛddha siddhācāryebhyo namaskṛtya same śucau deśe sukhopaviṣṭo manaḥpuraḥsarābhirvāgbhiḥsūtramanukrāman punaḥ punarāvartayed buddhvā samyaganupraviśyārthatattvaṃ svadoṣa parihārārthaṃ paradoṣa pramāṇārthaṃ ca; evaṃ madhyandine’parāhṇe rātrau ca śaśvadaparihāpayannadhyayanamabhyasyet|ityadhyayanavidhiḥ||7||
We shall now explain the ways and means for attaining comprehensive knowledge. These are also the ways to further strengthen one’s knowledge. They are

1. Study

2. Teaching and

3. Participations in debates

Procedure for study

The disciple should be healthy and should not get diverted from his study i.e. he should be totally devoted to study. He should get up early in the morning or in the last quarter of the night. He should then perform ablution and offer respects and worship to the deities, cow, Brahmans, teachers, old aged people, successful people and enlightened persons and preceptors. He should then sit comfortable on an even and clean place. Thereafter, he should recite the Sutras orally with due concentration. He should repeat the recitation of the sutras loudly and often. He should also properly understand the meaning of the sutras while he reads them.

Continuous and loud repetition of the recitation of sutras would help in removal of the defects, deficiencies and deformities of ones speech and pronunciation and in identifying and testifying the defects and deficiencies of the opponents. H

He should continue this practice in the noon, in the afternoon and at night without any break without wasting any time. This is the procedure for study. [7]

Procedure for teaching:

अथाध्यापनविधिः- अध्यापने कृत बुद्धिराचार्यः शिष्यमेवादितः परीक्षेत; तद्यथा- प्रशान्तमार्य प्रकृतिकमक्षुद्रकर्माणमृजुचक्षुर्मुखनासावंशं तनुरक्त विशद जिह्वमविकृत दन्तौष्ठममिन्मिनं धृतिमन्तमनहङ्कृतं मेधाविनं वितर्क स्मृति सम्पन्नमुदारसत्त्वं तद्विद्यकुलजमथवा तद्विद्यवृत्तं तत्त्वाभिनिवेशिनमव्यङ्गमव्यापन्नेन्द्रियं निभृतमनुद्धतमर्थतत्त्वभावकमकोपनमव्यसनिनं शील शौचाचारानुरागदाक्ष्यप्रादक्षिण्योपपन्नमध्ययनाभिकाममर्थ विज्ञाने कर्मदर्शने चानन्यकार्यमलुब्धमनलसं सर्वभूत हितैषिणमाचार्यसर्वानुशिष्टिप्रतिकरमनुरक्तं च, एवङ्गुणसमुदितमध्याप्यमाहुः॥८॥

athādhyāpanavidhiḥ- adhyāpane kṛta buddhirācāryaḥ śiṣyamevāditaḥ parīkṣeta; tadyathā- praśāntamārya prakṛtikamakṣudrakarmāṇamṛjucakṣurmukhanāsāvaṃśaṃ tanurakta viśada jihvamavikṛta dantauṣṭhamaminminaṃ dhṛtimantamanahaṅkṛtaṃ medhāvinaṃ vitarka smṛti sampannamudārasattvaṃ tadvidyakulajamathavā tadvidyavṛttaṃ tattvābhiniveśinamavyaṅgamavyāpannendriyaṃ nibhṛtamanuddhatamarthatattvabhāvakamakopanamavyasaninaṃ śīla śaucācārānurāgadākṣyaprādakṣiṇyopapannamadhyayanābhikāmamartha vijñāne karmadarśane cānanyakāryamalubdhamanalasaṃ sarvabhūta hitaiṣiṇamācāryasarvānuśiṣṭipratikaramanuraktaṃ ca, evaṅguṇasamuditamadhyāpyamāhuḥ||8||

The preceptor / teacher who plan to undertake teaching the disciples should firstly examine the disciple personally. Below mentioned are the qualities of a good student / disciple –
tranquility
good by nature, generosity
not involved in bad acts or sins, aversion to mean acts
normalcy of  eyes, face and nasal ridge
thin, red and clear tongue
absence of any morbidity in teeth, lips and voice

doesn’t stammer
courage and perseverance
freedom from vanity
presence of intellect, reasoning power and memory
having liberal mind
being born in the family of a physician or being endowed with nature and virtues of a physician

having immense interest and commitment towards learning and gaining knowledge
no physical deformities / physical perfection
unimpaired senses
modesty and absence of ego
ability to understand the real and hidden meaning of the scriptures
absence of anger and irritability
absence of addictions
good character, purity, conduct, love for study, enthusiasm and sympathetic disposition
devotion to study
uninterrupted interest towards the theoretical aspects of the science and have immense interest and focus on observing and learning the practical aspects of the science
absence of greed and laziness
has compassion towards all living beings
obedience to all the instructions of the teacher and
utmost devotion to the preceptor. [8]

एवंविधमध्ययनार्थिनमुपस्थितमारिराधयिषुमाचार्योऽनुभाषेत – उदगयने शुक्ल पक्षे प्रशस्तेऽहनि तिष्यहस्तश्रवणाश्वयुजामन्यतमेन नक्षत्रेण योगमुपगते भगवति शशिनि कल्याणे कल्याणे च करणे मैत्रे मुहूर्ते मुण्डः कृतोपवासः स्नातः काषाय वस्त्र संवीतः सगन्ध हस्तः समिधोऽग्निमाज्यमुपलेपनमुदकुम्भान् माल्यदामदीपहिरण्यहेमरजतमणिमुक्ताविद्रुमक्षौमपरिधीन् कुशलाजसर्षपाक्षतांश्च शुक्लानि सुमनांसि ग्रथिताग्रथितानि मेध्यान् भक्ष्यान् गन्धांश्च घृष्टानादायोपतिष्ठस्वेति॥९॥
स तथा कुर्यात्॥१०॥

evaṃvidhamadhyayanārthinamupasthitamārirādhayiṣumācāryo’nubhāṣeta – udagayane śukla pakṣe praśaste’hani tiṣyahastaśravaṇāśvayujāmanyatamena nakṣatreṇa yogamupagate bhagavati śaśini kalyāṇe kalyāṇe ca karaṇe maitre muhūrte muṇḍaḥ kṛtopavāsaḥ snātaḥ kāṣāya vastra saṃvītaḥ sagandha hastaḥ samidho’gnimājyamupalepanamudakumbhān mālyadāmadīpahiraṇyahemarajatamaṇimuktāvidrumakṣaumaparidhīn kuśalājasarṣapākṣatāṃśca śuklāni sumanāṃsi grathitāgrathitāni medhyān bhakṣyān gandhāṃśca ghṛṣṭānādāyopatiṣṭhasveti||9||

sa tathā kuryāt||10||

When the disciple having the qualities mentioned in verse 8 approaches the teacher showing keenness, focus and reverence for study, the preceptor should advise and instruct him as mentioned below –

The disciple should come to the preceptor during a favorable Muhurta (a unit of time consisting of 48 minutes) and auspicious Ksana (a division of the day used in astrological science), when the moon is auspicious by virtue of its conjunction with either of Pushya, Hasta, Shravana or Asvayuja constellations, on an auspicious day of the light fortnight of Uttarayana (summer solstice).

Before coming to the preceptor the disciple should have done the below mentioned. He should have –

  • had a clean haircut
  • observed fasting
  • taken bath
  • worn a saffron colored cloth
  • have held fragrant material in his hand

He should also get the below mentioned things –

  • samidha (dry twigs and wood pieces used for offering oblation)
  • fire
  • ghee
  • sandalwood
  • earthen jar filled with water
  • garlands
  • lamp
  • gold
  • ornaments of gold, silver, jewels, pearl, coral
  • silk dress
  • paridhi i.e. sticks / wood of Butea monosperma (Palasha) measuring 1 cubic in length, it shall be placed on either side of a rectangular pit dug for offering fire oblation (called homa kunda)
  • kusa – Desmostachya Bispinnata
  • fried paddy
  • sarshapa – Brassica Nigra (mustard)
  • aksata – unbroken dehusked rice smeared with saffron, turmeric and ghee
  • white loose flowers and garlands prepared from the same flowers
  • food articles which help in promoting intellect
  • sweet scented pastes

The disciple should follow the instructions given to him by the preceptor and do accordingly.  [9-10]

तमुपस्थितमाज्ञाय समे शुचौ देशे प्राक्प्रवणे उदक्प्रवणे वा चतुष्किष्कुमात्रं चतुरस्रं स्थण्डिलं गोमयोदकेनोप लिप्तं कुशास्तीर्णं सुपरिहितं परिधिभिश्चतुर्दिशं यथोक्त चन्दनोदकुम्भ क्षौम हेम हिरण्य रजत मणि मुक्ता विद्रुमालङ्कृतं मेध्य भक्ष्य गन्ध शुक्ल पुष्प लाज सर्षपाक्षतोपशोभितं कृत्वा, तत्र पालाशीभिरैङ्गुदीभिरौदुम्बरीभिर्माधुकीभिर्वा समिद्भिरग्निमुपसमाधाय प्राङ्मुखः शुचिरध्ययन विधिमनुविधाय मधु सर्पिर्भ्यां त्रिस्त्रिर्जुहुयादग्निमाशीःसम्प्रयुक्तैर्मन्त्रैर्ब्रह्माणमग्निं धन्वन्तरिं प्रजापतिमश्विनाविन्द्रमृषींश्च सूत्रकारानभिमन्त्रयमाणः पूर्वं स्वाहेति॥११॥ शिष्यश्चैनमन्वालभेत।
हुत्वा च प्रदक्षिणमग्निमनुपरिक्रामेत्।
परिक्रम्य ब्राह्मणान् स्वस्ति वाचयेत्; भिषजश्चाभिपूजयेत्॥१२॥

tamupasthitamājñāya same śucau deśe prākpravaṇe udakpravaṇe vā catuṣkiṣkumātraṃ caturasraṃ sthaṇḍilaṃ gomayodakenopa liptaṃ kuśāstīrṇaṃ suparihitaṃ paridhibhiścaturdiśaṃ yathokta candanodakumbha kṣauma hema hiraṇya rajata maṇi muktā vidrumālaṅkṛtaṃ medhya bhakṣya gandha śukla puṣpa lāja sarṣapākṣatopaśobhitaṃ kṛtvā, tatra pālāśībhiraiṅgudībhiraudumbarībhirmādhukībhirvā samidbhiragnimupasamādhāya prāṅmukhaḥ śuciradhyayana vidhimanuvidhāya madhu sarpirbhyāṃ tristrirjuhuyādagnimāśīḥsamprayuktairmantrairbrahmāṇamagniṃ dhanvantariṃ prajāpatimaśvināvindramṛṣīṃśca sūtrakārānabhimantrayamāṇaḥ pūrvaṃ svāheti||11|| śiṣyaścainamanvālabheta|

hutvā ca pradakṣiṇamagnimanuparikrāmet|

parikramya brāhmaṇān svasti vācayet; bhiṣajaścābhipūjayet||12||

The physician on knowing that the disciple has duly followed all the given instructions and has come with all the preparations and materials mentioned above should get a Sthandila (a square shaped elevated place measuring 4 cubits in size) constructed in an even and pure place. It should have a slope towards the East or North.  

The selected place is smeared with cow dung, spread with Kusha grass i.e. Desmostachya Bipinnata Stapf and provided with good border on all the four sides with wood / sticks of Palasa – Butea monosperma).

This place is then decorated with the paste of sandalwood, earthen jar, water, silken  garments, gold, ornaments of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, corals, and food articles which promote intellect, fragrant things, white flowers, fried paddy, mustard seeds, and broken dehusked rice which have already been described above (in verse 9).

Following this, the fire is ignited in that place with the help of dried twig of one of the below mentioned herbs –

  • Palasa (Betea monospermous Kuntze)
  • Ingudi (Balanites aegyptica Deliete)
  • Udumbara (Ficus Racemosa Linn) or
  • Madhuka (Glyerrhiz Labra Linn).

The physician endowed with purity of mind should face towards East direction and recite the benedictory hymns (Mantras) ending with ‘Svaha’ towards and in praise of Lord Brahma, Agni, Dhanvantari, Prajapati, the Asvinkumars, Indra, Rshis (sages, saints), and authors of Ayurveda hymns and pour ghee and honey thrre times each into the sacrificial fire as ahuti – oblation.

The disciple should follow the preceptor and offer oblations to the fire in a similar way. After offering oblations he should take a circumambulation around the altar of sacrificial fire keeping it to the right side. After doing this, he should with respect observe the Brahmanas reciting propitiatory hymns and offering svastivacana i.e. benediction (pronouncing the word svasti). He should then offer prayers, worship and felicitate the physicians assembled therein. [11-12]

General behavior of Ayurvedic Student

अथैनमग्निसकाशे ब्राह्मण सकाशे भिषक्सकाशे चानुशिष्यात्- ब्रह्मचारिणा श्मश्रुधारिण सत्यवादिनाऽमांसादेन मेध्यसेविना निर्मत्सरेणाशस्त्रधारिणा च भवितव्यं, न च ते मद्वचनात् किञ्चिदकार्यं स्यादन्यत्र राजद्विष्टात् प्राणहराद्विपुलादधर्म्यादनर्थसम्प्रयुक्ताद्वाऽप्यर्थात्; मदर्पणेन मत्प्रधानेन मदधीनेन मत्प्रियहितानुवर्तिना च शश्वद्भवितव्यं, पुत्रवद्दासवदर्थिवच्चोपचरताऽनुवस्तव्योऽहम्, अनुत्सेकेनावहितेनानन्यमनसा विनीतेनावेक्ष्यावेक्ष्यकारिणाऽनसूयकेन चाभ्यनुज्ञातेन प्रविचरितव्यम्, अनुज्ञातेन (चाननुज्ञातेन च) प्रविचरता पूर्वं गुर्वर्थोपाहरणे यथाशक्ति प्रयतितव्यं, कर्म सिद्धिमर्थसिद्धं यशोलाभं प्रेत्य च स्वर्गमिच्छता भिषजा त्वया गो ब्राह्मणमादौ कृत्वा सर्वप्राणभृतां शर्माशासितव्यमहरहरुत्तिष्ठता चोपविशता च, सर्वात्मना चातुराणामारोग्याय प्रयतितव्यं, जीवितहेतोरपि चातुरेभ्यो नाभिद्रोग्धव्यं, मनसाऽपि च परस्त्रियो नाभिगमनीयास्तथा सर्वमेव परस्वं, निभृतवेशपरिच्छदेन भवितव्यम्, अशौण्डेनापापेनापापसहायेन च, श्लक्ष्ण शुक्ल धर्म्य शर्म्य धन्य सत्यहितमित वचसा देश काल विचारिणा स्मृतिमता ज्ञानोत्थानोपकरणसम्पत्सु नित्यं यत्नवता च; न च कदाचिद्राजद्विष्टानां राजद्वेषिणां वा महाजनद्विष्टानां महाजनद्वेषिणां वाऽप्यौषधमनुविधातव्यं, तथा सर्वेषामत्यर्थ विकृत दुष्ट दुःख शीलाचारोपचाराणामनपवाद प्रतिकारणां मुमूर्षूणां च, तथैवासन्निहितेश्वराणां स्त्रीणामनध्यक्षाणां वा; न च कदाचित् स्त्रीदत्तमामिषमादातव्यमननुज्ञातं भर्त्राऽथवाऽध्यक्षेण, आतुरकुलं चानुप्रविशता विदितेनानुमतप्रवेशिना सार्धं पुरुषेण सुसंवीतेनावाक्शिरसा स्मृतिमता स्तिमितेनावेक्ष्यावेक्ष्य मनसा सर्वमाचरता सम्यगनुप्रवेष्टव्यम्, अनुप्रविश्य च वाङ्मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियाणि न क्वचित् प्रणिधातव्यान्यन्यत्रातुरादातुरोपकारार्थादातुरगतेष्वन्येषु वा भावेषु, न चातुरकुलप्रवृत्तयो बहिर्निश्चारयितव्याः, ह्रसितं चायुषः प्रमाणमातुरस्य जानताऽपि त्वया न वर्णयितव्यं तत्र यत्रोच्यमानमातुरस्यान्यस्य वाऽप्युपघाताय सम्पद्यते; ज्ञानवताऽपि च नात्यर्थमात्मनो ज्ञाने विकत्थितव्यम्, आप्तादपि हि विकत्थमानादत्यर्थमुद्विजन्त्यनेके॥१३॥

athainamagnisakāśe brāhmaṇa sakāśe bhiṣaksakāśe cānuśiṣyāt- brahmacāriṇā śmaśrudhāriṇa satyavādinā’māṃsādena medhyasevinā nirmatsareṇāśastradhāriṇā ca bhavitavyaṃ, na ca te madvacanāt kiñcidakāryaṃ syādanyatra rājadviṣṭāt prāṇaharādvipulādadharmyādanarthasamprayuktādvā’pyarthāt; madarpaṇena matpradhānena madadhīnena matpriyahitānuvartinā ca śaśvadbhavitavyaṃ, putravaddāsavadarthivaccopacaratā’nuvastavyo’ham, anutsekenāvahitenānanyamanasā vinītenāvekṣyāvekṣyakāriṇā’nasūyakena cābhyanujñātena pravicaritavyam, anujñātena (cānanujñātena ca) pravicaratā pūrvaṃ gurvarthopāharaṇe yathāśakti prayatitavyaṃ, karma siddhimarthasiddhaṃ yaśolābhaṃ pretya ca svargamicchatā bhiṣajā tvayā go brāhmaṇamādau kṛtvā sarvaprāṇabhṛtāṃ śarmāśāsitavyamaharaharuttiṣṭhatā copaviśatā ca, sarvātmanā cāturāṇāmārogyāya prayatitavyaṃ, jīvitahetorapi cāturebhyo nābhidrogdhavyaṃ, manasā’pi ca parastriyo nābhigamanīyāstathā sarvameva parasvaṃ, nibhṛtaveśaparicchadena bhavitavyam, aśauṇḍenāpāpenāpāpasahāyena ca, ślakṣṇa śukla dharmya śarmya dhanya satyahitamita vacasā deśa kāla vicāriṇā smṛtimatā jñānotthānopakaraṇasampatsu nityaṃ yatnavatā ca; na ca kadācidrājadviṣṭānāṃ rājadveṣiṇāṃ vā mahājanadviṣṭānāṃ mahājanadveṣiṇāṃ vā’pyauṣadhamanuvidhātavyaṃ, tathā sarveṣāmatyartha vikṛta duṣṭa duḥkha śīlācāropacārāṇāmanapavāda pratikāraṇāṃ mumūrṣūṇāṃ ca, tathaivāsannihiteśvarāṇāṃ strīṇāmanadhyakṣāṇāṃ vā; na ca kadācit strīdattamāmiṣamādātavyamananujñātaṃ bhartrā’thavā’dhyakṣeṇa, āturakulaṃ cānupraviśatā viditenānumatapraveśinā sārdhaṃ puruṣeṇa susaṃvītenāvākśirasā smṛtimatā stimitenāvekṣyāvekṣya manasā sarvamācaratā samyaganupraveṣṭavyam, anupraviśya ca vāṅmanobuddhīndriyāṇi na kvacit praṇidhātavyānyanyatrāturādāturopakārārthādāturagateṣvanyeṣu vā bhāveṣu, na cāturakulapravṛttayo bahirniścārayitavyāḥ, hrasitaṃ cāyuṣaḥ pramāṇamāturasya jānatā’pi tvayā na varṇayitavyaṃ tatra yatrocyamānamāturasyānyasya vā’pyupaghātāya sampadyate; jñānavatā’pi ca nātyarthamātmano jñāne vikatthitavyam, āptādapi hi vikatthamānādatyarthamudvijantyaneke||13||

In front of the sacred sacrificial fire, and in the presence of Brahmanas and physicians, the preceptor should give the below mentioned instructions to his disciples.
You should

  • observe celibacy (Brahmacharya)
  • maintain your moustache and beard (should not get them cut or trimmed)
  • always speak the truth
  • reject meat (take vegetarian food)
  • take such foods and regimens in abundance which are conducive to one’s intellect and mental health
  • refrain from jealous and enviousness and should not carry any weapons with you

You should always do the works by obeying my instructions except when those works

  • invite you to go against the laws of the land or agains the king,
  • to take away the life of somebody
  • are sinful acts and go against the dharma
  • bring about great troubles and calamity

You should always be

  • devoted to me
  • surrender yourself to my superiority
  • subordinate to me and
  • behave in a manner which will please me and be beneficial to me

You should show due regards to me, serve me and follow my instructions just like a son follows his father, a servant follows his master and a seeker follows his donor
You should

  • act without ego
  • act with utmost cares and affection, with undisturbed mind, with modesty, and with proper vigilance,
  • keep away from finding faults with wise and learned persons and keep away from being jelous
  • you should abide and always be obedient to my instructions and should not go out to stroll anywhere without my instructions

Even when you act with my permission or otherwise, when you go outside you should first of all try to collect those things desired by your preceptor to the best of your ability.
If you want to achieve success in your medical profession, earn wealth and fame and seeking a place in heaven after your death you need to consider cows and Brahmanas as superior to all and pray for the welfare and wellbeing of all living beings.
You should put extreme and sincere efforts to cure the patients
You should never cheat or mistreat your patients just to make your living comfortable.
You should not even think of committing adultery and should not aspire for any property belonging to others.

 Your looks, appearance and apparel should make you look modest and a noble person

You should avoid drinking wine, commiting sins or having association with those committing sinful acts.

You should make sure that your speech is pleasant, pure, righteous, blissful, excellent, truthful, and useful and measured (moderate).

Your behavior should be in conformity with and in accordance with the time and place, should keep your memory intact and activated and should always be indulged in putting your sincere efforts to procure the knowledge of the disease and its etiological factors and also in collection of materials required for treating the diseases.

You should always make efforts for the upliftment of your knowledge and adoption of such methods which would bestow you with good health.

You should not treat or prescribe medicines to those

  • who are despised by the king or
  • traitors or
  • those who are despised by the noble persons and
  • those who despise the king or noble persons.

You should not treat all those who are excessively artificial in their behavior, are wicked or of miserable conduct and behavior. You should also not treat those whose treatment appears excessively disgusting, improper, scary, and difficult, against the ethics of treatment and to defame you to the extent that you cannot regain your name and fame. You should also not treat those people who are going to succumb to death.

You should not treat the women in the absence of their husbands and guardians. You should also not treat the women when she doesn’t have consent for the same.

Youshould not accept meat or any gift given by a woman without the permission of her husband or guardian.

You should enter the residence of the patient only after obtaining the complete information about the patient. Later you should enter the patient’s house accompanied by a person who knows the place (loyal servant of the patient / messenger) after having taken the permission to do so.

While entering the patient’s residence make sure that you are well clad, with your head bowed down, having a good memory, having concentration of mind and acting with proper thinking. After having entered the residence of the patient your speech, mind, intellect and senses should be entirely devoted to nothing except the welfare of the patient and related matters. Never look at the house, household things, family, interiors or anything belonging to the patient and should also not discuss about the same.

You should not disclose the customs, practices and secrets of your patient’s family to the outsiders.

After having known that the patient’s life span is decreasing, he or she is close to death and the disease has bad prognosis you should not disclose this to the patient or his family if you suspect that it might cause shock or grief to the patient or his family members.

You should never proclaim or exhibit your wisdom to others in spite of being blessed with immense wisdom. Many people get very much irritated on hearing self appraisal of those who speak frankly (as it is) immaterial of the person being a saint. [13]

न चैव ह्यस्ति सुतरमायुर्वेदस्य पारं, तस्मादप्रमत्तः शश्वदभियोगमस्मिन् गच्छेत्, एतच्च कार्यम्, एवम्भूयश्च वृत्तसौष्ठवमनसूयता परेभ्योऽप्यागमयितव्यं, कृत्स्नो हि लोको बुद्धिमतामाचार्यः शत्रुश्चाबुद्धिमताम्, अतश्चाभिसमीक्ष्य बुद्धिमताऽमित्रस्यापि धन्यं यशस्यमायुष्यं पौष्टिकं लौक्यमभ्युपदिशतो वचः श्रोतव्यमनुविधातव्यं चेति।
अतः परमिदं ब्रूयात्- देवताग्नि द्विज गुरु वृद्ध सिद्धाचार्येषु ते नित्यं सम्यग्वर्तितव्यं, तेषु ते सम्यग्वर्तमानस्यायमग्निः सर्वगन्धरसरत्नबीजानि यथेरिताश्च देवताः शिवाय स्युः, अतोऽन्यथा वर्तमानस्याशिवायेति।
एवं ब्रुवति चाचार्ये शिष्यः ‘तथा’ इति ब्रूयात्।
यथोपदेशं च कुर्वन्नध्याप्यः, अतोऽन्यथा त्वनध्याप्यः।
अध्याप्यमध्यापयन् ह्याचार्यो यथोक्तैश्चाध्यापनफलैर्योगमाप्नोत्यन्यैश्चानुक्तैः श्रेयस्करैर्गुणैः शिष्यमात्मानं च युनक्ति।
इत्यध्यापनविधिरुक्तः॥१४॥

na caiva hyasti sutaramāyurvedasya pāraṃ, tasmādapramattaḥ śaśvadabhiyogamasmin gacchet, etacca kāryam, evambhūyaśca vṛttasauṣṭhavamanasūyatā parebhyo’pyāgamayitavyaṃ, kṛtsno hi loko buddhimatāmācāryaḥ śatruścābuddhimatām, ataścābhisamīkṣya buddhimatā’mitrasyāpi dhanyaṃ yaśasyamāyuṣyaṃ pauṣṭikaṃ laukyamabhyupadiśato vacaḥ śrotavyamanuvidhātavyaṃ ceti|

ataḥ paramidaṃ brūyāt- devatāgni dvija guru vṛddha siddhācāryeṣu te nityaṃ samyagvartitavyaṃ, teṣu te samyagvartamānasyāyamagniḥ sarvagandharasaratnabījāni yatheritāśca devatāḥ śivāya syuḥ, ato’nyathā vartamānasyāśivāyeti|

evaṃ bruvati cācārye śiṣyaḥ ‘tathā’ iti brūyāt|

yathopadeśaṃ ca kurvannadhyāpyaḥ, ato’nyathā tvanadhyāpyaḥ|

adhyāpyamadhyāpayan hyācāryo yathoktaiścādhyāpanaphalairyogamāpnotyanyaiścānuktaiḥ śreyaskarairguṇaiḥ śiṣyamātmānaṃ ca yunakti|

ityadhyāpanavidhiruktaḥ||14||

Ayurveda, the science of life doesn’t have any limits when it comes to learning. It is a vast ocean and boundless. It is not easy to acquire the entire knowledge of Ayurveda in a comprehensive way. Therefore one should make honest efforts to be in contant touch with this science and dedicate oneself towards regular learning. One should strive to acquire the good qualities (described in verse – 13), one should learn similar noble qualities of conducting oneself in noble activities and getting involved in doing good deeds and also the quality of not abusing or finding faults in others – even from his enemies without having any sense of jealousy.

The entire universe is a teacher (everything and everyone to learn from) for the wise persons. On the other hand the entire universe is the enemy for the unwise persons. One should therefore be open enough to receive without egoism the proper advices which brings fame, promotes longevity, enrich one’s knowledge and is acceptable to many people. One can take such good advices even when they come from an enemy and bring them into practice in day to day chores of life.

Thereafter the preceptor should advise the disciple to always behave well and respect the gods, fire Brahmanas, preceptors, elders, persons who have attained perfection and teachers. He should inform his disciple that if he does behave well and respect the above said, the fire, all types of smell, tastes, precious gems, seeds and the gods would bless him and be favorable to him. If he disrespects them they will become unfavorably disposed towards him.

The disciple replying to his preceptor should tell ‘I shall act accordingly’.

The preceptor shall consider only the disciple who follows and acts according to his instructions as eligible for studies and also as eligible to teach his disciples in future. When a teacher teaches a student who is worthy of his teachings, he would get all the auspicious fruits of teaching those described in scriptures and those that are not  described also. He also would become successful in getting himself and his disciple endowed with the virtuous qualities. Thus the procedure of teaching has been described. [14]

Procedure for debates Sambhasha Vidhi

सम्भाषाविधिमत ऊर्ध्वं व्याख्यास्यामः- भिषक् भिषजा सह सम्भाषेत।
तद्विद्य सम्भाषा हि ज्ञानाभियोग संहर्षकरी भवति, वैशारद्यमपि चाभिनिर्वर्तयति, वचन शक्तिमपि चाधत्ते, यशश्चाभिदीपयति, पूर्व श्रुते च सन्देहवतः पुनः श्रवणाच्छ्रुत संशयमपकर्षति, श्रुते चासन्देहवतो भूयोऽध्यवसायमभिनिर्वर्तयति, अश्रुतमपि च कञ्चिदर्थं श्रोत्र विषयमापादयति, यच्चाचार्यः शिष्याय शुश्रूषवे प्रसन्नः क्रमेणोपदिशति गुह्याभिमतमर्थजातं तत् परस्परेण सह जल्पन् पिण्डेन विजिगीषुराह संहर्षात्, तस्मात्तद्विद्य सम्भाषामभि प्रशंसन्ति कुशलाः॥१५॥
द्विविधा तु खलु तद्विद्यसम्भाषा भवति- सन्धायसम्भाषा, विगृह्य सम्भाषा च॥१६॥

sambhāṣāvidhimata ūrdhvaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ- bhiṣak bhiṣajā saha sambhāṣeta|

tadvidya sambhāṣā hi jñānābhiyoga saṃharṣakarī bhavati, vaiśāradyamapi cābhinirvartayati, vacana śaktimapi cādhatte, yaśaścābhidīpayati, pūrva śrute ca sandehavataḥ punaḥ śravaṇācchruta saṃśayamapakarṣati, śrute cāsandehavato bhūyo’dhyavasāyamabhinirvartayati, aśrutamapi ca kañcidarthaṃ śrotra viṣayamāpādayati, yaccācāryaḥ śiṣyāya śuśrūṣave prasannaḥ krameṇopadiśati guhyābhimatamarthajātaṃ tat paraspareṇa saha jalpan piṇḍena vijigīṣurāha saṃharṣāt, tasmāttadvidya sambhāṣāmabhi praśaṃsanti kuśalāḥ||15||

dvividhā tu khalu tadvidyasambhāṣā bhavati- sandhāyasambhāṣā, vigṛhya sambhāṣā ca||16||

sambhāṣāvidhimata ūrdhvaṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ- bhiṣak bhiṣajā saha sambhāṣeta|

tadvidya sambhāṣā hi jñānābhiyoga saṃharṣakarī bhavati, vaiśāradyamapi cābhinirvartayati, vacana śaktimapi cādhatte, yaśaścābhidīpayati, pūrva śrute ca sandehavataḥ punaḥ śravaṇācchruta saṃśayamapakarṣati, śrute cāsandehavato bhūyo’dhyavasāyamabhinirvartayati, aśrutamapi ca kañcidarthaṃ śrotra viṣayamāpādayati, yaccācāryaḥ śiṣyāya śuśrūṣave prasannaḥ krameṇopadiśati guhyābhimatamarthajātaṃ tat paraspareṇa saha jalpan piṇḍena vijigīṣurāha saṃharṣāt, tasmāttadvidya sambhāṣāmabhi praśaṃsanti kuśalāḥ||15||

dvividhā tu khalu tadvidyasambhāṣā bhavati- sandhāyasambhāṣā, vigṛhya sambhāṣā ca||16||
Hereafter we shall explore the procedure for debates. A physician should participate in a discussion with another physician. Professional discussion includes participating in discussions and debates with qualified people of the same profession. The discussions too shall pertain to the same subject. This would indeed promote the power of application of knowledge and competition leading to happiness (satisfaction) and enlightenment.

Fruitful discussions help in –

  • getting deeper and special knowledge of the subject in discussion
  • making one an expert in that subject and field
  • developing the power of speech and art of speaking
  • brings name and fame
  • eliminating the doubts and confusions if any of the reminiscent of the previous study by repeated hearing
  • getting clarity and confirmation of what has undoubtedly been understood before

During the course of discussion one would come to know and learn about many new things which he or she has not heard or learnt previously. The preceptor would disclose and elaborate the secret and hidden meanings of certain subjects during the course of discussion when he gets pleased with the devotion and dedication of his disciple.

During the course of mutual discussion the participants enthusiastically disclose these secret meanings in brief with a view to achieving a victory over their competitor. Therefore, participation in professional debates is always appreciated and recommended by the wise.

Professional discussions are of two types, viz (i) friendly discussions and (ii) hostile discussions. [15-16]

Procedure for friendly discussion Anuloma Sambhasha

तत्र ज्ञान विज्ञान वचन प्रतिवचन शक्ति सम्पन्नेनाकोपनेनानुपस्कृतविद्येनानसूयकेनानुनेयेनानुनयकोविदेन क्लेश क्षमेण प्रिय सम्भाषणेन च सह सन्धाय सम्भाषा विधीयते।
तथाविधेन सह कथयन् विस्रब्धः कथयेत्, पृच्छेदपि च विस्रब्धः, पृच्छते चास्मै विस्रब्धाय विशदमर्थं ब्रूयात्, न च निग्रहभयादुद्विजेत, निगृह्य चैनं न हृष्येत्, न च परेषु विकत्थेत, न च मोहादेकान्तग्राही स्यात्, न चाविदितमर्थमनुवर्णयेत्, सम्यक् चानुनयेनानुनयेत्, तत्र चावहितः स्यात्।
इत्यनुलोम सम्भाषा विधिः॥१७॥

tatra jñāna vijñāna vacana prativacana śakti sampannenākopanenānupaskṛtavidyenānasūyakenānuneyenānunayakovidena kleśa kṣameṇa priya sambhāṣaṇena ca saha sandhāya sambhāṣā vidhīyate|

tathāvidhena saha kathayan visrabdhaḥ kathayet, pṛcchedapi ca visrabdhaḥ, pṛcchate cāsmai visrabdhāya viśadamarthaṃ brūyāt, na ca nigrahabhayādudvijeta, nigṛhya cainaṃ na hṛṣyet, na ca pareṣu vikattheta, na ca mohādekāntagrāhī syāt, na cāviditamarthamanuvarṇayet, samyak cānunayenānunayet, tatra cāvahitaḥ syāt|

ityanuloma sambhāṣā vidhiḥ||17||

One should have friendly discussions with the below mentioned kinds of persons –

  • those who are well versed with scientific and practical knowledge  
  • those who have the power of doing argument and counter argument i.e. the capacity to question and also to answer,
  • those who do not get angry or irritated
  • those who are endowed with correct knowledge
  • those who are not jealous
  • those who can be made to understand (convinced) and those who are competent in convincing others
  • those who are capable of facing difficult situations and
  • those who can address in a pleasing and sweet tone

One should confidently discuss with such persons, keep opinions in front of them and also question them without hesitancy.

When such a person asks for anything one should confidently explain in depth everything that has been explained in the classics. One should not get worried about getting caught by one’s mistke or being defeated in the discussion. One should also not celebrate after defeating him or after pointing out at his mistakes. One should not declare and rejoice that he or she has defeated the opponent.

One should not hold extreme views underdiscussion. One should not be stubborn in proving that his theory is the only correct and perfect thing and keep out of such prejudices. One should not try to explain or elaborate a subject which he or she is not well informed about. One should try to bring round the other party with politeness and not by deception. One should behave very carefully and politely with his opponents.  

This is the procedure for “Friendly discussions”. [17]

Procedure to be adopted in a discussion

अत ऊर्ध्वमितरेण सह विगृह्य सम्भाषायांजल्पेच्छ्रेयसा योगमात्मनः पश्यन्।
प्रागेव च जल्पाज्जल्पान्तरं परावरान्तरं परिषद्विशेषांश्च सम्यक् परीक्षेत।
सम्यक्परीक्षा हि बुद्धिमतां कार्य प्रवृत्ति निवृत्ति कालौ शंसति, तस्मात् परीक्षामभिप्रशंसन्ति कुशलाः।
परीक्षमाणस्तु खलु परावरान्तरमिमान् जल्पकगुणाञ् श्रेयस्करान्दोषवतश्च परीक्षेत सम्यक्; तद्यथा- श्रुतं विज्ञानं धारणं प्रतिभानं वचन शक्तिरिति, एतान् गुणान् श्रेयस्करानाहुः; इमान् पुनर्दोषवतः, तद्यथा- कोपनत्वमवैशारद्यं भीरुत्वमधारणत्वमनवहितत्वमिति।
एतान् गुणान् गुरुलाघवतः परस्य चैवात्मनश्च तुलयेत्॥१८॥

ata ūrdhvamitareṇa saha vigṛhya sambhāṣāyāṃjalpecchreyasā yogamātmanaḥ paśyan|

prāgeva ca jalpājjalpāntaraṃ parāvarāntaraṃ pariṣadviśeṣāṃśca samyak parīkṣeta|

samyakparīkṣā hi buddhimatāṃ kārya pravṛtti nivṛtti kālau śaṃsati, tasmāt parīkṣāmabhipraśaṃsanti kuśalāḥ|

parīkṣamāṇastu khalu parāvarāntaramimān jalpakaguṇāñ śreyaskarāndoṣavataśca parīkṣeta samyak; tadyathā- śrutaṃ vijñānaṃ dhāraṇaṃ pratibhānaṃ vacana śaktiriti, etān guṇān śreyaskarānāhuḥ; imān punardoṣavataḥ, tadyathā- kopanatvamavaiśāradyaṃ bhīrutvamadhāraṇatvamanavahitatvamiti|

etān guṇān gurulāghavataḥ parasya caivātmanaśca tulayet||18||

After this, one should get involved in a ‘hostile discussion’ with those people who have qualities opposite to those which are explained in the ‘friendly discussions’ (verse 17 above) after having sensed an opportunity of winning and being confident of one’s superiority over the opponent.

Before entering into the discussion the wise person should carefully examine –

  • the procedure proposed to be adopted in the discussions by the opponent
  • and the disposition of the members of the assembly

A wise person would determine the time of entering into or giving up the discussion only after a proper examination. Hence proper examination is always advisable.

There are some good and bad qualities of the participants in a discussion. One should carefully examine these good and bad qualities in both self and the opponent with a view of determining the superiority or inferiority of self or that of his opponent.

Good qualities of participants are the

  • knowledge of the text
  • practical experience
  • power of retention
  • presence of mind and
  • eloquence

Bad qualities of the participants are

  • irritation
  • lack of skill
  • cowardice, lack of the power of retention
  • and carelessness

One should compare the strength or weakness of himself and of his opponent in relation to these qualities. [18]

Three types of opponents

तत्र त्रिविधः परः सम्पद्यते- प्रवरः, प्रत्यवरः, समो वा, गुण विनिक्षेपतः; नत्वेव कार्त्स्न्येन॥१९॥

tatra trividhaḥ paraḥ sampadyate- pravaraḥ, pratyavaraḥ, samo vā, guṇa vinikṣepataḥ; natveva kārtsnyena||19||


Depending upon the presence of the above mentioned qualities, the opponent may belong to the three categories, viz., (i) superior (ii) inferior or, (iii) equal.

However, other factors like the family status, conduct, religion etc., should   not be taken into account in this connection. [19]

Two types of Assembly Parishat

परिषत्तु खलु द्विविधा- ज्ञानवती, मूढपरिषच्च।
सैव द्विविधा सती त्रिविधा पुनरनेन कारणविभागेन- सुहृत्परिषत्, उदासीन परिषत्, प्रतिनिविष्ट परिषच्चेति ।
तत्र प्रतिनिविष्टायां परिषदि ज्ञान विज्ञान वचन प्रतिवचन शक्ति सम्पन्नायां मूढायां वा न कथं चित् केनचित् सह जल्पो विधीयते; मूढायां तु सुहृत्परिषद्युदासीनायां वा ज्ञान विज्ञान वचन प्रतिवचनशक्तीरन्तरेणाप्यदीप्तयशसा महाजन विद्विष्टेनापि सह जल्पो विधीयते।
तद्विधेन च सह कथयता आविद्ध दीर्घसूत्र सङ्कुलैर्वाक्यदण्डकैः कथयितव्यम्, अतिहृष्टं मुहुर्मुहुरुपहसता परं निरूपयता च पर्षदमाकारैर्ब्रुवतश्चास्य वाक्यावकाशो न देयः; कष्टशब्दं च ब्रुवता वक्तव्यो नोच्यते, अथवा पुनर्हीना ते प्रतिज्ञा, इति।
पुनश्चाहू(ह्व)यमानः प्रतिवक्तव्यः- परिसंवत्सरो भवान् शिक्षस्व तावत्; न त्वया गुरुरुपासितो नूनम्, अथवा पर्याप्तमेतावत्ते; सकृदपि हि परिक्षेपिकं निहतं निहतमाहुरिति नास्य योगः कर्तव्यः कथञ्चित्।
अप्येवं श्रेयसा सह विगृह्य वक्तव्यमित्याहुरेके; नत्वेवं ज्यायसा सह विग्रहं प्रशंसन्ति कुशलाः॥२०॥

pariṣattu khalu dvividhā- jñānavatī, mūḍhapariṣacca|

saiva dvividhā satī trividhā punaranena kāraṇavibhāgena- suhṛtpariṣat, udāsīna pariṣat, pratiniviṣṭa pariṣacceti |

tatra pratiniviṣṭāyāṃ pariṣadi jñāna vijñāna vacana prativacana śakti sampannāyāṃ mūḍhāyāṃ vā na kathaṃ cit kenacit saha jalpo vidhīyate; mūḍhāyāṃ tu suhṛtpariṣadyudāsīnāyāṃ vā jñāna vijñāna vacana prativacanaśaktīrantareṇāpyadīptayaśasā mahājana vidviṣṭenāpi saha jalpo vidhīyate|

tadvidhena ca saha kathayatā āviddha dīrghasūtra saṅkulairvākyadaṇḍakaiḥ kathayitavyam, atihṛṣṭaṃ muhurmuhurupahasatā paraṃ nirūpayatā ca parṣadamākārairbruvataścāsya vākyāvakāśo na deyaḥ; kaṣṭaśabdaṃ ca bruvatā vaktavyo nocyate, athavā punarhīnā te pratijñā, iti|

punaścāhū(hva)yamānaḥ prativaktavyaḥ- parisaṃvatsaro bhavān śikṣasva tāvat; na tvayā gururupāsito nūnam, athavā paryāptametāvatte; sakṛdapi hi parikṣepikaṃ nihataṃ nihatamāhuriti nāsya yogaḥ kartavyaḥ kathañcit|

apyevaṃ śreyasā saha vigṛhya vaktavyamityāhureke; natvevaṃ jyāyasā saha vigrahaṃ praśaṃsanti kuśalāḥ||20||

 An assembly is of two types viz, (i) enlightened and (ii) dull on the basis of different criteria.

Both these types of an assembly may be classified into three type’s viz.

  1. friendly
  2. netural and
  3. prejudicial

Members of an assembly may be enlightened i.e. endowed with knowledge, experience, power of speech and ability to contradict / oppose or dull but if they are prejudicial, one should never enter into a discussion with anybody, not even with the most wetched one in such an assembly.

On the other hand if the members of the assembly are dull but friendly or neutral, an individual even without therotical knowledge, practical knowledge, and experience, power of speech or ability to contradict should enter into discussion with an opponent who is not very famous and is even despised by great people.

While discussing with such an opponent, one should use long sentences which are difficult to understand or are composed of long and complicated aphorisms. An over exited opponent is ridiculed. One should continue his discussions happily ridiculing and insulting the opponent, by attracting the persons and participants in the assembly by performing various body and facial antics and attractive expressions, by continuously pointing at the faults of the opponent, by constantly postulating one’s theory and supporting the same and not at all giving an opportunity for the opponent to speak or bounce back.

Oneshould speak using difficult terms and words which are very difficult to understand for the opponent. One should tell the opponent that he is incapable of advancing in the ongoing argument and that his proposition had failed. By any chance if the opponent once again challenges he should be told ‘you better study for at least one more year and gain experience in debates, probably you have not learnt things properly and have not followed or observed the teachings and guidance of your preceptor well’. Or else he should be told ‘this is sufficient for you, now let us end this debate’.

Once the opponent is defeated he remains defeated for ever; hence his further challenge for discussion should not be accepted.

According to the experts the same procedure should be followed even while having discussion with a superior opponent. But the wise do not approve of such a proposition to enter into hostile discussion with a superior opponent.

While discussing with the opponent in a debate, when the methods of the discussion / debate are not highlighted or elaborated, one should use complicated sentences so that members of the assembly will find it very difficult to understand. Obviously the user of such words and sentences will be credited with success. [20]

Debate with an opponent of inferior or equal caliber

प्रत्यवरेण तु सह समानाभिमतेन वा विगृह्य जल्पता सुहृत्परिषदि कथयितव्यम्, अथवाऽप्युदासीन परिषद्यवधान श्रवण ज्ञान विज्ञानोपधारण वचन प्रतिवचन शक्ति सम्पन्नायां कथयता चावहितेन परस्य साद्गुण्य दोष बलमवेक्षितव्यं, समवेक्ष्य च यत्रैनं श्रेष्ठं मन्येत नास्य तत्र जल्पं योजयेदनाविष्कृतमयोगं कुर्वन्; यत्र त्वेनमवरं मन्येत तत्रैवैनमाशु निगृह्णीयात्।
तत्र खल्विमे प्रत्यवराणामाशु निग्रहे भवन्त्युपायाः; तद्यथा- श्रुतहीनं महता सूत्रपाठेनाभिभवेत्, विज्ञानहीनं पुनः कष्टशब्देन वाक्येन, वाक्य धारणाहीनमाविद्ध दीर्घसूत्र सङ्कुलैर्वाक्यदण्डकैः, प्रतिभाहीनं पुनर्वचनेनैकविधेनानेकार्थवाचिना, वचनशक्तिहीनमर्धोक्तस्य वाक्यस्याक्षेपेण, अविशारदमपत्रपणेन, कोपनमायासनेन, भीरुं वित्रासनेन, अनवहितं नियमनेनेति।
एवमेतैरुपायैः परमवरमभिभवेच्छीघ्रम्॥२१॥

pratyavareṇa tu saha samānābhimatena vā vigṛhya jalpatā suhṛtpariṣadi kathayitavyam, athavā’pyudāsīna pariṣadyavadhāna śravaṇa jñāna vijñānopadhāraṇa vacana prativacana śakti sampannāyāṃ kathayatā cāvahitena parasya sādguṇya doṣa balamavekṣitavyaṃ, samavekṣya ca yatrainaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ manyeta nāsya tatra jalpaṃ yojayedanāviṣkṛtamayogaṃ kurvan; yatra tvenamavaraṃ manyeta tatraivainamāśu nigṛhṇīyāt|

tatra khalvime pratyavarāṇāmāśu nigrahe bhavantyupāyāḥ; tadyathā- śrutahīnaṃ mahatā sūtrapāṭhenābhibhavet, vijñānahīnaṃ punaḥ kaṣṭaśabdena vākyena, vākya dhāraṇāhīnamāviddha dīrghasūtra saṅkulairvākyadaṇḍakaiḥ, pratibhāhīnaṃ punarvacanenaikavidhenānekārthavācinā, vacanaśaktihīnamardhoktasya vākyasyākṣepeṇa, aviśāradamapatrapaṇena, kopanamāyāsanena, bhīruṃ vitrāsanena, anavahitaṃ niyamaneneti|

evametairupāyaiḥ paramavaramabhibhavecchīghram||21||

One should enter into hostile discussion with an opponent of inferior or equal type.

If the members of an assembly are natural and are attentive, inclined to hear, learned, experienced, having the power of retention, speech and ability to contradict; one should carefully observe the good and bad qualities of the opponent as a participant in the discussion.

Based on these observations if the opponent is found to be superior one should not enter into discussion on the same topic. One should change the topic of discussion to a favorable one without letting the assembly know about this. If the opponent is found to be of inferior category then all efforts to defeat the opponent should be made in order to defeat him immediately in a hostile discussion.

The following procedures / means are adopted for immediately defeating an opponent of inferior category –

  • if the opponent is not a learned person, then he should be defeated by using / citing long aphorisms which are difficult to understand and comprehend
  • if he is not capable of remembering meaningful sentences he should be defeated by using such words and sentences which are difficult to imagine or understand or by using difficult words having many meanings
  • if he is not capable of retaining and remembering sentences he should be defeated by using sentences composed of complicated and inter-twined and long aphorisms
  • if he is dull or not talented, he should be defeated by use of statements of the same type i.e. composed of the same words but carrying different meaning with half of a sentence (the opponent in that case is required to fill up the other half)
  • if he is shy of speaking and has no experience of participating  in seminars then he should be defeated by putting him into a disgraceful situation
  • if he is irritable, then he should be defeated by making him tired by repeated and extended discussions, by creating difficult situations for him
  • if he is a coward he should be defeated by creating scare / fearful situations
  •  if he is  careless in following the principles, rules and doctrines of the classics (subjects, discussion) he should be defeated by warning him to follow the rules and regulations and by limiting / confining him to the rules and laws

These are the procedures to be followed for immediately defeating the opponent of inferior category. [21]

तत्र श्लोकौ-
विगृह्य कथयेद्युक्त्या युक्तं च न निवारयेत्।
विगृह्यभाषा तीव्रं हि केषाञ्चिद्द्रोहमावहेत्॥२२॥
नाकार्यमस्ति क्रुद्धस्य नावाच्यमपि विद्यते।
कुशला नाभिनन्दन्ति कलहं समितौ सताम्॥२३॥
एवं प्रवृत्ते वादे कुर्यात्॥२४॥

tatra ślokau-

vigṛhya kathayedyuktyā yuktaṃ ca na nivārayet|

vigṛhyabhāṣā tīvraṃ hi keṣāñciddrohamāvahet||22||

nākāryamasti kruddhasya nāvācyamapi vidyate|

kuśalā nābhinandanti kalahaṃ samitau satām||23||

evaṃ pravṛtte vāde kuryāt||24||

Thus it is said: In hostile discussions one should make careful and logical statements and should not over-rule the statements of opponents which are well authenticated. Some people while in the process of hostile discussions get excessively irritated and there is nothing which cannot be done or said by the enraged one. Therefore, in an assembly of learned people, the wise never appreciate a quarrel. 

This is how one should participate in debates. [22-24]

प्रागेव तावदिदं कर्तुं यतेत- सन्धाय पर्षदाऽयनभूतमात्मनः प्रकरणमादेशयितव्यं, यद्वा परस्य भृशदुर्गं स्यात्, पक्षमथवा परस्य भृशं विमुखमानयेत्; परिषदि चोपसंहितायामशक्यमस्माभिर्वक्तुम्, एषैव ते परिषद्यथेष्टं यथायोगं यथाभिप्रायं वादं वादमर्यादां च स्थापयिष्यतीत्युक्त्वा तूष्णीमासीत॥२५॥

prāgeva tāvadidaṃ kartuṃ yateta- sandhāya parṣadā’yanabhūtamātmanaḥ prakaraṇamādeśayitavyaṃ, yadvā parasya bhṛśadurgaṃ syāt, pakṣamathavā parasya bhṛśaṃ vimukhamānayet; pariṣadi copasaṃhitāyāmaśakyamasmābhirvaktum, eṣaiva te pariṣadyatheṣṭaṃ yathāyogaṃ yathābhiprāyaṃ vādaṃ vādamaryādāṃ ca sthāpayiṣyatītyuktvā tūṣṇīmāsīta||25||

Even before the assembly assembles for the discussions and debates one should proceed in this way. One should take into confidence the jury of the assembly. One should prevail upon the assembly to select such a topic which is favorable to self and is exceedingly difficult for the opponent to discuss.

Or such arrangements should be made so that the members of the assembly will start opposing and disliking the opponent.

तत्रेदं वादमर्यादालक्षणं भवति- इदं वाच्यम्, इदमवाच्यम्, एवं पराजितो भवतीति॥२६॥

tatredaṃ vādamaryādālakṣaṇaṃ bhavati- idaṃ vācyam, idamavācyam, evaṃ parājito bhavatīti||26||


The following factors bear importance in determining the limits of a fighting debate i.e. hostile discussion:
Things which need to be said
Things which should not  be said and
The point of defeat [26]

Terminologies in a Debate

इमानि तु खलु पदानि भिषग्वादमार्ग ज्ञानार्थमधिगम्यानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- वादः, द्रव्यं, गुणाः, कर्म, सामान्यं, विशेषः, समवायः, प्रतिज्ञा, स्थापना, प्रतिष्ठापना, हेतुः, दृष्टान्तः, उपनयः, निगमनम्, उत्तरं, सिद्धान्तः, शब्दः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्, औपम्यं, संशयः, प्रयोजनं, सव्यभिचारं, जिज्ञासा, व्यवसायः, अर्थप्राप्तिः, सम्भवः, अनुयोज्यम्, अननुयोज्यम्, अनुयोगः, प्रत्यनुयोगः, वाक्यदोषः, वाक्यप्रशंसा, छलम्, अहेतुः, अतीतकालम्, उपालम्भः, परिहारः, प्रतिज्ञाहानिः, अभ्यनुज्ञा, हेत्वन्तरम्, अर्थान्तरं, निग्रहस्थानमिति॥२७॥

imāni tu khalu padāni bhiṣagvādamārga jñānārthamadhigamyāni bhavanti; tadyathā- vādaḥ, dravyaṃ, guṇāḥ, karma, sāmānyaṃ, viśeṣaḥ, samavāyaḥ, pratijñā, sthāpanā, pratiṣṭhāpanā, hetuḥ, dṛṣṭāntaḥ, upanayaḥ, nigamanam, uttaraṃ, siddhāntaḥ, śabdaḥ, pratyakṣam, anumānam, aitihyam, aupamyaṃ, saṃśayaḥ, prayojanaṃ, savyabhicāraṃ, jijñāsā, vyavasāyaḥ, arthaprāptiḥ, sambhavaḥ, anuyojyam, ananuyojyam, anuyogaḥ, pratyanuyogaḥ, vākyadoṣaḥ, vākyapraśaṃsā, chalam, ahetuḥ, atītakālam, upālambhaḥ, parihāraḥ, pratijñāhāniḥ, abhyanujñā, hetvantaram, arthāntaraṃ, nigrahasthānamiti||27||

Terms which are required and need to be understood for discussions – Acquaintances with the following terms will help in the determination of the course of debate among the physicians:

Vada (debate)

Dravya (Substance)

Guna (attributes)

Karman (action)

Samanya (generic concomitance)

Vishesha (variant factor)

Samavaya (inseparable concomitttance)

Pratijna (proposition)

Sthapana (justification)

Pratisthapana (counter argument)

Hetu (cause)

Drstanta (example)

Upanaya (subsumptive correlation)

Nigamana (final conclusion

Uttara (rejoinder)

Siddhanta (conclusion truth)

Sabda (words)

Pratyaksa (direct observation)

Anumana (Inference)

Aitihya (words of divine origin)

Aupamya (analogy)

Samsaya (doubt)

Prayojana (object)

Savyabhicara (statements with exceptions)

Jijnasa (enquiry)

Vyavasaya (determination)

Arthaprapti (defective statement)

Sambhava (source)

Ananuyoja (defective statement)

Anuyoja (infallible statement)

Anuyoga (scripturalequity)

Pratyanuyoga (scriptural counter enquiry)

Vakyadosha (syntactical defects)

Vakyaprasamsa (syntactical excellence)

Chala (causuistry)

Ahetu (casual fallacy)

Atitakala (defiance of temporal order)

Upalambha (pointing out defects in casuistry)

Parihara (correction)

Pratijnahani (shift from the original proposition)

Abhyanujna (confessional retort)

Hetvantara (fallacy of reason

Arthantara (irrelevant statement)

Nigrahasthana (clinchers) [27]

Vada (debate)

तत्र वादो नाम स यत् परेण सह शास्त्र पूर्वकं विगृह्य कथयति।
स च द्विविधः सङ्ग्रहेण- जल्पः, वितण्डा च।
तत्र पक्षाश्रितयोर्वचनं जल्पः, जल्पविपर्ययो वितण्डा।
यथा- एकस्य पक्षः पुनर्भवोऽस्तीति, नास्तीत्यपरस्य; तौ च स्वस्वपक्षहेतुभिः स्वस्वपक्षं स्थापयतः, परपक्षमुद्भावयतः, एष जल्पः।
जल्पविपर्ययो वितण्डा।
वितण्डा नाम परपक्षे दोषवचनमात्रमेव॥२८॥

tatra vādo nāma sa yat pareṇa saha śāstra pūrvakaṃ vigṛhya kathayati|

sa ca dvividhaḥ saṅgraheṇa- jalpaḥ, vitaṇḍā ca|

tatra pakṣāśritayorvacanaṃ jalpaḥ, jalpaviparyayo vitaṇḍā|

yathā- ekasya pakṣaḥ punarbhavo’stīti, nāstītyaparasya; tau ca svasvapakṣahetubhiḥ svasvapakṣaṃ sthāpayataḥ, parapakṣamudbhāvayataḥ, eṣa jalpaḥ|

jalpaviparyayo vitaṇḍā|

vitaṇḍā nāma parapakṣe doṣavacanamātrameva||28||

A debate may be defined as a ‘hostile discussion with an opponent’ based on scriptures.

This is of two types, viz

  1. Jalpa (disputation) and
  2. Vitanda (wrangling)

Jalpa i.e. disputation is when there is advancement of one’s own view while contradicting the views of the opponent, otherwise the discussion is Vitanda i.e. wrangling.

For example, if one of the participants of the discussions debate in favor of the existence of Punarjanma (rebirth) and the other opines against it, and both of them advance arguments in support of their own views while contradicting the other’s view point, it is known as Jalpa (disputation).

In Vitanda (wrangling) type of debate, only the opponents’ views are contradicted. There is no advancing arguments in support of the individuals own views by either party participating in the debate. [28]

द्रव्य-गुण-कर्म-सामान्य-विशेष-समवायाः स्वलक्षणैः श्लोकस्थाने पूर्वमुक्ताः॥२९॥

dravya-guṇa-karma-sāmānya-viśeṣa-samavāyāḥ svalakṣaṇaiḥ ślokasthāne pūrvamuktāḥ||29||

Dravya (matter), Guna (attributes), Karman (action), Samanya (generic concomitance), Vishesha (varient factor) and Samanya (inseparable concomitance) all these along with their definitions are already described in the first chapter of Sutra section. [29]

Pratijna (Proposition)

अथ प्रतिज्ञा- प्रतिज्ञा नाम साध्यवचनं; यथा- नित्यः पुरुष इति॥३०॥

atha pratijñā- pratijñā nāma sādhyavacanaṃ; yathā- nityaḥ puruṣa iti||30||

(You have something to prove and you would take a vow to prove it. This is called as Pratijna)

Pratijna may be defined as an assertion about the object to be proved (major terms); e.g the purusha (soul) is eternal. [30]

Sthapana (justification)

अथ स्थापना- स्थापना नाम तस्या एव प्रतिज्ञाया हेतु दृष्टान्तोपनय निगमनैः स्थापना।
पूर्वं हि प्रतिज्ञा, पश्चात् स्थापना, किं ह्यप्रतिज्ञातं स्थापयिष्यति; यथा- नित्यः पुरुष इति प्रतिज्ञा; हेतुः- अकृतकत्वादिति; दृष्टान्तः – यथाऽऽकाशमिति; उपनयः- यथा चाकृतकमाकाशं, तच्च नित्यं, तथा पुरुष इति; निगमनं- तस्मान्नित्य इति॥३१॥
अथ हेतुः- हेतुर्नामोपलब्धिकारणं; तत् प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्, औपम्यमिति; एभिर्हेतुभिर्यदुपलभ्यते तत् तत्त्वम्॥३३॥

atha sthāpanā- sthāpanā nāma tasyā eva pratijñāyā hetu dṛṣṭāntopanaya nigamanaiḥ sthāpanā|

pūrvaṃ hi pratijñā, paścāt sthāpanā, kiṃ hyapratijñātaṃ sthāpayiṣyati; yathā- nityaḥ puruṣa iti pratijñā; hetuḥ- akṛtakatvāditi; dṛṣṭāntaḥ – yathā”kāśamiti; upanayaḥ- yathā cākṛtakamākāśaṃ, tacca nityaṃ, tathā puruṣa iti; nigamanaṃ- tasmānnitya iti||31||

Sthapana may be defined as the ‘justification of the proposition’ with the help of the below mentioned –

  • Hetu – statement of probans
  • Drstanta – corroborative instance
  • Upanaya – subsumptive correlation and
  • Nigamana – final conclusion

The proposition comes first and then its justification.

How can one justify anything, unless it is proposed? (Therefore one needs to make a proposition first and then justify it with the above mentioned tools)

For example,

Proposition – Proposing that ‘the soul is eternal’ is proposition.

Justification – Following this one would justify his proposition using the above said tools in the below said way –

  • Statement – The sould is eternal because it is not produced by anyone.
  • Corroborative instance – After making the statement he would cite Akasha (sky, ether, space) as corroborative instance.
  • Subsumptive correlation – Then he would further elucidate the corroborative instance by stating ‘Just like the Akasha is not produced by anyone, the soul is also not produced by anyone and therefore is eternal and so is the soul’.
  • Final conclusion – He would finally conclude by telling ‘the soul is eternal’.  [31]

Pratisthapana (counter argument)

अथ प्रतिष्ठापना- प्रतिष्ठापना नाम या तस्या एव परप्रतिज्ञाया विपरीतार्थस्थापना।
यथा- अनित्यः पुरुष इति प्रतिज्ञा; हेतुः- ऐन्द्रियकत्वादिति; दृष्टान्तः- यथा घट इति, उपनयो- यथा घट ऐन्द्रियकः स चानित्यः, तथा चायमिति; निगमनं- तस्मादनित्य इति॥३२॥

atha pratiṣṭhāpanā- pratiṣṭhāpanā nāma yā tasyā eva parapratijñāyā viparītārthasthāpanā|

yathā- anityaḥ puruṣa iti pratijñā; hetuḥ- aindriyakatvāditi; dṛṣṭāntaḥ- yathā ghaṭa iti, upanayo- yathā ghaṭa aindriyakaḥ sa cānityaḥ, tathā cāyamiti; nigamanaṃ- tasmādanitya iti||32||

Pratisthapana means ‘counter- argument’. It is a counter-argument put forth by a participant against the proposition set forth by an opponent.

Ex,

The opponent argues in favor of the eternity of the soul.

The corresponding counter-argument would be “the soul is ephemeral”

The reason for putting forth counter-argument is – ‘the soul is perceived by sense organs just like a pot / pitcher. That means to say, ‘just as a pitcher is perceived by sense organs and it is ephemeral, so also the soul is perceivable by sense organs and it is ephemeral, the conclusion is that the soul is ephemeral’. [32]

Hetu (cause):

अथहेतुः-हेतुर्नामोपलब्धिकारणं; तत्प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्,औपम्यमिति; एभिर्हेतुभिर्यदुपलभ्यतेतत्तत्त्वम्॥३३॥

atha hetuḥ- heturnāmopalabdhikāraṇaṃ; tat pratyakṣam, anumānam, aitihyam, aupamyamiti; ebhirhetubhiryadupalabhyate tat tattvam||33||

Hetu or cause can be defined as ‘the means / methods for obtaining the knowledge (observing the object)’.

They are of four types i.e.,

  1. Direct observation
  2. Inference
  3. Tradition
  4. Analogy

The knowledge obtained through these factors is valid. [33]

Drstanta (example)

अथ दृष्टान्तः- दृष्टान्तो नाम यत्र मूर्ख विदुषां बुद्धि साम्यं, यो वर्ण्यं वर्णयति ।
यथा- अग्निरुष्णः, द्रवमुदकं, स्थिरा पृथिवी, आदित्यः प्रकाशक इति; यथा आदित्यः प्रकाशकस्तथा साङ्ख्य ज्ञानं प्रकाशकमिति॥३४॥

atha dṛṣṭāntaḥ- dṛṣṭānto nāma yatra mūrkha viduṣāṃ buddhi sāmyaṃ, yo varṇyaṃ varṇayati |

yathā- agniruṣṇaḥ, dravamudakaṃ, sthirā pṛthivī, ādityaḥ prakāśaka iti; yathā ādityaḥ prakāśakastathā sāṅkhya jñānaṃ prakāśakamiti||34||

Drstanta – example – can be defined as ‘description of universal truths comprehensible and acceptable by the wise and ignorant alike’. It illustrates the object. For example, fire is hot, water is liquid, earth is stable and the sun is illuminating. Just like the Sun is illuminating in nature the knowledge obtained from the Samkhya system of philosophy is also illuminating. [34]

उपनयो निगमनं चोक्तं स्थापना प्रतिष्ठापनाव्याख्यायाम्॥३५॥

upanayo nigamanaṃ coktaṃ sthāpanā pratiṣṭhāpanāvyākhyāyām||35||

While explaining Sthapana (proposition) and Pratisthapana (counter proposition) in verses 31-32 above, Upanaya (subsumptive correlation) and Nigamana (final conclusion) have already been explained. [35]

Uttara (rejoinder)

अथोत्तरम्- उत्तरं नाम साधर्म्योपदिष्टे हेतौ वैधर्म्यवचनं, वैधर्म्योपदिष्टे वा हेतौ साधर्म्य वचनम्।
यथा- ‘हेतुसधर्माणो विकाराः, शीतकस्य हि व्याधेर्हेतुभिः साधर्म्यं हिमशिशिरवातसंस्पर्शाः’, इति ब्रुवतः परो ब्रूयात्- हेतुविधर्माणो विकाराः, यथा शरीरावयवानां दाहौष्ण्य कोथ प्रपचने हेतु वैधर्म्यं हिम शिशिर वात संस्पर्शा इति।
एतत् सविपर्ययमुत्तरम्॥३६॥

athottaram- uttaraṃ nāma sādharmyopadiṣṭe hetau vaidharmyavacanaṃ, vaidharmyopadiṣṭe vā hetau sādharmya vacanam|

yathā- ‘hetusadharmāṇo vikārāḥ, śītakasya hi vyādherhetubhiḥ sādharmyaṃ himaśiśiravātasaṃsparśāḥ’, iti bruvataḥ paro brūyāt- hetuvidharmāṇo vikārāḥ, yathā śarīrāvayavānāṃ dāhauṣṇya kotha prapacane hetu vaidharmyaṃ hima śiśira vāta saṃsparśā iti|

etat saviparyayamuttaram||36||


Uttara (rejoinder) can be defined as ‘negation of the argument showing correlation of homologous and heterogonous substances by citing examples of homologogous and heterogonous casual relationships respectively’.  

Example,

Argument – “Diseases are similar to their causative factors. This is because cold fever is caused by factors having identical properties (i.e. factors which can increase cold and cause fever), viz, exposure to snow and cold wind”

Rejoinder (uttara) – “diseases are dissimilar to their causative factors because burning and heating sensations, suppuration and inflammation of organs of the body are caused by the exposure to snow and cold wind.“

Thus the Rejoinder along with the counter-rejoinder is described. [36]

Siddhanta (Demonstrated Truth)

अथ सिद्धान्तः- सिद्धान्तो नाम स यः परीक्षकै र्बहुविधं परीक्ष्य हेतुभिश्च साधयित्वा स्थाप्यते निर्णयः।
स चतुर्विधः- सर्वतन्त्र सिद्धान्तः, प्रतितन्त्र सिद्धान्तः, अधिकरण सिद्धान्तः, अभ्युपगम सिद्धान्तश्चेति।
तत्र सर्वतन्त्र सिद्धान्तो नाम तस्मिंस्तस्मिन् सर्वस्मिंस्तन्त्रे तत्तत् प्रसिद्धं; यथा सन्ति निदानानि, सन्ति व्याधयः, सन्ति सिद्ध्युपायाः साध्यानामिति।
प्रतितन्त्र सिद्धान्तो नाम तस्मिंस्तस्मिन्नेकैकस्मिंस्तन्त्रे तत्तत् प्रसिद्धं; यथा- अन्यत्राष्टौ रसाः षडत्र, पञ्चेन्द्रियाण्यत्र षडिन्द्रियाण्यन्यत्र तन्त्रे, वातादिकृताः सर्वे विकारा यथाऽन्यत्र, अत्र वातादिकृता भूतकृताश्च प्रसिद्धाः।
अधिकरणसिद्धान्तो नाम स यस्मिन्नधिकरणे प्रस्तूयमाने सिद्धान्यन्यान्यप्यधिकरणानि भवन्ति, यथा- ‘न मुक्तः कर्मानुबन्धिकं कुरुते, निस्पृहत्वात् इति प्रस्तुते सिद्धाः कर्मफल-मोक्ष-पुरुष-प्रेत्यभावा भवन्ति।
अभ्युपगम सिद्धान्तो नाम स यमर्थमसिद्धमपरीक्षितमनुपदिष्टमहेतुकं वा वादकालेऽभ्युपगच्छन्ति भिषजः; तद्यथा- द्रव्यं प्रधानमिति कृत्वा वक्ष्यामः, गुणाः प्रधानमिति कृत्वा वक्ष्यामः, वीर्यं प्रधानमिति कृत्वा वक्ष्यामः, इत्येवमादिः।
इति चतुर्विधः सिद्धान्तः॥३७॥

atha siddhāntaḥ- siddhānto nāma sa yaḥ parīkṣakai rbahuvidhaṃ parīkṣya hetubhiśca sādhayitvā sthāpyate nirṇayaḥ|

sa caturvidhaḥ- sarvatantra siddhāntaḥ, pratitantra siddhāntaḥ, adhikaraṇa siddhāntaḥ, abhyupagama siddhāntaśceti|

tatra sarvatantra siddhānto nāma tasmiṃstasmin sarvasmiṃstantre tattat prasiddhaṃ; yathā santi nidānāni, santi vyādhayaḥ, santi siddhyupāyāḥ sādhyānāmiti|

pratitantra siddhānto nāma tasmiṃstasminnekaikasmiṃstantre tattat prasiddhaṃ; yathā- anyatrāṣṭau rasāḥ ṣaḍatra, pañcendriyāṇyatra ṣaḍindriyāṇyanyatra tantre, vātādikṛtāḥ sarve vikārā yathā’nyatra, atra vātādikṛtā bhūtakṛtāśca prasiddhāḥ|

adhikaraṇasiddhānto nāma sa yasminnadhikaraṇe prastūyamāne siddhānyanyānyapyadhikaraṇāni bhavanti, yathā- ‘na muktaḥ karmānubandhikaṃ kurute, nispṛhatvāt iti prastute siddhāḥ karmaphala-mokṣa-puruṣa-pretyabhāvā bhavanti|

abhyupagama siddhānto nāma sa yamarthamasiddhamaparīkṣitamanupadiṣṭamahetukaṃ vā vādakāle’bhyupagacchanti bhiṣajaḥ; tadyathā- dravyaṃ pradhānamiti kṛtvā vakṣyāmaḥ, guṇāḥ pradhānamiti kṛtvā vakṣyāmaḥ, vīryaṃ pradhānamiti kṛtvā vakṣyāmaḥ, ityevamādiḥ|

iti caturvidhaḥ siddhāntaḥ||37||

Siddhanta can be defined as ‘a demonstrated truth established after several examinations and reasoning’.  It is of four types as mentioned below –

  1. Sarvatantra Siddhanta or truth common to all scriptures – Ex, existence of causative factors of diseases and availability of ‘mehtods of cure’ for curable diseases.
  2. Pratitantra Siddhanta or truth specific to a given scripture – Ex, while in this scripture the rasas (tastes) are of 6 types whereas in other scriptures they are described to be of eight types. Here Indriyas (sense organs) are described to be five in number but in other scriptures they are six. In other scriptures all diseases are described to be caused by Doshas viz, vata etc, but here diseases are caused by Doshas and also evil spirits, germs etc
  3.  AdhikarnaSiddhanta or truth implied from a given context – Ex, no liberated soul indulges in action leading to bondage because the soul is free from all desires. This proposition implies truths like – action, liberation of the soul and existence of life after death.
  4. Abhyupagama Siddhanta or truth taken for granted i.e a hypothesis (postulation) – Ex, things are explained sometimes on the basis of the pre-dominance of matter, sometimes that of the qualities and sometimes that of the potentiality.

So the four-fold “Demonstrated Truth” is described. [37]

Shabda (words)

अथ शब्दः- शब्दो नाम वर्ण समाम्नायः; स चतुर्विधः- दृष्टार्थश्च, अदृष्टार्थश्च, सत्यश्च, अनृतश्चेति।
तत्र दृष्टार्थो नाम- त्रिभिर्हेतुभिर्दोषाः प्रकुप्यन्ति, षड्भि रुपक्रमैश्च प्रशाम्यन्ति, सति श्रोत्रादिसद्भावे शब्दादि ग्रहणमिति।
अदृष्टार्थः पुनः- अस्ति प्रेत्यभावः, अस्ति मोक्ष इति।
सत्यो नाम- यथार्थभूतः; सन्त्यायुर्वेदोपदेशाः, सन्ति सिद्ध्युपायाः साध्यानां व्याधीनां, सन्त्यारम्भफलानीति।
सत्यविपर्ययश्चानृतः॥३८॥

atha śabdaḥ- śabdo nāma varṇa samāmnāyaḥ; sa caturvidhaḥ- dṛṣṭārthaśca, adṛṣṭārthaśca, satyaśca, anṛtaśceti|

tatra dṛṣṭārtho nāma- tribhirhetubhirdoṣāḥ prakupyanti, ṣaḍbhi rupakramaiśca praśāmyanti, sati śrotrādisadbhāve śabdādi grahaṇamiti|

adṛṣṭārthaḥ punaḥ- asti pretyabhāvaḥ, asti mokṣa iti|

satyo nāma- yathārthabhūtaḥ; santyāyurvedopadeśāḥ, santi siddhyupāyāḥ sādhyānāṃ vyādhīnāṃ, santyārambhaphalānīti|

satyaviparyayaścānṛtaḥ||38||
Words are made of sound. They are of four types viz.

  1. Drstartha or those based on observations – Ex, the doshas get aggravated by three groups of etiological factors, i.e. improper coordination of senses and their objects, intellectual blasphemy and effect of time. The doshas and the diseases caused by them are cured by 6 kinds of treatments. The sound, smell etc sense objects (sensory perception) are perceived properly only when the sense organs are healthy and intact.
  2. Adstrartha or those based on unobservable phenomena – E.G there is life after death and there is salvation.
  3. Satya or factual – Ex, there are the prescriptions of the science of medicine, there are the therapeutic measures meant for the alleviation of curable diseases and therapeutic measures produce their effects.
  4. Anrta or false: – words contrary to facts are false. Ex, there are no prescriptions of the science of medicine. [38]

Pratyaksha (direct observation)

अथ प्रत्यक्षं- प्रत्यक्षं नाम तद्यदात्मना चेन्द्रियैश्च स्वयमुपलभ्यते; तत्रात्मप्रत्यक्षाः सुखदुःखेच्छाद्वेषादयः, शब्दादयस्त्विन्द्रिय प्रत्यक्षाः॥३९॥

atha pratyakṣaṃ- pratyakṣaṃ nāma tadyadātmanā cendriyaiśca svayamupalabhyate; tatrātmapratyakṣāḥ sukhaduḥkhecchādveṣādayaḥ, śabdādayastvindriya pratyakṣāḥ||39||

Pratyaksha means ‘percieving information through one’s senses’. Things (information, knowledge) perceived by self, with the help of sense organs come under the category of pratyaksha or direct observation. Ex, happiness, misery, desire, and hatred etc., are perceived by the “Self” and the sound etc are perceived with the help of sense organs. [39]

Anumana (Inference)

अथानुमानम्-अनुमानंनामतर्कोयुक्त्यपेक्षः; यथा-अग्निंजरणशक्त्या, बलंव्यायामशक्त्या, श्रोत्रादीनिशब्दादिग्रहणेनेत्येवमादि||४०||

athānumānam- anumānaṃ nāma tarko yuktyapekṣaḥ; yathā- agniṃ jaraṇaśaktyā, balaṃ vyāyāmaśaktyā, śrotrādīni śabdādi grahaṇenetyevamādi||40||

Anumana means inference. Inference is based on argument accompanied with reasoning. Ex, one can infer Agni (digestive fire) from the power of digestion, strength from capacity to perform exercise and the strength / power of sense organs can be inferred by their capacity to perceive sound, smell etc sensory objects. [40]

Aitihya (words of the divine origin)

अथैतिह्यम्-ऐतिह्यं नामाप्तोपदेशो वेदादिः||४१||

athaitihyam- aitihyaṃ nāmāptopadeśo vedādiḥ||41||

Words of the divine origin are those which are uttered by the gods who are enlightened par excellence e.g the Vedas propagated by Lord Brahma. Similarly the Puranas, Dharmashastra, Smrti etc are also considered as aitihyam. {41]

Aupamya (Analogy)

अथौपम्यम्- औपम्यं नाम यदन्येनान्यस्य सादृश्यमधिकृत्य प्रकाशनं; यथा- दण्डेन दण्डकस्य, धनुषा धनुःस्तम्भस्य, इष्वासेनाऽऽरोग्यदस्येति॥४२॥

athaupamyam- aupamyaṃ nāma yadanyenānyasya sādṛśyamadhikṛtya prakāśanaṃ; yathā- daṇḍena daṇḍakasya, dhanuṣā dhanuḥstambhasya, iṣvāsenā”rogyadasyeti||42||

Exposition based on the similarly of the one with the other is Aupamya or analogy. Ex, the disease Dandaka (a disease characterized by the rigidity of the muscles of the body) is explained as similar to Danda (Staff), the disease Dhanustambha (tetanus) is said to be similar to Dhanus (bow) since the patient is bent like a bow and a good physician has been compared to a successful archer. [42]

Samshaya (doubt)

अथ संशयः- संशयो नाम सन्देह लक्षणानुसन्दिग्धेष्वर्थेष्वनिश्चयः; यथा- दृष्टा ह्यायुष्मल्लक्षणैरुपेताश्चानुपेताश्च तथा सक्रियाश्चाक्रियाश्च पुरुषाः शीघ्रभङ्गाश्चिरजीविनश्च, एतदुभयदृष्टत्वात् संशयः- किमस्ति खल्वकालमृत्युरुत नास्तीति॥४३॥

atha saṃśayaḥ- saṃśayo nāma sandeha lakṣaṇānusandigdheṣvartheṣvaniścayaḥ; yathā- dṛṣṭā hyāyuṣmallakṣaṇairupetāścānupetāśca tathā sakriyāścākriyāśca puruṣāḥ śīghrabhaṅgāścirajīvinaśca, etadubhayadṛṣṭatvāt saṃśayaḥ- kimasti khalvakālamṛtyuruta nāstīti||43||

Samshaya means doubt or to see suspiciously.

Let us consider that there are many objects with similar implications and that creates a doubt so as to what is what.

Samshaya or doubt can be defined as ‘want of decision in relation to the various doubtful objects of similar implications’. Ex, there are persons who are endowed with the signs of long life and some are not. There are persons who resort to therapeutics, and some do not. Out of all these people some are seen to die early and some live long. This creates a doubt whether there is a possibility of premature death or not? [43]

Prayojana (object)

अथ प्रयोजनं- प्रयोजनं नाम यदर्थमारभ्यन्त आरम्भाः; यथा- यद्यकालमृत्युरस्ति ततोऽहमात्मानमायुष्यैरुपचरिष्याम्यनायुष्याणि च परिहरिष्यामि, कथं मामकालमृत्युः प्रसहेतेति॥४४॥

atha prayojanaṃ- prayojanaṃ nāma yadarthamārabhyanta ārambhāḥ; yathā- yadyakālamṛtyurasti tato’hamātmānamāyuṣyairupacariṣyāmyanāyuṣyāṇi ca parihariṣyāmi, kathaṃ māmakālamṛtyuḥ prasaheteti||44||


The object is the one, to accomplish which various measures are adopted.

Ex, considering that there is a possibility of premature death, I would treat self with longevity promoting drugs and avoid taking recourse to unwholesome regimens. When I do so, how can the premature death attack me? (Here premature death is the object, to prevent which various measures are adopted). [44]

Savyabhicara (Statements with exception)

अथ सव्यभिचारं- सव्यभिचारं नाम यद्व्यभिचरणं; यथा- भवेदिदमौषधमस्मिन् व्याधौ यौगिकमथवा नेति॥४५॥

atha savyabhicāraṃ- savyabhicāraṃ nāma yadvyabhicaraṇaṃ; yathā- bhavedidamauṣadhamasmin vyādhau yaugikamathavā neti||45||

A statement with exception is known as Savyabhicara i.e. making contradicting statements about something which creates suspicion. Ex, when statements like ‘whether this medicine would be appropriate (can cure the disease) or not (cannot cure the disease)?’ are made these statements might create serious doubts. Such statements which are doubtful are called as savyabhichara.  [45]

Jijnasa (Enquiry):

अथजिज्ञासा-जिज्ञासा नाम परीक्षा; यथा भेषज परीक्षोत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यते||४६||

atha jijñāsā- jijñāsā nāma parīkṣā; yathā bheṣaja parīkṣottarakālamupadekṣyate||46||

Jijnasa means enquiry.

Jijnasa can be defined as an enquiry made with a view of examining something. Ex, the ‘examination of the drugs’ which will be subsequently explained (in the same chapter ahead and also in Ch.Chi.chapter 1) [46]

Vyavasaya (determination)

अथ व्यवसायः- व्यवसायो नाम निश्चयः; यथा- वातिक एवायं व्याधिः, इदमेवास्य भेषजं चेति॥४७॥

atha vyavasāyaḥ- vyavasāyo nāma niścayaḥ; yathā- vātika evāyaṃ vyādhiḥ, idamevāsya bheṣajaṃ ceti||47||

Determination of a given object is Vyavasaya. Ex, telling ‘this diseases has manifested due to vata only and this very medicine is best suited to cure this disease’. [47]

Arthaprapti (Implied meaning)

अथार्थप्राप्तिः-अर्थप्राप्तिर्नामयत्रैकेनार्थेनोक्तेनापरस्यार्थस्यानुक्तस्यापिसिद्धिः; यथा-नायंसन्तर्पणसाध्योव्याधिरित्युक्तेभवत्यर्थप्राप्तिः-अपतर्पणसाध्योऽयमिति, नानेनदिवाभोक्तव्यमित्युक्तेभवत्यर्थप्राप्तिः-निशिभोक्तव्यमिति||४८||

athārthaprāptiḥ- arthaprāptirnāma yatraikenārthenoktenāparasyārthasyānuktasyāpi siddhiḥ; yathā- nāyaṃ santarpaṇasādhyo vyādhirityukte bhavatyarthaprāptiḥ- apatarpaṇasādhyo’yamiti, nānena divā bhoktavyamityukte bhavatyarthaprāptiḥ- niśi bhoktavyamiti||48||

Arthaprapti or understanding by implication can be defined ‘understanding something which has not been stated by means of something else which has been stated explicitly’.

E.g, if it is said that a given disease cannot be cured by nourishing therapy, it clearly hints that the same disease is definitely curable by emaciating therapy. If it is said that a patient should not eat during day time it clearly implies that food shall be given to the patient only at night. [48]

Sambhava (Source)

अथसम्भवः-योयतःसम्भवतिसतस्यसम्भवः; यथा-षड्धातवोगर्भस्य, व्याधेरहितं, हितमारोग्यस्येति|

atha sambhavaḥ- yo yataḥ sambhavati sa tasya sambhavaḥ; yathā- ṣaḍdhātavo garbhasya, vyādherahitaṃ, hitamārogyasyeti|

Sambhava means to take origin or source of something.

Sambhava or source can be defined as ‘something from which another thing originates’.  Ex, the six dhatus (five elements of nature and soul) are the source of embryo. Unwholesome regimens are sources of a disease. Wholesome regimens are sources of good health. [49]

Anuyojya (defective statement)

अथानुयोज्यम्-अनुयोज्यंनामयद्वाक्यंवाक्यदोषयुक्तंतत्|
सामान्यतोव्याहृतेष्वर्थेषुवाविशेषग्रहणार्थंयद्वाक्यंतदप्यनुयोज्यं; यथा- ‘संशोधनसाध्योऽयंव्याधिः’ इत्युक्ते ‘किंवमनसाध्योऽयं, किंवाविरेचनसाध्यः’ इत्यनुयुज्यते||५०||

athānuyojyam- anuyojyaṃ nāma yadvākyaṃ vākya doṣayuktaṃ tat|

sāmānyato vyāhṛteṣvartheṣu vā viśeṣagrahaṇārthaṃ yadvākyaṃ tadapyanuyojyaṃ; yathā- ‘saṃśodhanasādhyo’yaṃ vyādhiḥ’ ityukte ‘kiṃ vamanasādhyo’yaṃ, kiṃvā virecanasādhyaḥ’ ityanuyujyate||50||

Anuyojyam or a defective statement can be defined as ‘a statement having errors or a statement which is not lucid’. After having made generalized statements, making statements to specify the object is also called Anuyoja. Ex, when somebody tells that a given disease is curable by elimination therapy (generalized statement) it is enquired whether the disease is curable by emetic or purgation therapy. [50]

Ananuyoja (infallible statement)

Ananuyojya means ‘an unquestionable or infalliable statement’.

That which is exactly opposite of anuyojyam is called ananuyojyam. It is a statement which is full and complete on its own.
When there is no room for any doubt or query after a statement has been made, such statement is called as Ananuyojya or infallible statement. Ex, telling ‘this disease is incurable’. [51]

Anuyoga (Scriptural Enquiry)

अथानुयोगः-अनुयोगोनामसयत्तद्विद्यानांतद्विद्यैरेवसार्धंतन्त्रेतन्त्रैकदेशेवाप्रश्नःप्रश्नैकदेशोवाज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनपरीक्षार्थमादिश्यते|
यथा- ‘नित्यःपुरुषः’ इतिप्रतिज्ञातेयत्परः ‘कोहेतुः’ इत्याह, सोऽनुयोगः||५२||


athānuyogaḥ- anuyogo nāma sa yat tadvidyānāṃ tadvidyaireva sārdhaṃ tantre tantraikadeśe vā praśnaḥpraśnaikadeśo vā jñāna vijñāna vacana prativacana parīkṣārthamādiśyate|

yathā- ‘nityaḥ puruṣaḥ’ iti pratijñāte yat paraḥ ‘ko hetuḥ’ ityāha, so’nuyogaḥ||52||

When the scholars proficient in scriptures enquire similar scholars about something relating to a scripture or a part of the scripture or a question or a part of the question, it is known as scriptural enquiry. It is done with an intention to test the knowledge, power of comprehension and expression and capacity to reply. Ex, when one tells ‘soul is eternal’, the other person questions back by asking ‘why is it so?’. Such type of questioning is called as anuyoga. This is Anuyoga or scriptural enquiry. [52]

Pratyanuyoga (Scriptural counter Enquiry)

अथप्रत्यनुयोगः-प्रत्यनुयोगोनामानुयोगस्यानुयोगः; यथा-अस्यानुयोगस्यपुनःकोहेतुरिति||५३||

atha pratyanuyogaḥ- pratyanuyogo nāmānuyogasyānuyogaḥ; yathā- asyānuyogasya punaḥ ko heturiti||53||

Counter enquiry for a scriptural enquiry is called as pratyanuyoga.

To put another enquiry in respect of an enquiry is known as Pratyanuyoga or scriptural counter- enquiry. Ex, in relation to the enquiry presented above (verse 52 – anuyoga), it might further be asked (by the person to whom the enquiry was put), “what is the justification for this enquiry relating to the eternity of the soul?’ [53]

Vakyadosha (syntactical defects, errors)

अथवाक्यदोषः-वाक्यदोषोनामयथाखल्वस्मिन्नर्थेन्यूनम्, अधिकम्, अनर्थकम्, अपार्थकं, विरुद्धंचेति; एतानिह्यन्तरेणनप्रकृतोऽर्थःप्रणशयेत्|
तत्रन्यूनं-प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानामन्यतमेनापिन्यूनंन्यूनंभवति; यद्वाबहूपदिष्टहेतुकमेकेनहेतुनासाध्यतेतच्चन्यूनम्|

atha vākyadoṣaḥ- vākyadoṣo nāma yathā khalvasminnarthe nyūnam, adhikam, anarthakam, apārthakaṃ, viruddhaṃ ceti; etāni hyantareṇa na prakṛto’rthaḥ praṇaśayet|

tatra nyūnaṃ- pratijñāhetūdāharaṇopanayanigamanānāmanyatamenāpi nyūnaṃ nyūnaṃ bhavati; yadvā bahūpadiṣṭahetukamekena hetunā sādhyate tacca nyūnam|


अथाधिकम्-अधिकंनामयन्न्यूनविपरीतं, यद्वाऽऽयुर्वेदेभाष्यमाणेबार्हस्पत्यमौशनसमन्यद्वायत्किञ्चिदप्रतिसम्बद्धार्थमुच्यते, यद्वासम्बद्धार्थमपिद्विरभिधीयतेतत्पुनरुक्तदोषत्वादधिकं; तच्चपुनरुक्तंद्विविधम्-अर्थपुनरुक्तं, शब्दपुनरुक्तंच; तत्रार्थपुनरुक्तंयथा-भेषजमौषधंसाधनमिति, शब्दपुनरुक्तंपुनर्भेषजंभेषजमिति|

athādhikam- adhikaṃ nāma yannyūnaviparītaṃ, yadvā”yurvede bhāṣyamāṇe bārhaspatyamauśanasamanyadvā yatkiñcidapratisambaddhārthamucyate, yadvā sambaddhārthamapi dvirabhidhīyate tat punaruktadoṣatvādadhikaṃ; tacca punaruktaṃ dvividham- arthapunaruktaṃ, śabdapunaruktaṃ ca; tatrārthapunaruktaṃ yathā- bheṣajamauṣadhaṃ sādhanamiti, śabdapunaruktaṃ punarbheṣajaṃ bheṣajamiti|


अथानर्थकम्-अनर्थकंनामयद्वचनमक्षरग्राममात्रमेवस्यात्पञ्चवर्गवन्नचार्थतोगृह्यते|
अथापार्थकम्-अपार्थकंनामयदर्थवच्चपरस्परेणासंयुज्यमानार्थकं; यथा-चक्र-न(त)क्र-वंश-वज्र-निशाकराइति|

athānarthakam- anarthakaṃ nāma yadvacanamakṣaragrāmamātrameva syāt pañcavargavanna cārthato gṛhyate|

athāpārthakam- apārthakaṃ nāma yadarthavacca paraspareṇāsaṃyujyamānārthakaṃ; yathā- cakra-na(ta)kra-vaṃśa-vajra-niśākarā iti|


अथविरुद्धं-विरुद्धंनामयद्दृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तसमयैर्विरुद्धं; तत्रपूर्वंदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावुक्तौःसमयःपुनस्त्रिधाभवति; यथा-आयुर्वैदिकसमयः, याज्ञिकसमयः, मोक्षशास्त्रिकसमयश्चेति; तत्रायुर्वैदिकसमयः-चतुष्पादंभेषजमिति, याज्ञिकसमयः-आलभ्यायजमानैःपशवइति, मोक्षशास्त्रिकसमयः-सर्वभूतेष्वहिंसेति; तत्रस्वसमयविपरीतमुच्यमानंविरुद्धंभवति|
इतिवाक्यदोषाः||५४||

atha viruddhaṃ- viruddhaṃ nāma yaddṛṣṭāntasiddhāntasamayairviruddhaṃ; tatra pūrvaṃ dṛṣṭāntasiddhāntāvuktauḥ samayaḥ punastridhā bhavati; yathā- āyurvaidikasamayaḥ, yājñikasamayaḥ, mokṣaśāstrikasamayaśceti; tatrāyurvaidikasamayaḥ- catuṣpādaṃ bheṣajamiti, yājñikasamayaḥ- ālabhyā yajamānaiḥ paśava iti, mokṣaśāstrikasamayaḥ- sarvabhūteṣvahiṃseti; tatra svasamayaviparītamucyamānaṃ viruddhaṃ bhavati|

iti vākyadoṣāḥ||54||

Syntactical defects can be defined as – ‘a sentence or statement having deficient, overabundant (excessive), nonsensical, absurd and contradictory meaning’. The meaning or logic of a sentence or statement remains unadulterated and intact only when they are free from these defects.

1. Statement having deficient meaning – A statement is said to have semantic deficiency (deficient meaning) when it is deficient in any one of the below mentioned constituents –

  • Proposition
  • Statement of probans / approval
  • Corroborating instance
  • Subsumptive correlation
  • Final conclusion

Also when there are many statements to prove something but only one of them is used as a proof, this will also be considered as a statement having deficient meaning.

2. Superfluity or statement having excessive meaning is just opposite to semantic deficiency. While discussing a topic from Ayurveda is someone brings in the unrelated contexts from and starts talking about Barhaspatya or Shukranti and such other irrelevant topics / classics, it is considered to be superfluous or ‘overabundance or in excess of what needs to be discussed’. In spite of being relevant when things are repeated unnecessarily that is also considered as superfluous / excessive. Repetitions are of two kinds:-

Semantic repetition – is to give more than one synonym for expressing the same thing. Example – telling Bhesaja, Ausadha, Sadhana all together when mentioning any one is sufficient because all these words mean the same i.e. medicine.
Verbal repetition i.e repeating the same words again and again e.g Bhesaja, Bhesaja etc

3. Statements having nonsensical meanings or Nonsensical statements – are those which are made up of unmeaningful letters e.g just by telling the names of unrelated five groups of alphabets together like Ka group, Ca group, Ta group or ta group or writing them in this way will not yield any meaning. Also writing the alphabets like Ka, Kha, Ga, mGha and na together will not give any meaning.

4. Statements or sentences having absurd meaning – If a sentence comprises of many words which have definitive meaning individually but do not provide any meaning collectively i.e. the words in a statement or sentence do not have mutual connection and hence do not yield any meaning it is called as statement with absurd meaning. Example – using Vakra, Nakra, Vamsa, Vamsa and Nisakara together in a sentence. Each word has specific and precise meaning but when we put them together in a sentence or statement it doesn’t yield any meaning or the meaning of the combination of those words would remain absurd.

5. Statement having contradictory meaning – When a statement is opposite to or contradictory to the illustrations, basic doctrines and time, it is known as Viruddha or contradictory statement. The illustrations statements contradictory to Drstanta (illustration) and siddhanta (fundamental doctrines) have already been cited above.

{(1)] contradictory to illustration; e.g a statement that fever produces heat as cold water produces heat, (2) contradictory to the fundamental principles; e.g the statement of a physician that a medicine does not cure a disease.]
Transition is of three types. They are –
Transition relating to the science of medicine e.g a therapy has four limbs i.e. physician, patient, attendant and medicine
Ritualistic transition e.g animals are to be sacrificed by the worshippers
Spiritual tradition e.g non-violent attitude towards all creatures.
Thus a statement contradicting the traditions of a given scripture is known as contradictory statement.

Thus are the defects in statements [54]

Vakyaprasamsa (syntactical excellence / commandability)

अथवाक्यप्रशंसा-वाक्यप्रशंसानामयथाखल्वस्मिन्नर्थेत्वन्यूनम्, अनधिकम्, अर्थवत्, अनपार्थकम्, अविरुद्धम्, अधिगतपदार्थंचेतियत्तद्वाक्यमननुयोज्यमितिप्रशस्यते||५५||

atha vākyapraśaṃsā- vākya praśaṃsā nāma yathā khalvasminnarthe tvanyūnam, anadhikam, arthavat, anapārthakam, aviruddham, adhigatapadārthaṃ ceti yattadvākyamananuyojyamiti praśasyate||55||

Syntactical excellence is attained when the statement is free from syntactical deficiency, excess, incongruity, contradiction and breach of tradition. That is to say, ‘the statement is considered to be of excellent type when theer is no room for further enquiry’. [55]

Chala (casuistry)

अथच्छलं-छलंनामपरिशठमर्थाभासमनर्थकंवाग्वस्तुमात्रमेव|
तद्द्विविधं-वाक्छलं, सामान्यच्छलंच|

atha cchalaṃ- chalaṃ nāma pariśaṭhamarthābhāsamanarthakaṃ vāgvastumātrameva|

taddvividhaṃ- vākchalaṃ, sāmānyacchalaṃ ca|

Chala (casuistry) stands for confusion created by play of words not relevant to the question, nonsensical in nature, and only apparently having some meanings.

This is of two kinds,

  1. Vakcchala – verbal casuistry and
  2. Samanyacchala – casustry in general

Casuistry – the use of clever but unsound reasoning
तत्रवाक्छलंनामयथा-कश्चिद्ब्रूयात्-नवतन्त्रोऽयंभिषगिति, अथभिषग्ब्रूयात्-नाहंनवतन्त्रएकतन्त्रोऽहमिति; परोब्रूयात्-नाहंब्रवीमिनवतन्त्राणितवेति, अपितुनवाभ्यस्तंतेतन्त्रमिति; भिषक्ब्रूयात्-नमयानवाभ्यस्तंतन्त्रम्, अनेकधाऽभ्यस्तंमयातन्त्रमिति; एतद्वाक्छलम्|

tatra vākchalaṃ nāma yathā- kaścidbrūyāt- navatantro’yaṃ bhiṣagiti, atha bhiṣag brūyāt- nāhaṃ navatantra ekatantro’hamiti; paro brūyāt- nāhaṃ bravīmi nava tantrāṇi taveti, api tu navābhyastaṃ te tantramiti; bhiṣak brūyāt- na mayā navābhyastaṃ tantram, anekadhā’bhyastaṃ mayā tantramiti; etadvākchalam|

Verbal Casuistry – if somebody says that the physician is “Navatantra” which means ‘this physician is a newbie – he has finished learning the science of medicine recently (not too experienced), the opponent replies – ‘no, I am not navatantra’ which means that he has not learnt the 9 scriptures (nava = 9, tantra = scriptures), whih further indicates that he has studied only one scripture. Again the questioner asks ‘I did not mean to tell that you have studied 9 scriptures but I meant to tell that your experience in the field of medicine is new (Navabhystam)’. Then the opponent replies once again telling ‘I have not studied the scriptures 9 times (navabhyasta) but have studied several times’. This type of discussion illustrates verbal casuistry.


सामान्यच्छलंनामयथा-व्याधिप्रशमनायौषधमित्युक्ते, परोब्रूयात्-सत्सत्प्रशमनायेतिकिंनुभवानाह; सन्हिरोगः, सदौषधं; यदिचसत्सत्प्रशमनायभवति, तत्रसत्कासः, सत्क्षयः, सत्सामान्यात्कासस्तेक्षयप्रशमनायभविष्यतीति|
एतत्सामान्यच्छलम्||५६||

sāmānyacchalaṃ nāma yathā- vyādhipraśamanāyauṣadhamityukte, paro brūyāt- sat satpraśamanāyeti kiṃ nu bhavānāha; san hi rogaḥ, sadauṣadhaṃ; yadi ca sat satpraśamanāya bhavati, tatra sat kāsaḥ, sat kṣayaḥ, satsāmānyāt kāsaste kṣayapraśamanāya bhaviṣyatīti|

etat sāmānyacchalam||56||

Casuistry in General – Someone makes a statement that the medicine is meant for alleviating diseases. The opponent asks ‘Did you mean to tell that something that exists (medicine) would alleviate some other thing which also exists (disease)? If something existent could alleviate some other thing which also exists then kasa (cough) exists and so does ksaya (consumption, tuberculosis). Therefore according to this principle cough should cure consumption’. This type of discussion illustrates ‘casuistry in general’. [56]

Ahetu (causal fallacy, fallacious reasons)

अथाहेतुः-अहेतुर्नामप्रकरणसमः, संशयसमः, वर्ण्यसमश्चेति|

athāhetuḥ- aheturnāmaprakaraṇasamaḥ, saṃśayasamaḥ, varṇyasamaśceti|


Casual fallacy is of three kinds. They are as given below –

  1. Prakaranasama – stultified fallacy / simiar to the topic
  2. Samshayasama – doubtful fallacy / similar to the doubt
  3. Varnyasama – fallacy of insignificant causality / similar to the object

तत्रप्रकरणसमोनामाहेतुर्यथा-अन्यःशरीरादात्मानित्यइति; परोब्रूयात्-यस्मादन्यःशरीरादात्मा, तस्मान्नित्यः; शरीरंह्यनित्यमतोविधर्मिणाचात्मनाभवितव्यमित्येषचाहेतुः; नहियएवपक्षःसएवहेतुरिति|

tatra prakaraṇasamo nāmāheturyathā- anyaḥ śarīrādātmā nitya iti; paro brūyāt- yasmādanyaḥ śarīrādātmā, tasmānnityaḥ; śarīraṃ hyanityamato vidharmiṇā cātmanā bhavitavyamityeṣa cāhetuḥ; nahi ya eva pakṣaḥ sa eva heturiti|

Prakaranasama or stultified fallacy – If somebody says, ‘the soul is eternal because it is different from the body’, then the opponent would point out towards the fallacy in the underlying the statement and tell ‘the same reasons which differentiates the soul from the body are also the reasons which prove that the soul is eternal. This is because the body is ‘short lived’ therefore it is obvious that the soul would have opposite or different qualities from that of the body. Therefore the statement is a fallacious reason for this particular context.  

If the soul is eternal simply because it is different from the body then the statement does not add to any reasoning for the proposition relating to the eternity of the soul. This is because the body being ‘short lived’ and soul being different from the body, the soul would naturally have opposite qualities. So the minor and major terms of the proposition would almost be the same”.

This illustrates the fallacy of stultified reasoning.
संशयसमोनामाहेतुर्यएवसंशयहेतुःसएवसंशयच्छेदहेतुः; यथा-अयमायुर्वेदैकदेशमाह, किन्न्वयंचिकित्सकःस्यान्नवेतिसंशयेपरोब्रूयात्-यस्मादयमायुर्वेदैकदेशमाहतस्माच्चिकित्सकोऽयमिति, नचसंशयच्छेदहेतुंविशेषयति, एषचाहेतुः; नहियएवसंशयहेतुः, सएवसंशयच्छेदहेतुर्भवति|

saṃśayasamo nāmāheturya eva saṃśayahetuḥ sa eva saṃśayacchedahetuḥ; yathā- ayamāyurvedaikadeśamāha, kinnvayaṃ cikitsakaḥ syānna veti saṃśaye paro brūyāt- yasmādayamāyurvedaikadeśamāha tasmāccikitsako’yamiti, na ca saṃśayacchedahetuṃ viśeṣayati, eṣa cāhetuḥ; na hi ya eva saṃśayahetuḥ, sa eva saṃśayacchedaheturbhavati|

Samsayasama or Doubtful fallacy – Fallacy of doubtfull reasoning is the one wherein the same reasons which create a doubt are also the reasons which help in removing the doubts. If somebody puts a question related to a physician, “Can a person who knows only a part of the science of medicine i.e. Ayurveda be considered as physician?”. The opponent replies, ‘Since he knows only a part of Ayurveda so he is a physician.” Therefore the very point of doubt is taken to remove the doubt. This is the fallacy of doubtful reasoning.


वर्ण्यसमोनामाहेतुः-योहेतुर्वर्ण्याविशिष्टः; यथा-कश्चिद्बूयात्-अस्पर्शत्वाद्बुद्धिरनित्याशब्दवदिति; अत्रवर्ण्यःशब्दोबुद्धिरपिवर्ण्या, तदुभयवर्ण्याविशिष्टत्वाद्वर्ण्यसमोऽप्यहेतुः||५७||

varṇyasamo nāmāhetuḥ- yo heturvarṇyāviśiṣṭaḥ; yathā- kaścidbūyāt- asparśatvādbuddhiranityā śabdavaditi; atra varṇyaḥ śabdo buddhirapi varṇyā, tadubhayavarṇyāviśiṣṭatvādvarṇyasamo’pyahetuḥ||57||

Varnyasama or fallacy of insignificant causality -Somebody says, ‘Intellect is short lived (temporary) because of its intractability, just like the sound.’ Here intractability does not help in establishing the ephemerality (temporary nature) of both intellect and the sound. This is because both these items are equally unproven. The sound whose short lived nature is yes to be proven cannot be cited as an illusion. This is the fallacy of insignificant reasoning. [57]

Atitakala (defiance of temporal order, delayed statement):

अथातीतकालम्-अतीतकालंनामयत्पूर्वंवाच्यंतत्पश्चादुच्यते, तत्कालातीतत्वादग्राह्यंभवतीति; पूर्वंवानिग्रहप्राप्तमनिगृह्यपरिगृह्यपक्षान्तरितंपश्चान्निगृहीते, तत्तस्यातीतकालत्वान्निग्रहवचनमसमर्थंभवतीति||५८||

athātītakālam- atītakālaṃ nāma yat pūrvaṃ vācyaṃ tat paścāducyate, tat kālātītatvādagrāhyaṃ bhavatīti; pūrvaṃ vā nigrahaprāptamanigṛhya parigṛhya pakṣāntaritaṃ paścānnigṛhīte, tattasyātītakālatvānnigrahavacanamasamarthaṃ bhavatīti||58||

If something which is to be stated first in the order of priority is stated later, it constitutes delayed statement or defiance of temporal order. These statements are not acceptable in the debate since they are devoid of temporal prosperity. Example – the proposition should come first and later the final conclusion should come. But if somebody gives the final conclusion first and then he states the proposition it constitutes the refinance of temporal order. Or where there is an occasion for defeating the opponent in an argument, if one keeps quiet at that time and after sometime he tries to defeat the same opponent on some other point, this also constitutes the defiance of temporal order. This too is equally unacceptable and irrelevant in the debate. [58]

Upalambha (defective causality)

अथोपालम्भः-उपालम्भोनामहेतोर्दोषवचनं; यथा-पूर्वमहेतवोहेत्वाभासाव्याख्याताः||५९||

athopālambhaḥ- upālambho nāma hetordoṣavacanaṃ; yathā- pūrvamahetavo hetvābhāsā vyākhyātāḥ||59||

Upalambha stands for pointing out defects in causality as explained in Para – 57 above. [59]

Parihara (correction)

अथपरिहारः-परिहारोनामतस्यैवदोषवचनस्यपरिहरणं; यथा-नित्यमात्मनिशरीरस्थेजीवलिङ्गान्युपलभ्यन्ते, तस्यचापगमान्नोपलभ्यन्ते, तस्मादन्यःशरीरादात्मानित्यश्चेति||६०||

atha parihāraḥ- parihāro nāma tasyaiva doṣavacanasya pariharaṇaṃ; yathā- nityamātmani śarīrasthe jīvaliṅgānyupalabhyante, tasya cāpagamānnopalabhyante, tasmādanyaḥ śarīrādātmā nityaśceti||60||


Parihara stands for correcting the defects pointed out in respect of the proposition. Ex in verse 57 above, it is shown that ‘being different from the body does not constitute a valid reasoning for the eternity of the soul’. The opponent’s view point may however be ‘signs of life are visible in the body only when the soul occupies the body and not otherwise’. So the soul is different from the body and is also eternal. [60]

Pratijnahani (Shift from the original stand)

अथप्रतिज्ञाहानिः-प्रतिज्ञाहानिर्नामसापूर्वपरिगृहीतांप्रतिज्ञांपर्यनुयुक्तोयत्परित्यजति, यथाप्राक्प्रतिज्ञांकृत्वानित्यःपुरुषइति, पर्यनुयुक्तस्त्वाह-अनित्यइति||६१||

atha pratijñāhāniḥ- pratijñāhānirnāma sā pūrvaparigṛhītāṃ pratijñāṃ paryanuyukto yat parityajati, yathā prāk pratijñāṃ kṛtvā nityaḥ puruṣa iti, paryanuyuktastvāha- anitya iti||61||

If one makes a statement and then after being questioned and counter-attacked by his opponents contradicts his own statement or being defeated from the opponent drops off his proposition (statement made earlier), this is known as Pratijnahani or shift from the original stand.

 If somebody makes a statement that ‘the soul is eternal’ and after being attacked by his opponent subsequently changes his view and says, “the soul is ephemeral”, this would amount to shift in the stand. [61]

Abhyanujna (confessional retort)

अथाभ्यनुज्ञा-अभ्यनुज्ञानामसायइष्टानिष्टाभ्युपगमः||६२||

athābhyanujñā- abhyanujñā nāma sā ya iṣṭāniṣṭābhyupagamaḥ||62||

When one accepts what is convincing (convenient) to him and also accepts what is unconvincing (not convenient) to him it is called as abhyanujna.

To point out the mistakes of the opponent is convincing to him. To accept his own mistakes is not convincing to him. But he accepts both and this is called as abhyanujna.

Where the allegations made by the opponent are accepted and the opponent is also charged with the same allegation this is known as Abhyanujna or confessional retort. Ex, if an opponents says, “You are also a thief” he has undoubtedly proved that I am a thief (as per my allegation) but at the same time he has also accepted that he too is a thief. [62]

Hetvantara (fallacy of reason)

अथहेत्वन्तरं-हेत्वन्तरंनामप्रकृतहेतौवाच्येयद्विकृतहेतुमाह||६३||

atha hetvantaraṃ- hetvantaraṃ nāma prakṛtahetau vācye yadvikṛtahetumāha||63||

When instead of relevant resoning, an irrelevant reasoning is given, it is known as Hetvantara or fallacy of reason. [63]

Arthantara (Irrelevant statement)

अथार्थान्तरम्-अर्थान्तरंनामैकस्मिन्वक्तव्येऽपरंयदाह|
यथा-ज्वरलक्षणेवाच्येप्रमेहलक्षणमाह||६४||

athārthāntaram- arthāntaraṃ nāmaikasmin vaktavye’paraṃ yadāha| 

yathā- jvaralakṣaṇe vācye pramehalakṣaṇamāha||64||

If somebody starts defining Prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including Diabetes mellitus), when he ought to define jvara i.e. fever, this would constitute an irrelevant statement. [64]

Nigrahasthana (Clincher)

अथनिग्रहस्थानं-निग्रहस्थानंनामपराजयप्राप्तिः; तच्चत्रिरभिहितस्यवाक्यस्यापरिज्ञानंपरिषदिविज्ञानवत्यां, यद्वाअननुयोज्यस्यानुयोगोऽनुयोज्यस्यचाननुयोगः|

atha nigrahasthānaṃ- nigrahasthānaṃ nāma parājayaprāptiḥ; tacca trirabhihitasya vākyasyāparijñānaṃ pariṣadi vijñānavatyāṃ, yadvā ananuyojyasyānuyogo’nuyojyasya cānanuyogaḥ|

‘To get defeated’ is called as Nigrahasthana. This is of 3 kinds. When in an enlightened scholarly assembly,

  • a statement is repeated there times but the opponent is unable to understand it or
  • if one questions or enquires wherein questioning is not at all needed and
  • if one doesn’t question or enquire wherein he was supposed to question


प्रतिज्ञाहानिः, अभ्यनुज्ञा, कालातीतवचनम्, अहेतुः, न्यूनम्, अधिकं, व्यर्थम्, अनर्थकं, पुनरुक्तं, विरुद्धं, हेत्वन्तरम्, अर्थान्तरंचनिग्रहस्थानम्||६५||
इतिवादमार्गपदानियथोद्देशमभिनिर्दिष्टानिभवन्ति||६६||
pratijñāhāniḥ, abhyanujñā, kālātītavacanam, ahetuḥ, nyūnam, adhikaṃ, vyartham, anarthakaṃ, punaruktaṃ, viruddhaṃ, hetvantaram, arthāntaraṃ ca nigrahasthānam||65||
iti vādamārgapadāni yathoddeśamabhinirdiṣṭāni bhavanti||66||
Besides – the below mentioned also constitute the areas of defeat –

  • Pratijnahani – deviation from the original stand
  • Abhyanujna – confessional retort
  • Kalatitavabcana – definance of the temporal order
  • Ahetu – Superfluity
  • Vyartha – semantic incongruity
  • Anarthaka – nonsensical statement
  • Punarrukta – repetition
  • Viruddha – contradictory statement
  • Hetvantara – fallacy of reason and
  • Arthantara – irrelevant  statement

Thus the various aspects of debate have been duly explained. [65-66]

Guidelines for a debate

वादस्तुखलुभिषजांप्रवर्तमानोप्रवर्तेतायुर्वेदएव, नान्यत्र|
अत्रहिवाक्यप्रतिवाक्यविस्तराःकेवलाश्चोपपत्तयःसर्वाधिकरणेषु|
ताःसर्वाःसमवेक्ष्यावेक्ष्यसर्वंवाक्यंब्रूयात्, नाप्रकृतकमशास्त्रमपरीक्षितमसाधकमाकुलमव्यापकंवा|
सर्वंचहेतुमद्ब्रूयात्|
हेतुमन्तोह्यकलुषाःसर्वएववादविग्रहाश्चिकित्सितेकारणभूताः, प्रशस्तबुद्धिवर्धकत्वात्; सर्वारम्भसिद्धिंह्यावहत्यनुपहताबुद्धिः||६७||

vādastu khalu bhiṣajāṃ pravartamāno pravartetāyurveda eva, nānyatra|

atra hi vākya prativākya vistarāḥ kevalāścopapattayaḥ sarvādhikaraṇeṣu|

tāḥ sarvāḥ samavekṣyāvekṣya sarvaṃ vākyaṃ brūyāt, nāprakṛtakamaśāstramaparīkṣitamasādhakamākulamavyāpakaṃ vā|

sarvaṃ ca hetumadbrūyāt|

hetumanto hyakaluṣāḥ sarva eva vādavigrahāścikitsite kāraṇabhūtāḥ, praśasta buddhivardhakatvāt; sarvārambhasiddhiṃ hyāvahatyanupahatā buddhiḥ||67||

If the phyisicans need to discuss or debate, they need to do it only within the limitations of the topics of Ayurveda and not related to the other sciences. This is because Ayurveda has given a detailed course of various details about statements and rejoinders as well as fundamental principles (of the debates) mentioned above with skilful precision.

A physician should make each and every statement he makes with due regard to the principles of debates after having analyzed them repeatedly, without damaging the soul of the context.

He should not make statements which are

  • Unnatural
  • out of the context
  • contrary to scriptural prescriptions or
  • which have not been examined or testified
  • which do not justify one’s stand
  • which are confusing
  • which are not popular
  • which are less detailed

Whatever he states should be strictly based on arguments. All debates equipped with arguments and flawlessness would enlighten the mental faculty immensely. When the mind is undisturbed and unmasked it would help one in getting all their tasks accomplished in a proper and precise way. [67]

Important topics to be known by physicians

इमानिखलुतावदिहकानिचित्प्रकरणानिभिषजांज्ञानार्थमुपदेक्ष्यामः|
ज्ञानपूर्वकंहिकर्मणांसमारम्भंप्रशंसन्तिकुशलाः|
ज्ञात्वाहिकारण-करण-कार्ययोनि-कार्य-कार्यफलानुबन्ध-देश-काल-प्रवृत्त्युपायान्सम्यगभिनिर्वर्तमानःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्ताविष्टफलानुबन्धंकार्यमभिनिर्वर्तयत्यनतिमहतायत्नेनकर्ता||६८||

imāni khalu tāvadiha kānicit prakaraṇāni bhiṣajāṃ jñānārthamupadekṣyāmaḥ|

jñānapūrvakaṃ hi karmaṇāṃ samārambhaṃ praśaṃsanti kuśalāḥ|

jñātvā hi kāraṇa-karaṇa-kāryayoni-kārya-kāryaphalānubandha-deśa-kāla-pravṛttyupāyān samyagabhinirvartamānaḥ kāryābhinirvṛttāviṣṭaphalānubandhaṃ kāryamabhinirvartayatyanatimahatā yatnena kartā||68||

There are some of the important topics which we shall explain for the sake of knowledge of the physicians. The wise people always admire the actions initiated with the good knowledge.

When a physician duly initiates any of his actions only after properly understanding and having had precise knowledge of the below mentioned topics he would accomplish the task he has undertaken to perfect completion with least effort and would definitely gain the immediate and distant benefits of having done those tasks with perfection. The immediate benefits are ‘the patients getting relieved from their diseases’ and the late benefits include the name, fame and wealth the physician would get on the backdrop of these tasks.

The topics which the physician should have a precise knowledge are as mentioned below –

  • Karana – cause
  • Karana – instrument
  • Karyayoni – source of action
  • Karya – action itself
  • Karyaphala – fruits of action
  • Anubandha – subsequent manifestation
  • Desa – habitat
  • Kala – season
  • Pravrtti – initiation and
  • Upaya – means of action. [68]

Karana :
तत्रकारणंनामतद्यत्करोति, सएवहेतुः, सकर्ता||६९||
tatra kāraṇaṃ nāma tad yat karoti, sa eva hetuḥ, sa kartā||69||

Karana or ‘the cause’ here is the one who initiates (is causal) action independently. The doer or the agent constitutes the cause of action. [69]
Karana :
करणंपुनस्तद्यदुपकरणायोपकल्पतेकर्तुःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तौप्रयतमानस्य||७०||
karaṇaṃ punastad yadupakaraṇāyopakalpate kartuḥ kāryābhinirvṛttau prayatamānasya||70||
Karana can be defined as ‘an instrument which helps the doer / an agent in the performance of his action’. [70]
Karyayoni:
कार्ययोनिस्तुसायाविक्रियमाणाकार्यत्वमापद्यते||७१||
kāryayonistu sā yā vikriyamāṇā kāryatvamāpadyate||71||
Karyayoni means ‘source of action’. It is the one which becomes an action by the process of transformation. [71]
Karya :
कार्यंतुतद्यस्याभिनिर्वृत्तिमभिसन्धायकर्ताप्रवर्तते||७२||
kāryaṃ tu tadyasyābhinirvṛttimabhisandhāya kartā pravartate||72||
Action is the one, the accomplishment of which is kept in view (by the doer) before he proceeds to initiate an action. [72]
Karyaphala :
कार्यफलंपुनस्तद्यत्प्रयोजनाकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तिरिष्यते||७३||
kāryaphalaṃ punastad yatprayojanā kāryābhinirvṛttiriṣyate||73||
Karyaphala means result of an act / action. The objective i.e. to obtain the immediate benefits of which the doer initiates an action is called as karyaphala. Let us consider that an action would give some immediate good results. The does will obviously initiate an action with the view of begetting those immediate results / benefits. These immediate benefits keeping which in view the doer initiates or does an action are called as karyaphala. [73]
Anubandha:
अनुबन्धःखलुसयःकर्तारमवश्यमनुबध्नातिकार्यादुत्तरकालंकार्यनिमित्तःशुभोवाऽप्यशुभोभावः||७४||
anubandhaḥ khalu sa yaḥ kartāramavaśyamanubadhnāti kāryāduttarakālaṃ kārya nimittaḥ śubho vā’pyaśubho bhāvaḥ||74||
Anubandha means ‘after effects of an action’. The after effects of an action can either be good or bad. But these effects are always associated with the agent / doer.

An after effect- good or bad-is the one which is bound to leave its impact on the doer after he has performed his action.[74]
Desha:
देशस्त्वधिष्ठानम्||७५||
deśastvadhiṣṭhānam||75||
Desha means location / habitat / geography.

Desha represents the site favorable or unfavorable for an action
Kala:
कालःपुनःपरिणामः||७६||
kālaḥ punaḥ pariṇāmaḥ||76||
Time is nothing but a recess of transformation into seasons, solstices etc., [76]
Pravrtti:
प्रवृत्तिस्तुखलुचेष्टाकार्यार्था; सैवक्रिया, कर्म, यत्नः, कार्यसमारम्भश्च||७७||
pravṛttistu khalu ceṣṭā kāryārthā; saiva kriyā, karma, yatnaḥ, kāryasamārambhaśca||77||
Pravrtti means inclination / endeavour.

Pravrtti represents the initiation of action as a means to the accomplishment of an action / task / an object. This is action; this is object and this is an effort as well as beginning of action. [77]
Upaya:
उपायःपुनस्त्रयाणांकारणादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्कार्यकार्यफलानुबन्धवर्ज्यानां, कार्याणामभिनिर्वर्तकइत्यतस्तूपायः ; कृतेनोपायार्थोऽस्ति, नचविद्यतेतदात्वे, कृताच्चोत्तरकालंफलं, फलाच्चानुबन्धइति||७८||
upāyaḥ punastrayāṇāṃ kāraṇādīnāṃ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṃ ca samyak kāryakāryaphalānubandhavarjyānāṃ, kāryāṇāmabhinirvartaka ityatastūpāyaḥ ; kṛte nopāyārtho’sti, na ca vidyate tadātve, kṛtāccottarakālaṃ phalaṃ, phalāccānubandha iti||78||
Upaya means procedure / device.

Upaya means bringing about excellence in the doer / agent, the instrument and the origin of action which are the basic devices to initiate an action and their proper setting. A device is the one which accomplishes the action. Device is of no value after an action has been performed. The action itself does not exist before it has been performed. (Therefore the action cannot be a device all by itself). After an action has been performed, the object is revealed and it (the object) leads to an after effect. So the stage of a proper device comes long before an action is initiated. [78]

Thorough examination prior to initiating action

एतद्दशविधमग्रेपरीक्ष्यं, ततोऽनन्तरंकार्यार्थाप्रवृत्तिरिष्टा|
तस्माद्भिषक्कार्यंचिकीर्षुःप्राक्कार्यसमारम्भात्परीक्षयाकेवलंपरीक्ष्यंपरीक्ष्यकर्मसमारभेतकर्तुम्||७९||

etaddaśavidhamagre parīkṣyaṃ, tato’nantaraṃ kāryārthā pravṛttiriṣṭā|

tasmādbhiṣak kāryaṃ cikīrṣuḥ prāk kāryasamārambhāt parīkṣayā kevalaṃ parīkṣyaṃ parīkṣya karma samārabheta kartum||79||

These ten factors are examined first. One should try to initiate action thereafter. So a physician desirous of initiating an action should examine all that are required to be examined before initiating his action. [79]

Queries about Panchakarma

तत्रचेद्भिषगभिषग्वाभिषजंकश्चिदेवंखलुपृच्छेद्-वमनविरेचनास्थापनानुवासनशिरोविरेचनानिप्रयोक्तुकामेनभिषजाकतिविधयापरीक्षयाकतिविधमेवपरीक्ष्यं, कश्चात्रपरीक्ष्यविशेषः, कथंचपरीक्षितव्यः, किम्प्रयोजनाचपरीक्षा, क्वचवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिः, क्वचनिवृत्तिः, प्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिलक्षणसंयोगेचकिंनैष्ठिकं, कानिचवमनादीनांभेषजद्रव्याण्युपयोगंगच्छन्तीति||८०||

tatra cedbhiṣagabhiṣagvā bhiṣajaṃ kaścidevaṃ khalu pṛcched- vamana virecanāsthāpanānuvāsana śirovirecanāni prayoktukāmena bhiṣajā katividhayā parīkṣayā katividhameva parīkṣyaṃ, kaścātra parīkṣyaviśeṣaḥ, kathaṃ ca parīkṣitavyaḥ, kimprayojanā ca parīkṣā, kva ca vamanādīnāṃ pravṛttiḥ, kva ca nivṛttiḥ, pravṛtti nivṛtti lakṣaṇa saṃyoge ca kiṃ naiṣṭhikaṃ, kāni ca vamanādīnāṃ bheṣajadravyāṇyupayogaṃ gacchantīti||80||

So if another physician or a layman asks the physician the below mentioned questions –

‘What are the types of examinations and how many types of examinations should be used to examine the objects which need to be examined by a physician desirous of administering Vamana (emesis), Virecana (purgation), Asthapana  (decoction enema), Anuvasana (oil enemas) and Sirovirecana (errhines)?

‘What is it that is to be specifically examined (how many kinds of ‘objects to be examined’ exist’?

‘How are these things to be examined?’

‘What are the objectives / intentions of examination?’

‘When should emesis etc. cleansing therapies be administered and when should they be not administered?’

‘What should we do to determine the administrability or otherwise of these therapies?’ (How should one decide when to begin and when to end these therapies? What and how to do when we get the signs of administration and withdrawal?)

What drugs are used to administer Vamana (emesis) etc therapies?

The physician may reply as follows. [80]

A bewildering reply

सएवंपृष्टोयदिमोहयितुमिच्छेत्, ब्रूयादेनं-बहुविधाहिपरीक्षातथापरीक्ष्यविधिभेदः, कतमेनविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणभिन्नयापरीक्षयाकेनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यस्यभिन्नस्यभेदाग्रंभवान्पृच्छत्याख्यायमानं; नेदानींभवतोऽन्येनविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणभिन्नयापरीक्षयाऽन्येनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यस्यभिन्नस्याभिलषितमर्थंश्रोतुमहमन्येनपरीक्षाविधिभेदेनान्येनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यंभित्त्वाऽन्यथाऽऽचक्षाणइच्छांपूरयेयमिति||८१||

sa evaṃ pṛṣṭo yadi mohayitumicchet, brūyādenaṃ- bahuvidhā hi parīkṣā tathā parīkṣya vidhi bhedaḥ, katamena vidhibhedaprakṛtyantareṇa bhinnayā parīkṣayā kena vā vidhibhedaprakṛtyantareṇa parīkṣyasya bhinnasya bhedāgraṃ bhavān pṛcchatyākhyāyamānaṃ; nedānīṃ bhavato’nyena vidhibhedaprakṛtyantareṇa bhinnayā parīkṣayā’nyena vā vidhibhedaprakṛtyantareṇa parīkṣyasya bhinnasyābhilaṣitamarthaṃ śrotumahamanyena parīkṣāvidhibhedenānyena vā vidhibhedaprakṛtyantareṇa parīkṣyaṃ bhittvā’nyathā”cakṣāṇa  icchāṃ pūrayeyamiti||81||

If he wants to bewilder his opponent, he should say, “Diverse are the types of examinations and methods of examining and so are the various objects of examinations. What particular method of examination or what particular type of examination or what specific object of examination would you wish to know? What specific things you want me to explain so as to satisfy your questions? Probably you would wish to know about these things in a different way in comparison to what form in which I would like to explain them. It is also possible that I might explain it in a totally different way that might not satisfy you. Therefore right at this moment I cannot fulfill your desire and wish to know the answers for your queries”. [81]

Situations for giving correct answer

सयदुत्तरंब्रूयात्तत्समीक्ष्योत्तरंवाच्यंस्याद्यथोक्तंचप्रतिवचनविधिमवेक्ष्य; सम्यक्यदितुब्रूयान्नचैनंमोहयितुमिच्छेत्, प्राप्तंतुवचनकालंमन्येत, काममस्मैब्रूयादाप्तमेवनिखिलेन||८२||

sa yaduttaraṃ brūyāttat samīkṣyottaraṃ vācyaṃ syādyathoktaṃ ca prativacanavidhimavekṣya; samyak yadi tu brūyānna cainaṃ mohayitumicchet, prāptaṃ tu vacanakālaṃ manyeta, kāmamasmai brūyādāptameva nikhilena||82||

In case the opponent answers these queries, he should duly explain the required method and other aspects of the examination. One should reply only after thoroughly analyzing the questions.

If, on the other hand, somebody asks a question in good faith and at the appropriate time and the physician does not want to bewilder the questioner, he should explain everything in detail according to what has been explained in the scriptures [82]

 Three method of examination Trividha Pariksha

द्विविधातुखलुपरीक्षाज्ञानवतां-प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानंच|
एतद्धिद्वयमुपदेशश्चपरीक्षास्यात्|
एवमेषाद्विविधापरीक्षा, त्रिविधावासहोपदेशेन||८३||

dvividhātu khalu parīkṣā jñānavatāṃ- pratyakṣam, anumānaṃ ca|

etaddhi dvayamupadeśaśca parīkṣā syāt|

evameṣā dvividhā parīkṣā, trividhā vā sahopadeśena||83||


The wise take recourse to two types of examinations-perceptual and inferential. These two combined with instructions constitute three methods of examination. So the examination is of two types or of three types if “instruction” is included in it. [83]

Ten important topics for examination

दशविधंतुपरीक्ष्यंकारणादियदुक्तमग्रे, तदिहभिषगादिषुसंसार्यसन्दर्शयिष्यामः-इहकार्यप्राप्तौकारणंभिषक्, करणंपुनर्भेषजं, कार्ययोनिर्धातुवैषम्यं, कार्यंधातुसाम्यं, कार्यफलंसुखावाप्तिः, अनुबन्धःखल्वायुः, देशोभूमिरातुरश्च, कालःपुनःसंवत्सरश्चातुरावस्थाच, प्रवृत्तिःप्रतिकर्मसमारम्भः, उपायस्तुभिषगादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्|
इहाप्यस्योपायस्यविषयःपूर्वेणैवोपाय sविशेषेणव्याख्यातः|
इतिकारणादीनिदशदशसुभिषगादिषुसंसार्यसन्दर्शितानि, तथैवानुपूर्व्यैतद्दशविधंपरीक्ष्यमुक्तंच||८४||

daśavidhaṃ tu parīkṣyaṃ kāraṇādi yaduktamagre, tadiha bhiṣagādiṣu saṃsārya sandarśayiṣyāmaḥ- iha kāryaprāptau kāraṇaṃ bhiṣak, karaṇaṃ punarbheṣajaṃ, kārya yoni rdhātuvaiṣamyaṃ, kāryaṃ dhātusāmyaṃ, kāryaphalaṃ sukhāvāptiḥ, anubandhaḥ khalvāyuḥ, deśo bhūmirāturaśca, kālaḥ punaḥ saṃvatsaraścāturāvasthā ca, pravṛttiḥ pratikarmasamārambhaḥ, upāyastu bhiṣagādīnāṃ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṃ ca samyak|

ihāpyasyopāyasya viṣayaḥ pūrveṇaivopāya sviśeṣeṇa vyākhyātaḥ|

iti kāraṇādīni daśa daśasu bhiṣagādiṣu saṃsārya sandarśitāni, tathaivānupūrvyaitaddaśavidhaṃ parīkṣyamuktaṃ ca||84||

In verse 68 cause etc. are mentioned as the ten factors that are to be examined. Each of them is described below with relevant illustrations:

Karana (cause) – the physician serves as the causative factor for the achievement of the action / object i.e the maintenance of the equilibrium of Dhatus (body components.

Karana (instrument): Medicaments

Karyayoni (source of action) – Disturbance of the equilibrium of Dhatus

Karya (action itself) – maintenance of the equilibrium of Dhatus

Karyaphala (fruits of action) – Attainment of happiness, i.e beginning of freedom from a disease.

Anubandha (subsequent manifestation) – Longevity.

Desha (Habiat) – both the land as well as the patient (body of the patient) constitute Desha or habitat

Kala (Time) – the year consisting of various seasons and also the state and stages of the disease constitute Kala or time.

Pravrti (institution) – therapeutic action

Upaya (means of action) – excellence of the physician and the correctness of the therapy constitute Upaya or means of action. Factors which are described as the objects of Upaya in verse 78 are also implied here.

Thus the ten factors, viz, cause etc, are described along with ten illustrations, viz physician etc, these are the ten factors to be examined in succession [84]

Examination of physician

तस्ययोयोविशेषोयथायथाचपरीक्षितव्यः, सतथातथाव्याख्यास्यते||८५||
कारणंभिषगित्युक्तमग्रे, तस्यपरीक्षा-भिषङ्नामयोभिषज्यति, यःसूत्रार्थप्रयोगकुशलः, यस्यचायुःसर्वथाविदितंयथावत्|
सचसर्वधातुसाम्यंचिकीर्षन्नात्मानमेवादितःपरीक्षेतगुणिषुगुणतःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तिंपश्यन्, कच्चिदहमस्यकार्यस्याभिनिर्वर्तनेसमर्थोनवेति; तत्रेमेभिषग्गुणायैरुपपन्नोभिषग्धातुसाम्याभिनिर्वर्तनेसमर्थोभवति; तद्यथा-पर्यवदातश्रुतता, परिदृष्टकर्मता, दाक्ष्यं, शौचं, जितहस्तता, उपकरणवत्ता, सर्वेन्द्रियोपपन्नता, प्रकृतिज्ञता, प्रतिपत्तिज्ञाताचेति||८६||

tasya yo yo viśeṣo yathā yathā ca parīkṣitavyaḥ, sa tathā tathā vyākhyāsyate||85||

kāraṇaṃ bhiṣagityuktamagre, tasya parīkṣā- bhiṣaṅnāma yo bhiṣajyati, yaḥ sūtrārthaprayoga kuśalaḥ, yasya cāyuḥ sarvathā viditaṃ yathāvat|

sa ca sarvadhātusāmyaṃ cikīrṣannātmānamevāditaḥ parīkṣeta guṇiṣu guṇataḥ kāryābhinirvṛttiṃ paśyan, kaccidahamasya kāryasyābhinirvartane samartho na veti; tatreme bhiṣagguṇā yairupapanno bhiṣagdhātusāmyābhinirvartane samartho bhavati; tadyathā- paryavadātaśrutatā, paridṛṣṭakarmatā, dākṣyaṃ, śaucaṃ, jitahastatā, upakaraṇavattā, sarvendriyopapannatā, prakṛtijñatā, pratipattijñātā ceti||86||

Now each of the above mentioned 10 entities and the manner in which they are required to be examined shall be explained in depth.

It is stated in the beginning that the physician is the Sine Qua non i.e. the most important person for the successful administration of therapies. He is the cause towards establishment and successful accomplishment of the action i.e. to bring about equilibrium of the body components and establish health in patients.

The examination of the cause i.e.physician shoul be done in the below mentioned way –

A physician is he who treats patients. He is a person who is well versed in the applied aspects of the meaning contained in tense aphorisms and knows how and where to apply them. He is one who has precise knowledge of ayu i.e. the amalgamation of body, soul, mind and senses which also determines the lifespan of an individual. He is also well acquainted with all aspects of life.

Four factors, viz. the physician, the drug, the attendant and the patient should possess some specific in order to be effective for the cure a disease. Of them, the physician desirous of bringing about the state of equilibrium of Dhatus should, first of all examine himself with a view to ascertain if he is really competent or otherwise to handle the patient (fit himself into examining the patients).

A physician possessed with the below mentioned qualities is capable of bringing about the equilibrium of the body components (and in the process establish health in the patient) –

Complete and comprehensive knowledge of medical texts

Practical experience

Skill

Purity

Infallibility of prescriptions

Possession of normal sense faculties and all the requisite equipments

Knowledge of the various natural manifestations and

Presence of mind [85-86]

Examination of drug:

करणंपुनर्भेषजम्|
भेषजंनामतद्यदुपकरणायोपकल्पतेभिषजोधातुसाम्याभिनिर्वृत्तौप्रयतमानस्यविशेषतश्चोपायान्तेभ्यः|
तद्द्विविधंव्यपाश्रयभेदात्-दैवव्यपाश्रयं, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयंचेति|

karaṇaṃ punarbheṣajam|

bheṣajaṃ nāma tadyadupakaraṇāyopakalpate bhiṣajo dhātu sāmyābhinirvṛttau prayatamānasya viśeṣataścopāyāntebhyaḥ|

taddvividhaṃ vyapāśrayabhedāt- daiva vyapāśrayaṃ, yuktivyapāśrayaṃ ceti|


Medicaments constitute the instruments for achieving the object / action i.e the cure of the disease. Medicaments are those which are employed by physicians with an intention of bringing the equilibrium / balance of the dhatus i.e. body components. They are used by the subject as instruments and include factors other than Karyayoni (source of action), Pravritti (Initiation), Desha (Habitat), Kala (time) and Upaya (means of action).

Depending upon their nature, they are of two types, viz,
Spiritual and
Rational.

तत्रदैवव्यपाश्रयं-मन्त्रौषधिमणिमङ्गलबल्युपहारहोमनियमप्रायश्चित्तोपवासस्वस्त्ययनप्रणिपातगमनादि, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयं-संशोधनोपशमनेचेष्टाश्चदृष्टफलाः|
एतच्चैवभेषजमङ्गभेदादपिद्विविधं-द्रव्यभूतमः, अद्रव्यभूतंच|
तत्रयदद्रव्यभूतंतदुपायाभिप्लुतम्|

tatra daivavyapāśrayaṃ- mantrauṣadhi maṇi maṅgala balyupahārahoma niyama prāyaścittopavāsasvastyayanapraṇipātagamanādi, yuktivyapāśrayaṃ- saṃśodhanopaśamane ceṣṭāśca dṛṣṭaphalāḥ|

etaccaiva bheṣajamaṅgabhedādapi dvividhaṃ- dravyabhūtamaḥ, adravyabhūtaṃ ca|

tatra yadadravyabhūtaṃ tadupāyābhiplutam|

Spiritual therapy comprises of the below mentioned measures –

  • Incantation / enchanting holy hymns
  • Talisman / wearing medicinal herbs (roots, twigs etc) around neck, arm, wrist etc
  • Wearing precious gems / jewels
  • Auspicious rites
  • Religious sacrifices
  • Oblations
  • Religious rites
  • Vow
  • Atonement
  • Fasting
  • Chanting of auspicious hymns
  • Paying obeisance
  • Pilgrimage etc.
  • Elimination as well as alleviation therapies and such other regimens

The effects of these can be directly perceived since they belong to the category of rational therapy.

उपायोनामभयदर्शनविस्मापनविस्मारणक्षोभणहर्षणभर्त्सनवधबन्धस्वप्नसंवाहनादिरमूर्तोभावविशेषोयथोक्ताःसिद्ध्युपायाश्चोपायाभिप्लुताइति|
यत्तुद्रव्यभूतंतद्वमनादिषुयोगमुपैति|
तस्यापीयंपरीक्षा-इदमेवम्प्रकृत्यैवङ्गुणमेवम्प्रभावमस्मिन्देशेजातमस्मिन्नृतावेवंगृहीतमेवंनिहितमेवमुपस्कृतमनयाचमात्रयायुक्तमस्मिन्व्याधावेवंविधस्यपुरुषस्यैवतावन्तंदोषमपकर्षत्युपशमयतिवा, यदन्यदपिचैवंविधंभेषजंभवेत्तच्चानेनविशेषेणयुक्तमिति||८७||

upāyo nāma bhaya darśana vismāpana vismāraṇa kṣobhaṇa harṣaṇabhartsanavadhabandhasvapnasaṃvāhanādiramūrto bhāvaviśeṣo yathoktāḥ siddhyupāyāścopāyābhiplutā iti|

yattu dravyabhūtaṃ tadvamanādiṣu yogamupaiti|

tasyāpīyaṃ parīkṣā- idamevamprakṛtyaivaṅguṇamevamprabhāvamasmin deśe jātamasminnṛtāvevaṃ gṛhītamevaṃ nihitamevamupaskṛtamanayā ca mātrayā yuktamasmin vyādhāvevaṃvidhasya puruṣasyaivatāvantaṃ doṣamapakarṣatyupaśamayati vā, yadanyadapi caivaṃvidhaṃ bheṣajaṃ bhavettaccānena viśeṣeṇa yuktamiti||87||

Depending upon the nature of their composition, they also are of two types, viz.

  • Dravyabhuta – those having material substrata and
  • Adravyabhuta – those without having any material substrata

The later category of therapy has indirect action on the disease. It is not an inseparable con-commitant cause for the cure of diseases.

Below mentioned are the methods employed in the therapies not involving any material susbtrata –

  • Terrifying
  • Surprising
  • De-memorizing – trying to make the person forget things which he keeps thinking often and worrying about
  • Shocking
  • Exciting
  • Shouting or abusing
  • Act as if to hit or harm
  • Tying the person with a rope
  • Inducing sleep
  • Giving massage etc

Therapies having material base are used for emesis etc therapies. These are examined with reference to their characteristics as follows:

  • Nature
  • Qualities
  • Specific actions
  • Place of growth
  • Season of collection mode of collection
  • Method of preservation
  • Method of processing
  • Dosage in which employed
  • Quantum of Doshas eliminated or alleviated following their administration to various types of patients suffering from particular types of diseases.

Other drugs having similar characteristics may also be used. [87]

Examination of disease

कार्ययोनिर्धातुवैषम्यं, तस्यलक्षणंविकारागमः|
परीक्षात्वस्यविकारप्रकृतेश्चैवोनातिरिक्तलिङ्गविशेषावेक्षणंविकारस्यचसाध्यासाध्यमृदुदारुणलिङ्गविशेषावेक्षणमिति||८८||

kāryayonirdhātuvaiṣamyaṃ, tasya lakṣaṇaṃ vikārāgamaḥ|

parīkṣā tvasya vikāra prakṛteścaivonātiriktaliṅgaviśeṣāvekṣaṇaṃ vikārasya ca sādhyāsādhya mṛdu dāruṇa liṅga viśeṣāvekṣaṇamiti||88||

The disturbance of the equilibrium of Dhatus i.e. body components is the source of action. The disturbance of the equilibrium of Dhatus is invariably indicated by the onset of the disease. This state of ill-health can be ascertained from the appearance of specific symptoms in smaller or greater degress as caused by the doshas responsible for the causation of the disease and also from the specific characteristics of the disease e.g curability, incurability, mildness, seriousness etc. [88]

Ascertaining if the disease is cured

कार्यंधातुसाम्यं, तस्यलक्षणंविकारोपशमः|
परीक्षात्वस्य-रुगुपशमनं, स्वरवर्णयोगः, शरीरोपचयः, बलवृद्धिः, अभ्यवहार्याभिलाषः, रुचिराहारकाले, अभ्यवहृतस्यचाहारस्यकालेसम्यग्जरणं, निद्रालाभोयथाकालं, वैकारिणांचस्वप्नानामदर्शनं, सुखेनचप्रतिबोधनं, वातमूत्रपुरीषरेतसांमुक्तिः, सर्वाकारैर्मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियाणांचाव्यापत्तिरिति||८९||

kāryaṃ dhātusāmyaṃ, tasya lakṣaṇaṃ vikāropaśamaḥ|

parīkṣā tvasya- rugupaśamanaṃ, svaravarṇayogaḥ, śarīropacayaḥ, bala vṛddhiḥ, abhyavahāryābhilāṣaḥ, rucirāhārakāle, abhyavahṛtasya cāhārasya kāle samyagjaraṇaṃ, nidrālābho yathākālaṃ, vaikāriṇāṃ ca svapnānāmadarśanaṃ, sukhena ca pratibodhanaṃ, vātamūtrapurīṣaretasāṃ muktiḥ, sarvākārairmanobuddhīndriyāṇāṃ cāvyāpattiriti||89||

Equilibrium of Dhatus represents the “action itself”. It is invariably associated with the alleviation or absence of the disease. This state of health can be ascertained from the following:

  • Alleviation of pain
  • Appearance of normal voice and complexion
  • Nourishment of the body
  • Increase in strength
  • Desire for taking food
  • Appetite for food during meal-time
  • Proper digestion of the food taken during meal-time
  • Getting sleep at the appropriate time
  • Absence of dreams indicating morbidity
  • Happy awakening
  • Proper elimination of fart, urine, stool and semen, and
  • Unimpairement of mind, intellect and senses and association of all healthy symptoms there with [89]

Signs of normalcy

कार्यफलंसुखावाप्तिः, तस्यलक्षणं-मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियशरीरतुष्टिः||९०||
kāryaphalaṃ sukhāvāptiḥ, tasya lakṣaṇaṃ- mano buddhīndriya śarīra tuṣṭiḥ||90||

Attainment of spiritual happiness is the result of therapeutic action. It is characterised by the pleasure or satisfaction of the mind, intellect, senses and the body. [90]

 Signs of Ayus:
अनुबन्धस्तुखल्वायुः, तस्यलक्षणं-प्राणैःसहसंयोगः||९१||
anubandhastu khalvāyuḥ, tasya lakṣaṇaṃ- prāṇaiḥ saha saṃyogaḥ||91||

Anubandha or subsequent manifestation is the maintenance of life (longivity). It is characterized by its union with prana type of Vayu. [91]

 Desha Pareeksha Examination of the land

देशस्तुभूमिरातुरश्च||९२||
तत्रभूमिपरीक्षाआतुरपरिज्ञानहेतोर्वास्यादौषधपरिज्ञानहेतोर्वा|
तत्रतावदियमातुरपरिज्ञानहेतोः|
तद्यथा-अयंकस्मिन्भूमिदेशेजातःसंवृद्धोव्याधितोवा; तस्मिंश्चभूमिदेशेमनुष्याणामिदमाहारजातम्, इदंविहारजातम्, इदमाचारजातम्, एतावच्चबलम्, एवंविधंसत्त्वम्, एवंविधंसात्म्यम्, एवंविधोदोषः, भक्तिरियम्, इमेव्याधयः, हितमिदम्, अहितमिदमितिप्रायोग्रहणेन |
औषधपरिज्ञानहेतोस्तुकल्पेषुभूमिपरीक्षावक्ष्यते||९३||

deśastu bhūmirāturaśca||92||

tatra bhūmiparīkṣā ātura parijñāna hetorvā syādauṣadhaparijñānahetorvā|

tatra tāvadiyamāturaparijñānahetoḥ|

tadyathā- ayaṃ kasmin bhūmideśe jātaḥ saṃvṛddho vyādhito vā; tasmiṃśca bhūmideśe manuṣyāṇāmidamāhārajātam, idaṃ vihārajātam, idamācārajātam, etāvacca balam, evaṃvidhaṃ sattvam, evaṃvidhaṃ sātmyam, evaṃvidho doṣaḥ, bhaktiriyam, ime vyādhayaḥ, hitamidam, ahitamidamiti prāyograhaṇena |

auṣadhaparijñānahetostu kalpeṣu bhūmiparīkṣā vakṣyate||93||

Both ‘the land’ as well as ‘the patient (body of the patient)’ constitutes Desha or habitat. Nature of the land is examined with a view of ascertaining the specific features of individual patients as well as the medical plants in different localities. The following points are to be examined with reference to the patient:

Place of birth, growth and affliction with the disease

Specific features concerning food, exercise, customs, strength, mental condition, homologation by habit, dominance of one or the other of the Doshas liking, manifestation of diseases and things which are useful and harmful.

Above information is generally obtained by the examination of the land.

The characteristic features of different types of land leading to the determinination of specific features of medical plants will be described in Kalpa 1:8 [92-93]

Rogi Pariksha Examination of Patient

आतुरस्तुखलुकार्यदेशः|
तस्यपरीक्षाआयुषःप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोर्वास्याद्, बलदोषप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोर्वा|
तत्रतावदियंबलदोषप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोः; दोषप्रमाणानुरूपोहिभेषजप्रमाणविकल्पोबलप्रमाणविशेषापेक्षोभवति|

āturastu khalu kāryadeśaḥ|

tasya parīkṣā āyuṣaḥ pramāṇa jñāna hetorvā syād, bala doṣa pramāṇa jñāna hetorvā|

tatra tāvadiyaṃ bala doṣa pramāṇa jñāna hetoḥ; doṣa pramāṇānurūpo hi bheṣaja pramāṇa vikalpo bala pramāṇa viśeṣāpekṣo bhavati|

A patient constitutes the Karya Desha or the site for the administration of therapies. The therapies are administered with an intention of bringing about balance / equilibrium of the body components (dhatus). He is examined so as to obtain knowledge relating to the strength of the individual and the intensity of morbidity, because, it is on the basis of the intensity of morbidity that the dosage of the therapy is determined and the latter is dependant upon the strength or the power of resistance of the individual.

सहसाह्यतिबलमौषधमपरीक्षकप्रयुक्तमल्पबलमातुरमतिपातयेत्; नह्यतिबलान्याग्नेयवायवीयान्यौषधान्यग्निक्षारशस्त्रकर्माणिवाशक्यन्तेऽल्पबलैःसोढुम्; असह्यातितीक्ष्णवेगत्वाद्धितानिसद्यःप्राणहराणिस्युः|
एतच्चैवकारणमपेक्षमाणाहीनबलमातुरमविषादकरैर्मृदुसुकुमारप्रायैरुत्तरोत्तरगुरुभिरविभ्रमैरनात्ययिकैश्चोपचरन्त्यौषधैः; विशेषतश्चनारीः, ताह्यनवस्थितमृदुविवृतविक्लवहृदयाःप्रायःसुकुमार्योऽबलाःपरसंस्तभ्याश्च|

sahasā hyatibalamauṣadhamaparīkṣakaprayuktamalpabalamāturamatipātayet; na hyatibalānyāgneyavāyavīyānyauṣadhānyagni kṣāra śastra karmāṇi vā śakyante’lpabalaiḥ soḍhum; asahyāti tīkṣṇa vegatvāddhitāni sadyaḥprāṇaharāṇi syuḥ|

etaccaiva kāraṇamapekṣamāṇā hīna balamāturamaviṣādakarairmṛdu sukumāra prāyairuttarottara gurubhiravibhramairanātyayikaiścopacarantyauṣadhaiḥ; viśeṣataśca nārīḥ, tā hyanavasthita mṛdu vivṛta viklavahṛdayāḥ prāyaḥ sukumāryo’balāḥ parasaṃstabhyāśca|

If strong medicines are immediately administered to a weaker patient without proper examination it might result in his death. Weak patients are incapable of tolerating strong therapies like medicaments dominating in Agni and Vayu Mahabhutas i.e. fire and air elements, application of alkalies and heat (cauterization) and surgical operations. These therapies cause immediate death of the patient because of their very sharp action and are too strong for the individual. Thus a weak patient is given such mild and tender therapies which do not injure the body and mind of the patient.

 
तथाबलवतिबलवद्व्याधिपरिगतेस्वल्पबलमौषधमपरीक्षकप्रयुक्तमसाधकमेवभवति|
तस्मादातुरंपरीक्षेतप्रकृतितश्च, विकृतितश्च, सारतश्च, संहननतश्च, प्रमाणतश्च, सात्म्यतश्च, सत्त्वतश्च, आहारशक्तितश्च, व्यायामशक्तितश्च, वयस्तश्चेति, बलप्रमाणविशेषग्रहणहेतोः||९४||

tathā balavati balavadvyādhiparigate svalpabalamauṣadhamaparīkṣakaprayuktamasādhakameva bhavati|

tasmādāturaṃ parīkṣeta prakṛtitaśca, vikṛtitaśca, sārataśca, saṃhananataśca, pramāṇataśca, sātmyataśca, sattvataśca, āhāraśaktitaśca, vyāyāmaśaktitaśca, vayastaśceti, bala pramāṇa viśeṣa grahaṇa hetoḥ||94||


Stronger therapies of the below mentioned nature shall be introduced and administer gradually and slowly –

  • those which are not injurious to the body and the mind
  • those which are not distressing during their digestion (while being processed)
  • those not associated with serious complications

Such therapies are specially needed for ladies. This is because they are unsteady, light (not deep) and of sensitive or weak temperament by nature and also because they are mostly subordinate to others. Similarly, if weak therapies are administered to a strong individual having a serious disease without proper examination, the disease does not get cured.

Therefore, the patient is examined with reference to the below mentioned entities in order to ascertain the strength of the patient and extent and intensity of the disease –

  • Prakrti (Physical constitution)
  • Vikrti (Morbidity)
  • Sara (excellence of Dhatus, or tissue elements)
  • Samhanana (compactness of organs)
  • Pramana (measurement of the organs of the body)
  • Satmya (Homologation)
  • Sattva (psychic conditions)
  • Aharasakti (power of intake and digestion of food)
  • Vyayamashakti (power of performing exercise) and
  • Vayas (age) [94]

Prakriti

तत्रप्रकृत्यादीन् |
तद्यथा-शुक्रशोणितप्रकृतिं, कालगर्भाशयप्रकृतिं, आतुराहारविहारप्रकृतिं, महाभूतविकारप्रकृतिंचगर्भशरीरमपेक्षते|
एतानिहियेनयेनदोषेणाधिकेनैकेनानेकेनवासमनुबध्यन्ते, तेनतेनदोषेणगर्भोऽनुबध्यते; ततःसासादोषप्रकृतिरुच्यतेमनुष्याणांगर्भादिप्रवृत्ता|
तस्माच्छ्लेष्मलाःप्रकृत्याकेचित्, पित्तलाःकेचित्, वातलाःकेचित्, संसृष्टाःकेचित्, समधातवःकेचिद्भवन्ति|
तेषांहिलक्षणानिव्याख्यास्यामः||९५||

tatra prakṛtyādīn |

tadyathā- śukraśoṇitaprakṛtiṃ, kālagarbhāśayaprakṛtiṃ, āturāhāravihāraprakṛtiṃ, mahābhūta vikāra prakṛtiṃ ca garbhaśarīramapekṣate|

etāni hi yena yena doṣeṇādhikenaikenānekena vā samanubadhyante, tena tena doṣeṇa garbho’nubadhyate; tataḥ sā sā doṣaprakṛtirucyate manuṣyāṇāṃ garbhādipravṛttā|

tasmācchleṣmalāḥ prakṛtyā kecit, pittalāḥ kecit, vātalāḥ kecit, saṃsṛṣṭāḥ kecit, samadhātavaḥ kecidbhavanti|

teṣāṃ hi lakṣaṇāni vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||95||

Now we shall explain the characteristic feature of Prakrti (physical constitution etc).

Prakrti – the physical constitution of the fetus is determined by the following factors:-

  • Sperms and ovum
  • Season and condition of the uterus
  • Food and regimens of the mother and
  • Nature of the Mahabhutas i.e. elements of nature from which the fetus is formed

The fetus gets afflicted and embraced with one or more of the Doshas which are dominantly associated with the above mentioned factors. The physical constitution of an individual is determined by these factors when they initially unite in the form of fetus. Therefore, the physical constitution of some people is dominated by Kapha (Sleshmala), of some others by Pitta (Pittala) and of others by Vata (vatala) and of some others by the combination of two Doshas (Samsrsata). In some other cases, however, the equilibrium of Doshas (Sama prakrti) is well maintained. We shall now expound their characteristic features one after the other. [95]

Characteristics of Kapha Prakriti

श्लेष्माहिस्निग्धश्लक्ष्णमृदुमधुरसारसान्द्रमन्दस्तिमितगुरुशीतविज्जलाच्छः|
तस्यस्नेहाच्छ्लेष्मलाःस्निग्धाङ्गाः, श्लक्ष्णत्वाच्छ्लक्ष्णाङ्गाः, मृदुत्वाद्दृष्टिसुखसुकुमारावदातगात्राः, माधुर्यात्प्रभूतशुक्रव्यवायापत्याः, सारत्वात्सारसंहतस्थिरशरीराः, सान्द्रत्वादुपचितपरिपूर्णसर्वाङ्गाः, मन्दत्वान्मन्दचेष्टाहारव्याहाराः, स्तैमित्यादशीघ्रारम्भक्षोभविकाराः, गुरुत्वात्साराधिष्ठितावस्थितगतयः, शैत्यादल्पक्षुत्तृष्णासन्तापस्वेददोषाः, विज्जलत्वात्सुश्लिष्टसारसन्धिबन्धनाः, तथाऽच्छत्वात्प्रसन्नदर्शनाननाःप्रसन्नस्निग्धवर्णस्वराश्चभवन्ति|
तएवङ्गुणयोगाच्छ्लेष्मलाबलवन्तोवसुमन्तोविद्यावन्तओजस्विनःशान्ताआयुष्मन्तश्चभवन्ति||९६||

śleṣmā hi snigdha ślakṣṇa mṛdu madhura sāra sāndra manda stimita guru śīta vijjalācchaḥ|

tasya snehācchleṣmalāḥ snigdhāṅgāḥ, ślakṣṇatvācchlakṣṇāṅgāḥ, mṛdutvāddṛṣṭi sukha sukumārāvadātagātrāḥ, mādhuryāt prabhūta śukra vyavāyāpatyāḥ, sāratvāt sāra saṃhata sthira śarīrāḥ, sāndratvādupacitaparipūrṇasarvāṅgāḥ, mandatvānmanda ceṣṭāhāravyāhārāḥ, staimityāda śīghrārambhakṣobha vikārāḥ, gurutvāt sārādhiṣṭhitāvasthitagatayaḥ, śaityādalpakṣuttṛṣṇāsantāpasvedadoṣāḥ, vijjalatvāt suśliṣṭasārasandhibandhanāḥ, tathā’cchatvāt prasannadarśanānanāḥ prasannasnigdhavarṇasvarāśca bhavanti|

ta evaṅguṇayogācchleṣmalā balavanto vasumanto vidyāvanta ojasvinaḥ śāntā āyuṣmantaśca bhavanti||96||


Kapha is unctuous, smooth, soft, sweet, firm, dense, slow, stable, heavy, cold, viscous and clear.

The various manifestations in the human body having Sleshmala type of constitution are given below:

Sl NoAttributes of Sleshma       Specific manifestations in the body of the individual having sleshmala type of constitution.
1UnctuousUnctuousness of organs
2SmoothSmoothness of organs
3SoftPleasing appearance tenderness clarity of complexion
4SweetIncrease in the quantity of semendesire and interest towards for sex and number of children
5FirmFirmness, compactness and stability of the body
6DensePlumpness and roundness of all organs
7SlowSlow in action, intake of food and movement
8StableSlowness in – initiating actionsgetting irritated and morbid manifestations
9.HeavyNon-slippery and stable gait with the entire sole of the feet pressing against the earth
10ColdLack of intensity in hunger, thirst, heat and perspiration
11ViscousFirmness and compactness in joints
12ClearHappiness in the look and face; happiness and softness of complexion and voice

Characteristics of Pitta Prakriti

पित्तमुष्णंतीक्ष्णंद्रवंविस्रमम्लंकटुकञ्च|
तस्यौष्ण्यात्पित्तलाभवन्त्युष्णासहा, उष्णमुखाः, सुकुमारावदातगात्राः , प्रभूतविप्लुव्यङ्गतिलपिडकाः, क्षुत्पिपासावन्तः, क्षिप्रवलीपलितखालित्यदोषाः, प्रायोमृद्वल्पकपिलश्मश्रुलोमकेशाश्च; तैक्ष्ण्यात्तीक्ष्णपराक्रमाः, तीक्ष्णाग्नयः, प्रभूताशनपानाः, क्लेशासहिष्णवो, दन्दशूकाः; द्रवत्वाच्छिथिलमृदुसन्धिमांसाः, प्रभूतसृष्टस्वेदमूत्रपुरीषाश्च; विस्रत्वात्प्रभूतपूतिकक्षास्यशिरःशरीरगन्धाः; कट्वम्लत्वादल्पशुक्रव्यवायापत्याः; तएवङ्गुणयोगात्पित्तलामध्यबलामध्यायुषोमध्यज्ञानविज्ञानवित्तोपकरणवन्तश्चभवन्ति||९७||

pittamuṣṇaṃ tīkṣṇaṃ dravaṃ visramamlaṃ kaṭukañca|

tasyauṣṇyāt pittalā bhavantyuṣṇāsahā, uṣṇamukhāḥ, sukumārāvadātagātrāḥ , prabhūta vipluvyaṅga tila piḍakāḥ, kṣutpipāsāvantaḥ, kṣipra valī palita khālitya doṣāḥ, prāyomṛdvalpaka pila śmaśru loma keśāśca; taikṣṇyāttīkṣṇaparākramāḥ, tīkṣṇāgnayaḥ, prabhūtāśanapānāḥ, kleśāsahiṣṇavo, dandaśūkāḥ; dravatvācchithilamṛdu sandhi māṃsāḥ, prabhūta sṛṣṭa sveda mūtra purīṣāśca; visratvāt prabhūta pūtikakṣāsyaśiraḥśarīragandhāḥ; kaṭvamlatvādalpaśukravyavāyāpatyāḥ; ta evaṅguṇayogāt pittalā madhyabalā madhyāyuṣo madhyajñānavijñānavittopakaraṇavantaśca bhavanti||97||

Pitta is hot, sharp, liquid, of fleshy smell, sour and Pungnet. Various manifestations due to these attributes in the human body having pittala type of constitution are as in the table given below:

 Attributes of PittaSpecific manifestations in the body o fthe individual having pittala type of constitution
1HotIntolerance for hot things, having hot face tender and clear body small eruptions on the body freckles and blackmoles on the face excessive hunger and thirst quick advent of  wrinkles, graying of hair and  baldness; the hairs of the moustache, beard and scalp are smooth and gray colored
2SharpSharp (demonstration of) physical strength strong digestive power intake of food and drink in large quantity inability to face difficult situations and glutton habits
3LiquidLooseness and softness of joints and muscles voiding of  sweet, urine and feces in large quantity
4Fleshy smellPutrid smell of axilla, mouth, head and body in excess
5Pungent and sour tastesInsufficiency of semen, sexual desire and procreation.

By virtue of the above mentioned qualities, a man having, Pittala type of constitution is endowed with moderate strength, moderate life, moderate spiritual and materialistic knowledge, wealth and the accessories of life. [97]

 Characteristics of Vata Prakruti

वातस्तुरूक्षलघुचलबहुशीघ्रशीतपरुषविशदः|
तस्यरौक्ष्याद्वातलारूक्षापचिताल्पशरीराःप्रततरूक्षक्षामसन्नसक्तजर्जरस्वराजागरूकाश्चभवन्ति, लघुत्वाल्लघुचपलगतिचेष्टाहारव्याहाराः, चलत्वादनवस्थितसन्ध्यक्षिभ्रूहन्वोष्ठजिह्वाशिरःस्कन्धपाणिपादाः, बहुत्वाद्बहुप्रलापकण्डरासिराप्रतानाः, शीघ्रत्वाच्छ्रीघ्रसमारम्भक्षोभविकाराःशीघ्रत्रासरागविरागाःश्रुतग्राहिणोऽल्पस्मृतयश्च, शैत्याच्छीतासहिष्णवःप्रततशीतकोद्वेपकस्तम्भाः, पारुष्यात्परुषकेशश्मश्रुरोमनखदशनवदनपाणिपादाः, वैशद्यात्स्फुटिताङ्गावयवाःसततसन्धिशब्दगामिनश्चभवन्ति; तएवङ्गुणयोगाद्वातलाःप्रायेणाल्पबलाश्चाल्पायुषश्चाल्पापत्याश्चाल्पसाधनाश्चाल्पधनाश्चभवन्ति||९८||
संसर्गात्संसृष्टलक्षणाः||९९||

vātastu rūkṣa laghu cala bahu śīghra śīta paruṣa viśadaḥ|

tasya raukṣyādvātalā rūkṣāpacitālpaśarīrāḥ pratata rūkṣa kṣāmasannasaktajarjarasvarā jāgarūkāśca bhavanti, laghutvāllaghu capala gati ceṣṭāhāra vyāhārāḥ, calatvādanavasthita sandhyakṣibhrūhanvoṣṭha jihvā śiraḥskandha pāṇi pādāḥ, bahutvādbahu pralāpa kaṇḍarāsirā pratānāḥ, śīghratvācchrīghrasamārambhakṣobhavikārāḥ śīghra trāsa rāga virāgāḥ śruta grāhiṇo’lpasmṛtayaśca, śaityācchītāsahiṣṇavaḥ pratata śītakodvepaka stambhāḥ, pāruṣyāt paruṣa keśa śmaśru roma nakha daśana vadana pāṇi pādāḥ, vaiśadyāt sphuṭitāṅgāvayavāḥ satata sandhi śabda gāminaśca bhavanti; ta evaṅguṇayogādvātalāḥ prāyeṇālpabalāścālpāyuṣaścālpāpatyāścālpasādhanāścālpadhanāśca bhavanti||98||

saṃsargāt saṃsṛṣṭalakṣaṇāḥ||99||


Vata is ununctuous, light, mobile, and abundant in quantity, swift, cold, rough and non-slime. The various manifestations due to these attributes of Vata in human body having Vatala type of constitution are given in the table below:

 Attributes of VataSpecific manifestations in the body of the individual having Vatala type of Constitution
1Un-unctousUn-unctuousness emaciation and dwarfness of the body long drawn, dry, low, broken, obstructed and hoarse voice always keeping awake
2LightLight and inconsistent gait, action, food and movement
3MobileUnstable joints, eyes, eye brows, jaw, lips, tongue, head, shoulder, hands and legs
4Abundance Talkativeness, abundance in tendons and veins
5SwiftQuick  in initiating actions, getting irritated and the onset of morbid manifestationaffliction with fearlikes and dislikesunderstanding and forgetting things
6ColdIntolerance for cold things often getting afflicted with cold, shivering and stiffness
7RoughRoughness in the hair of the head, face and other parts of the body, nails  teeth, face, hands and feet
8Non-slimeCracking of the limbs and organs, production of cracking sound in joints when they move

Because of the above mentioned qualities, individuals having Vatala type of constitution are mostly processed of strength, span of life, procreation, accessories of life and wealth in lesser quantity.

Individuals having constitution dominated by the combination of two Doshas are characterized of characteristics of the respective Doshas. [98-99]

सर्वगुणसमुदितास्तुसमधातवः|
इत्येवंप्रकृतितःपरीक्षेत||१००||

sarvaguṇasamuditāstu samadhātavaḥ|

ityevaṃ prakṛtitaḥ parīkṣeta||100||

 A Samadhatu type of individual who has all the Doshas in the state of equilibrium is endowed with the good qualities of all the three types of individuals described in verses 96-98. Thus an individual is examined for his constitution. [100]

Vikriti Pareeksha  Disease Examination Factors

विकृतितश्चेतिविकृतिरुच्यतेविकारः|
तत्रविकारंहेतु-दोष-दूष्य-प्रकृति-देश-काल-बलविशेषैर्लिङ्गतश्चपरीक्षेत, नह्यन्तरेणहेत्वादीनांबलविशेषंव्याधिबलविशेषोपलब्धिः|
यस्यहिव्याधेर्दोष-दूष्य-प्रकृति-देश-काल-बलसाम्यंभवति, महच्चहेतुलिङ्गबलं, सव्याधिर्बलवान्भवति; तद्विपर्ययाच्चाल्पबलः; मध्यबलस्तुदोषदूष्यादीनामन्यतमसामान्याद्धेतुलिङ्गमध्यबलत्वाच्चोपलभ्यते||१०१||

vikṛtitaśceti vikṛtirucyate vikāraḥ|

tatra vikāraṃ hetu-doṣa-dūṣya-prakṛti-deśa-kāla-bala viśeṣairliṅgataśca parīkṣeta, na hyantareṇa hetvādīnāṃ bala viśeṣaṃ vyādhi bala viśeṣopalabdhiḥ|

yasya hi vyādherdoṣa-dūṣya-prakṛti-deśa-kāla-balasāmyaṃ bhavati, mahacca hetu liṅga balaṃ, sa vyādhirbalavān bhavati; tadviparyayāccālpabalaḥ; madhyabalastu doṣadūṣyādīnāmanyatamasāmānyāddhetuliṅga madhya balatvāccopalabhyate||101||

 According top verse 94, a patient is to be examined for the Vikrti or morbid manifestations. These morbid manifestations are to be examined with reference to the below mentioned entities –

  • specific causative factors
  • Dosha and Dhatus involved in the pathogenesis
  • constitution of the individual
  • habitat
  • season
  • strength and also
  • the symptoms of the diseases

It is impossible to obtain the knowledge about the intensity of the disease without determining the strength of the causative factors etc.

The disease manifested will be acute if the below mentioned conditions exist –

  • if the afflicted Doshas and Dhatus, physical constitution of the patient, habit, season and strength of the individual resemble that of the  disease in quality and
  • the causative factors and symptoms are too strong and numerous

If the above conditions do not exist the disease will be mild.

On the other hand if either of the Doshas, Dhatus etc, resembles that of the disease in quality and the causative factors and symptoms of the disease are of moderate nature, the disease manifested will also be of moderate nature. [101]

Sara Pareeksha Examination of Sara


सारतश्चेतिसाराण्यष्टौपुरुषाणांबलमानविशेषज्ञानार्थमुपदिश्यन्ते; तद्यथा-त्वग्रक्तमांसमेदोऽस्थिमज्जशुक्रसत्त्वानीति||१०२||
sārataśceti sārāṇyaṣṭau puruṣāṇāṃ bala māna viśeṣa jñānārthamupadiśyante; tadyathā- tvagrakta māṃsa medo’sthi majja śukra sattvānīti||102||

According to verse 94, patients are to be examined with reference to Sara or the excellence of their Dhatus.

From the perspective of determining the specific measure of the strength the individuals are classified into 8 categories based upon the excellence of their tissues i.e.

  • Tvak sara – enriched with rasa dhatu tissue (literally means healthy skin)
  • Rakta sara – enriched blood tissue
  • Mamsa sara – enriched muscle tissue
  • Medo sara – enriched adipose tissue
  • Asthi sara – enriched bone tissue
  • Majja sara – enriched bone marrow tissue
  • Shukra sara – enriched semen tissue
  • Sattva sara – entiched mental faculties [102]

Tvak sara Rasa Sara Purusha

तत्रस्निग्धश्लक्ष्णमृदुप्रसन्नसूक्ष्माल्पगम्भीरसुकुमारलोमासप्रभेवचत्वक्त्वक्साराणाम्|
सासारतासुखसौभाग्यैश्वर्योपभोगबुद्धिविद्यारोग्यप्रहर्षणान्यायुष्यत्वंचाचष्टे||१०३||
tatra snigdha ślakṣṇa mṛdu prasanna sūkṣmālpa gambhīra sukumāra lomā saprabheva ca tvak tvaksārāṇām|
sā sāratā sukha saubhāgyaiśvaryopabhoga buddhi vidyārogya praharṣaṇānyāyuṣyatvaṃ cācaṣṭe||103||

Individuals having the excellence of skin are characterized by skin having the below mentioned features –

  • unctuous
  • smooth
  • soft
  • clear
  • fine
  • lustrous

They also have less numerous, deep rotted and tender hair

Such individuals are endowed with happiness, good fortunes, power, enjoyment, intellect knowledge, health, excitement and longevity [103]

Rakta Sara Purusha Lakshana

कर्णाक्षिमुखजिह्वानासौष्ठपाणिपादतलनखललाटमेहनंस्निग्धरक्तवर्णंश्रीमद्भ्राजिष्णुरक्तसाराणाम्|
सासारतासुखमुद्धतांमेधांमनस्वित्वंसौकुमार्यमनतिबलमक्लेशसहिष्णुत्वमुष्णासहिष्णुत्वंचाचष्टे||१०४||
karṇākṣi mukha jihvā nāsauṣṭha pāṇipāda tala nakha lalāṭa mehanaṃ snigdha rakta varṇaṃ śrīmadbhrājiṣṇu rakta sārāṇām|

sā sāratā sukhamuddhatāṃ medhāṃ manasvitvaṃ saukumāryamanatibalamakleśa sahiṣṇutvamuṣṇāsahiṣṇutvaṃ cācaṣṭe||104||

Individuals having the excellence of Rakta or blood are characterized by –

  • unctuousness
  • red color
  • beautiful dazzling appearance of the ears, eyes, face,  tongue, nose, lips, sole of the hands and feet, nails, forehead and genital organs

Such individuals are endowed with happiness, great genius, enthusiasm, tenderness, moderate strength and inability to face difficulties their body remains hot. [104]


Mamsa Sara

शङ्खललाटकृकाटिकाक्षिगण्डहनुग्रीवास्कन्धोदरकक्षवक्षःपाणिपादसन्धयःस्थिरगुरुशुभमांसोपचितामांससाराणाम्|
सासारताक्षमांधृतिमलौल्यंवित्तंविद्यांसुखमार्जवमारोग्यंबलमायुश्चदीर्घमाचष्टे||१०५||
śaṅkha lalāṭa kṛkāṭikākṣigaṇḍa hanu grīvāskandhodara kakṣa vakṣaḥpāṇipāda sandhayaḥ sthira guru śubha māṃsopacitā māṃsasārāṇām|
sā sāratā kṣamāṃ dhṛtimalaulyaṃ vittaṃ vidyāṃ sukhamārjavamārogyaṃ balamāyuśca dīrghamācaṣṭe||105||
Individual having the excellence of the Mamsa or muscle tissue are characterized by

  • stability
  • heaviness
  • beautiful appearance and plumpness of temples, forehead, nape, eyes, cheeks, jaws, neck, shoulder, abdomen, maxillae, chest and
  • joints of upper and lower limbs being covered with flesh

Such individuals are endowed with nature of forgiveness, patience, non-greediness, wealth, knowledge, happiness, simplicity, health, strength and longevity. [105]


Meda Sara

वर्णस्वरनेत्रकेशलोमनखदन्तौष्ठमूत्रपुरीषेषुविशेषतःस्नेहोमेदःसाराणाम्|
सासारतावित्तैश्वर्यसुखोपभोगप्रदानान्यार्जवंसुकुमारोपचारतांचाचष्टे||१०६||
varṇa svara netra keśa loma nakha dantauṣṭha mūtra purīṣeṣu viśeṣataḥ sneho medaḥsārāṇām|
sā sāratā vittaiśvaryasukhopabhogapradānānyārjavaṃ sukumāropacāratāṃ cā caṣṭe||106||
Individuals having the excellence of Medas or adipose tissue are characterized bythe abundance of unctuousness in completion, voice, eyes, hair of the head and other parts of the body, nail, teeth, lips, urine and feces.

Such individuals are endowed with health, power, happiness, enjoyment, charity, simplicity and delicate habits. [106]

Asthi Sara

पार्ष्णिगुल्फजान्वरत्निजत्रुचिबुकशिरःपर्वस्थूलाःस्थूलास्थिनखदन्ताश्चास्थिसाराः|
तेमहोत्साहाःक्रियावन्तःक्लेशसहाःसारस्थिरशरीराभवन्त्यायुष्मन्तश्च||१०७||
pārṣṇi gulpha jānvaratni jatru cibuka śiraḥparvasthūlāḥ sthūlāsthi nakha dantāścāsthisārāḥ|
te mahotsāhāḥ kriyāvantaḥ kleśa sahāḥ sārasthira śarīrā bhavantyāyuṣmantaśca||107||

Individuals having the excellence of Asthi or bone tissue are characterized by robust heels, ankles, keeps, fore-arms, collar-bones, chin, head, joints, bones, nails and teeth.

Such individuals are very enthusiastic and active, and are endowed with strong and firm bodies as well as longevity. [107]

Majja Sara

मृद्वङ्गाबलवन्तःस्निग्धवर्णस्वराःस्थूलदीर्घवृत्तसन्धयश्चमज्जसाराः|
तेदीर्घायुषोबलवन्तःश्रुतवित्तविज्ञानापत्यसम्मानभाजश्चभवन्ति||१०८||
mṛdvaṅgā balavantaḥ snigdha varṇa svarāḥ sthūla dīrgha vṛttasandhayaśca majjasārāḥ|
te dīrghāyuṣo balavantaḥ śruta vitta vijñānāpatyasammānabhājaśca bhavanti||108||

Individuals having the excellence of Majja or bone marrow are characterized by –

  • softness of organs
  • strength
  • unctuousness
  • complexion and voice and
  • robust long and rounded joints

Such individuals are endowed with longevity, strength, learning, wealth, knowledge, progeny and honor. [108]


Shukra Sara

सौम्याःसौम्यप्रेक्षिणःक्षीरपूर्णलोचनाइवप्रहर्षबहुलाःस्निग्धवृत्तसारसमसंहतशिखरदशनाःप्रसन्नस्निग्धवर्णस्वराभ्राजिष्णवोमहास्फिचश्चशुक्रसाराः|
तेस्त्रीप्रियोपभोगाबलवन्तःसुखैश्वर्यारोग्यवित्तसम्मानापत्यभाजश्चभवन्ति||१०९||
saumyāḥ saumyaprekṣiṇaḥ kṣīrapūrṇa locanā iva praharṣabahulāḥ snigdhavṛtta sāra samasaṃhata śikhara daśanāḥ prasanna snigdha varṇa svarā bhrājiṣṇavo mahāsphicaśca śukrasārāḥ|
te strīpriyopabhogā balavantaḥ sukhaiśvaryārogyavittasammānāpatyabhājaśca bhavanti||109||


Individuals having the excellence of Shukra dhatu or semen are characterized by –

  • gentleness
  • gentle look
  • wonderful and attractive eyes which appear as if filled with milk
  • cheerfulness
  • having teeth which are unctuous, round, strong, even and beautiful
  • clean and unctuous complexion and voice
  • dazzling appearance and large buttocks

Such individuals are loved by women; they are strong and endowed with happiness, power, health, wealth, honors and children. [109]


Sattva sara

स्मृतिमन्तोभक्तिमन्तःकृतज्ञाःप्राज्ञाःशुचयोमहोत्साहादक्षाधीराःसमरविक्रान्तयोधिनस्त्यक्तविषादाःसुव्यवस्थितगतिगम्भीरबुद्धिचेष्टाःकल्याणाभिनिवेशिनश्चसत्त्वसाराः|
तेषांस्वलक्षणैरेवगुणाव्याख्याताः||११०||
smṛtimanto bhaktimantaḥ kṛtajñāḥ prājñāḥ śucayo mahotsāhā dakṣā dhīrāḥ samara vikrāntayodhinastyaktaviṣādāḥ suvyavasthita gati gambhīra buddhi ceṣṭāḥ kalyāṇābhiniveśinaśca sattvasārāḥ|
teṣāṃ svalakṣaṇaireva guṇā vyākhyātāḥ||110||
Individuals having the excellence of mental faculties are characterized by

  • good memory
  • devotion
  • gratefulness
  • wisdom
  • purity
  • excessive enthusiasm
  • skill
  • courage
  • valour in fighting
  • absence and
  • virtuous acts

(These characteristic features represent the qualities of such individuals) [110]

Individuals having all sara


तत्रसर्वैःसारैरुपेताःपुरुषाभवन्त्यतिबलाःपरमसुखयुक्ताःक्लेशसहाःसर्वारम्भेष्वात्मनिजातप्रत्ययाःकल्याणाभिनिवेशिनःस्थिरसमाहितशरीराःसुसमाहितगतयःसानुनादस्निग्धगम्भीरमहास्वराःसुखैश्वर्यवित्तोपभोगसम्मानभाजोमन्दजरसोमन्दविकाराःप्रायस्तुल्यगुणविस्तीर्णापत्याश्चिरजीविनश्च||१११||
tatra sarvaiḥ sārairupetāḥ puruṣā bhavantyatibalāḥ parama sukha yuktāḥ kleśasahāḥ sarvārambheṣvātmani jātapratyayāḥ kalyāṇābhiniveśinaḥ sthira samāhita śarīrāḥ susamāhitagatayaḥ sānunāda snigdha gambhīra mahāsvarāḥ sukhaiśvarya vittopa bhoga sammānabhājo mandajaraso mandavikārāḥ prāyastulyaguṇavistīrṇāpatyāścirajīvinaśca||111||
Individuals having excellence of all the above mentioned Dhatus including mental faculties (as described in para Nos. 103-110) are endowed with the below mentioned characteristics –

  • great strength and happiness
  • resistance to difficulties
  • self-confidence in all enterprises
  • virtuous acts
  • firm and well built body
  • correct gait
  • resonant, melodies and high  pitched voice
  • happiness
  • power
  • wealth
  • enjoyments
  • honor
  • slowness of aging process
  • resistance for diseases
  • large number of children with similar qualities and longevity [111]

अतोविपरीतास्त्वसाराः||११२||
मध्यानांमध्यैःसारविशेषैर्गुणविशेषाव्याख्याताभवन्ति||११३||
ato viparītāstvasārāḥ||112||
madhyānāṃ madhyaiḥsāra viśeṣairguṇa viśeṣā vyākhyātā bhavanti||113||
Qualities opposite to what are described in paragraphs 103-111  are indicative of the absence of the excellence of respective Dhatus in the individual.
Individuals having excellence of these Dhatus of moderate nature are possessed of respective qualities in moderate intensity. [112-113]

इतिसाराण्यष्टौपुरुषाणांबलप्रमाणविशेषज्ञानार्थमुपदिष्टानिभवन्ति||११४||
iti sārāṇyaṣṭau puruṣāṇāṃ bala pramāṇa viśeṣa jñānārthamupadiṣṭāni bhavanti||114||
Thus the eight categories of individuals depending on the excellence of dhatus has been briefed which would help in accessing and analyzing the quantity of strength of all individuals. [114]

Need for examination of Sara

कथंनुशरीरमात्रदर्शनादेवभिषङ्मुह्येदयमुपचितत्वाद्बलवान्, अयमल्पबलःकृशत्वात्, महाबलोऽयंमहाशरीरत्वात्, अयमल्पशरीरत्वादल्पबलइति; दृश्यन्तेह्यल्पशरीराःकृशाश्चैकेबलवन्तः; तत्रपिपीलिकाभारहरणवत्सिद्धिः|
अतश्चसारतःपरीक्षेतेत्युक्तम् ||११५||

kathaṃ nu śarīramātradarśanādeva bhiṣaṅmuhyedayamupacitatvādbalavān, ayamalpabalaḥ kṛśatvāt, mahābalo’yaṃ mahāśarīratvāt, ayamalpaśarīratvādalpabala iti; dṛśyante hyalpaśarīrāḥ kṛśāścaike balavantaḥ; tatra pipīlikābhāraharaṇavat siddhiḥ|

ataśca sārataḥ parīkṣetetyuktam ||115||

We cannot consider an individual as strong or weak from the plum or emaciated body that he possesses. The strength or weakness can also not be decided on the basis of the person having large or small size of the body.

Some people having a small sized and emaciated body are seen to be strong. They are like ants that have a small body and look emaciated but can carry heavier loads. Thus one should examine the individual with reference to the excellence of his Dhatus.  [115]

Samhanana

संहननतश्चेतिसंहननं, संहतिः, संयोजनमित्येकोऽर्थः|
तत्रसमसुविभक्तास्थि, सुबद्धसन्धि, सुनिविष्टमांसशोणितं, सुसंहतंशरीरमित्युच्यते|
तत्रसुसंहतशरीराःपुरुषाबलवन्तः, विपर्ययेणाल्पबलाः, मध्यत्वात्संहननस्यमध्यबलाभवन्ति||११६||

saṃhananataśceti saṃhananaṃ, saṃhatiḥ, saṃyojanamityeko’rthaḥ|

tatra samasuvibhaktāsthi, subaddhasandhi, suniviṣṭamāṃsaśoṇitaṃ, susaṃhataṃ śarīramityucyate|

tatra susaṃhata śarīrāḥ puruṣā balavantaḥ, viparyayeṇālpabalāḥ, madhyatvāt saṃhananasya madhyabalā bhavanti||116||

According to verse – 94, a patient is to be examined with reference to his samhanana or compactness of the body. Samhanana, Samhati and Samyojana – these three terms are synonymous.

A compact body is characterized by the symmetrial and well divided bones, well-knit joints and well bound muscles and blood. An individual having a compact body is very strong; otherwise he is weak. When the body is moderately compact, the individual is considered to have moderate strength. [116]

Pramana

प्रमाणतश्चेतिशरीरप्रमाणंपुनर्यथास्वेनाङ्गुलिप्रमाणेनोपदेक्ष्यतेउत्सेधविस्तारायामैर्यथाक्रमम्|
तत्रपादौचत्वारिषट्चतुर्दशाङ्गुलानि, जङ्घेत्वष्टादशाङ्गुलेषोडशाङ्गुलपरिक्षेपेच, जानुनीचतुरङ्गुलेषोडशाङ्गुलपरिक्षेपे, त्रिंशदङ्गुलपरिक्षेपावष्टादशाङ्गुलावूरु, षडङ्गुलदीर्घौवृषणावष्टाङ्गुलपरिणाहौ, शेफःषडङ्गुलदीर्घंपञ्चाङ्गुलपरिणाहं, द्वादशाङ्गुलिपरिणाहोभगः, षोडशाङ्गुलविस्ताराकटी, दशाङ्गुलंबस्तिशिरः, दशाङ्गुलविस्तारंद्वादशाङ्गुलमुदरं, दशाङ्गुलविस्तीर्णेद्वादशाङ्गुलायामेपार्श्वे, द्वादशाङ्गुलंस्तनान्तरं, द्व्यङ्गुलंस्तनपर्यन्तं, चतुर्विशत्यङ्गुलविशालंद्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधमुरः, द्व्यङ्गुलंहृदयम्, अष्टाङ्गुलौस्कन्धौ, षडङ्गुलावंसौ, षोडशाङ्गुलौप्रबाहू, पञ्चदशाङ्गुलौप्रपाणी, हस्तौद्वादशाङ्गुलौ, कक्षावष्टाङ्गुलौ, त्रिकंद्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधम्, अष्टादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंपृष्ठं, चतुरङ्गुलोत्सेधाद्वाविंशत्यङ्गुलपरिणाहाशिरोधरा, द्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंचतुर्विंशत्यङ्गुलपरिणाहमाननं, पञ्चाङ्गुलमास्यं, चिबुकौष्ठकर्णाक्षिमध्यनासिकाललाटंचतुरङ्गुलं, षोडशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंद्वात्रिंशदङ्गुलपरिणाहंशिरः; इतिपृथक्त्वेनाङ्गावयवानांमानमुक्तम्|
केवलंपुनःशरीरमङ्गुलिपर्वाणिचतुरशीतिः|
तदायामविस्तारसमंसमुच्यते|
तत्रायुर्बलमोजःसुखमैश्वर्यंवित्तमिष्टाश्चापरेभावाभवन्त्यायत्ताःप्रमाणवतिशरीरे; विपर्ययस्त्वतोहीनेऽधिकेवा||११७||

pramāṇataśceti śarīra pramāṇaṃ punaryathāsvenāṅguli pramāṇenopadekṣyate utsedha vistārāyāmairyathākramam|

tatra pādau catvāri ṣaṭ caturdaśāṅgulāni, jaṅghe tvaṣṭādaśāṅgule ṣoḍaśāṅgulaparikṣepe ca, jānunī caturaṅgule ṣoḍaśāṅgula parikṣepe, triṃśadaṅgula parikṣepāvaṣṭādaśāṅgulāvūru, ṣaḍaṅgula dīrghau vṛṣaṇāvaṣṭāṅgulapariṇāhau, śephaḥ ṣaḍaṅguladīrghaṃ pañcāṅgulapariṇāhaṃ, dvādaśāṅgulipariṇāho bhagaḥ, ṣoḍaśāṅgulavistārā kaṭī, daśāṅgulaṃ bastiśiraḥ, daśāṅgulavistāraṃ dvādaśāṅgulamudaraṃ, daśāṅgulavistīrṇe dvādaśāṅgulāyāme pārśve, dvādaśāṅgulaṃ stanāntaraṃ, dvyaṅgulaṃ stanaparyantaṃ, caturviśatyaṅgulaviśālaṃ dvādaśāṅgulotsedhamuraḥ, dvyaṅgulaṃhṛdayam, aṣṭāṅgulau skandhau, ṣaḍaṅgulāvaṃsau, ṣoḍaśāṅgulau prabāhū, pañcadaśāṅgulau prapāṇī, hastau dvādaśāṅgulau, kakṣāvaṣṭāṅgulau, trikaṃ dvādaśāṅgulotsedham, aṣṭādaśāṅgulotsedhaṃ pṛṣṭhaṃ, caturaṅgulotsedhā dvāviṃśatyaṅgulapariṇāhā śirodharā, dvādaśāṅgulotsedhaṃ caturviṃśatyaṅgulapariṇāhamānanaṃ, pañcāṅgulamāsyaṃ, cibukauṣṭhakarṇākṣimadhyanāsikālalāṭaṃ caturaṅgulaṃ, ṣoḍaśāṅgulotsedhaṃ dvātriṃśadaṅgulapariṇāhaṃ śiraḥ; iti pṛthaktvenāṅgāvayavānāṃ mānamuktam|

kevalaṃ punaḥśarīramaṅguliparvāṇi caturaśītiḥ|

tadāyāmavistārasamaṃ samucyate|

tatrāyurbalamojaḥ sukhamaiśvaryaṃ vittamiṣṭāścāpare bhāvā bhavantyāyattāḥ pramāṇavati śarīre; viparyayastvato hīne’dhike vā||117||

According to Verse – 94, the patient is also to be examined with reference to Pramana or the measurement of the organs of his body. This is determined by measuring the height, length and breadth of the organs.  The finger breadth of the individual is used as the unit of measurement. (One finger breadth of a medium sized adult is approximately 1.95 cm)

Measurement of organs as are endowed with all good qualities is given in the table below:

 Measurement with finger breadth of the individual as a unit:

 OrgansHeightLengthBreadthCircumferenceOthers(not specified)
1 Feet4146
2Jangha(calf region) 18 16
3Knees 4 16 
4thighs 18 30 
5Testicles 6 8 
6Phallus 6 5 
7Vagina   12 
8Waist  16  
9Bastisira(top of pelvis)    10
10Abdomen 1210  
11Parsva (sides of chest) 1210
12Distance between the nipples12  12
13Nipples  2
14Chest1224
15Hrdaya(Heart)24
16Shoulders    18
17Shoulder blades    6
18Prabahu(arms)    16
19Fore-arms    15
20Hands    20
21Axillae    8
22Trika(sac-12 rum incuding coceyx)     
23Back18    
24Neck4  22 
25Face12  24 
26Mouth  5  
27Chin    4
28Lips    4
29Ears    4
30Distence between the eyes (external angles of the eyes)    4
31Nose    4
32Fore-head    4
33Head16  32 
34Entire body84 84  


(When hands are fully out-spread)

Thus the measurement of individual organs of the body is described.

A body composed of organs having proper measurement is involved with the below mentioned benefits –

  • longevity
  • strength
  • Ojas (energy)
  • Happiness
  • Power
  • wealth and
  • virtues

If the above said measurements are either on the higher or lower side, the individual possesses qualities contrary to what are mentioned above, i.e. longevity etc will be either moderate or low. [117]

Satmya

सात्म्यतश्चेतिसात्म्यंनामतद्यत्सातत्येनोपसेव्यमानमुपशेते|
तत्रयेघृतक्षीरतैलमांसरससात्म्याःसर्वरससात्म्याश्चतेबलवन्तःक्लेशसहाश्चिरजीविनश्चभवन्ति, रूक्षसात्म्याःपुनरेकरससात्म्याश्चयेतेप्रायेणाल्पबलाअल्पक्लेशसहाअल्पायुषोऽल्पसाधनाश्चभवन्ति, व्यामिश्रसात्म्यास्तुयेतेमध्यबलाःसात्म्यनिमित्ततोभवन्ति||११८||

sātmyataśceti sātmyaṃ nāma tadyat sātatyenopasevyamānamupaśete|

tatra ye ghṛta kṣīra taila māṃsa rasa sātmyāḥ sarvarasasātmyāśca te balavantaḥ kleśasahāścirajīvinaśca bhavanti, rūkṣasātmyāḥ punarekarasasātmyāśca ye te prāyeṇālpabalā alpakleśasahā alpāyuṣo’lpasādhanāśca bhavanti, vyāmiśrasātmyāstu ye te madhyabalāḥ sātmya nimittato bhavanti||118||

According to verse-34, a patient is to be examined with reference to his Satmya or homologation.

Satmya can be defined as ‘such factors as are wholesome to the individual even when continually used’.

Individuals for whom ghee, milk, oil and meat soup as well as the drugs and diets having all the six tastes are wholesome are endowed with strength, the power of the facing difficult situations and longevity.

Those who are accustomed to ununctuous things, and drugs and diets having only one particular taste, are mostly  possessed of less strength, less power (or resistance) to face difficult situations, are of smaller life-span and of meager accessories like drugs for the treatment of his diseases.

If there is combination of both these types of homologation, individuals are considerd to have moderate strength. [118]

Sattva

सत्त्वतश्चेतिसत्त्वमुच्यतेमनः|
तच्छरीरस्यतन्त्रकमात्मसंयोगात्|
तत्त्रिविधंबलभेदेन-प्रवरं, मध्यम्, अवरंचेति; अतश्चप्रवरमध्यावरसत्त्वाःपुरुषाभवन्ति|
तत्रप्रवरसत्त्वाःसत्त्वसारास्तेसारेषूपदिष्टाः, स्वल्पशरीराह्यपितेनिजागन्तुनिमित्तासुमहतीष्वपिपीडास्वव्यथादृश्यन्तेसत्त्वगुणवैशेष्यात्; मध्यसत्त्वास्त्वपरानात्मन्युपनिधायसंस्तम्भयन्त्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानंपरैर्वाऽपिसंस्तभ्यन्ते; हीनसत्त्वास्तुनात्मनानापिपरैःसत्त्वबलंप्रतिशक्यन्तेउपस्तम्भयितुं, महाशरीराह्यपितेस्वल्पानामपिवेदनानामसहादृश्यन्ते, सन्निहितभयशोकलोभमोहमानारौद्रभैरवद्विष्टबीभत्सविकृतसङ्कथास्वपिचपशुपुरुषमांसशोणितानिचावेक्ष्यविषादवैवर्ण्यमूर्च्छोन्मादभ्रमप्रपतनानामन्यतममाप्नुवन्त्यथवामरणमिति||११९||

sattvataśceti sattvamucyate manaḥ|

taccharīrasya tantrakamātmasaṃyogāt|

tat trividhaṃ balabhedena- pravaraṃ, madhyam, avaraṃ ceti; ataśca pravara madhyāvara sattvāḥ puruṣā bhavanti|

tatra pravarasattvāḥ sattvasārāste sāreṣūpadiṣṭāḥ, svalpaśarīrā hyapi te nijāgantunimittāsu mahatīṣvapi pīḍāsvavyathā dṛśyante sattvaguṇavaiśeṣyāt; madhyasattvāstvaparānātmanyupanidhāya saṃstambhayantyātmanā”tmānaṃ parairvā’pi saṃstabhyante; hīnasattvāstu nātmanā nāpi paraiḥ sattvabalaṃ prati śakyante upastambhayituṃ, mahāśarīrā hyapi te svalpānāmapi vedanānāmasahā dṛśyante, sannihitabhayaśokalobhamohamānā raudrabhairavadviṣṭabībhatsavikṛtasaṅkathāsvapi ca paśu puruṣa māṃsa śoṇitāni cāvekṣya viṣāda vaivarṇya mūrcchonmāda bhrama prapatanānāmanyatamamāpnuvantyathavā maraṇamiti||119||

The patient is again to be examined with reference to his Sattva or mental faculties.

Sattva is mind and it regulates the body because of its association with the soul. Depending upon its strength, the mind is of three types, viz, superior, mediocre and inferior mental faculties.

Individuals having superior mental faculties – Individuals with superior mental strength are described in para- 110 above. Though these people have weak physique these individuals tolerate serious exogenous and endogenous diseases without much difficulty. This is because of the specific manifestations of Sattva qualities in them i.e. stronger minds.  

Individual having mediocrity / moderate (strength) mental faculties tolerate (moderate amounts of) pains when they realize that others can also tolerate it or when someone else gives courage to them.

Individuals of inferior mental faculties can neither tolerate hardships by themselves nor through others (when others try to instill courage in them). They cannot sustain their mental strength and even mild pain. They are susceptible to fear, grief, greed, delusion and ego. When they hear someone describing wrathful, fearful, hateful, terrifying and ugly situation or when they happen to see flesh or blood of an animal or man, they fall victims to depression, pallor, fainting, madness, giddiness or falling on the ground, or such events may even lead them to death. [119]

Capacity for food

आहारशक्तितश्चेतिआहारशक्तिरभ्यवहरणशक्त्याजरणशक्तयाचपरीक्ष्या; बलायुषीह्याहारायत्ते||१२०||

āhāraśaktitaśceti āhāraśaktirabhyavaharaṇa śaktyā jaraṇa śaktayā ca parīkṣyā; balāyuṣī hyāhārāyatte||120||


A patient is further to be examined with reference to his Aharasakti or the capacity for intake of food.

One’s capacity for food can be examined from two perspectives, viz,

  • the power of ingestion as well as
  • the power of digestion;

Both the strength and life-span are determined by the diet of the individual. [120]

Capacity for exercise

व्यायामशक्तितश्चेतिव्यायामशक्तिरपिकर्मशक्त्यापरीक्ष्या|
कर्मशक्त्याह्यनुमीयतेबलत्रैविध्यम् ||१२१||

vyāyāmaśaktitaśceti vyāyāma śaktirapi karmaśaktyā parīkṣyā|

karmaśaktyā hyanumīyate balatraividhyam ||121||


The patient is examined with reference to his capacity for exercise. This is determined by one’s ability to perform work like lifting weight etc. The strength of individuals is classified into three categories, depending upon their ability to perform work.

If an individual is capable enough to perform tasks / actions comfortably he is said to have good strength. This will keep the person active and going to optimum levels. If an individual can perform tasks moderately he is said to have moderate strength. These people will be moderately active. If an individual cannot perform even easy tasks comfortably and if he is less active he is said to have less strength. [121]

Span of life

वयस्तश्चेतिकालप्रमाणविशेषापेक्षिणीहिशरीरावस्थावयोऽभिधीयते|
तद्वयोयथास्थूलभेदेनत्रिविधं-बालं, मध्यं, जीर्णमिति|

vayastaśceti kāla pramāṇa viśeṣāpekṣiṇī hi śarīrāvasthā vayo’bhidhīyate|

tadvayo yathā sthūla bhedena trividhaṃ- bālaṃ, madhyaṃ, jīrṇamiti|

The patient is examined with reference to his age. This represents the state of his body depending upon the length of the time that has passed since his birth. Age is broadly of three types, viz, young age, middle age and old age.


तत्रबालमपरिपक्वधातुमजातव्यञ्जनंसुकुमारमक्लेशसहमसम्पूर्णबलंश्लेष्मधातुप्रायमाषोडशवर्षं, विवर्धमानधातुगुणंपुनःप्रायेणानवस्थितसत्त्वमात्रिंशद्वर्षमुपदिष्टं; मध्यंपुनःसमत्वागतबलवीर्यपौरुषपराक्रमग्रहणधारणस्मरणवचनविज्ञानसर्वधातुगुणंबलस्थितमवस्थितसत्त्वमविशीर्यमाणधातुगुणंपित्तधातुप्रायमाषष्टिवर्षमुपदिष्टम्; अतःपरं
हीयमानधात्विन्द्रियबलवीर्यपौरुषपराक्रमग्रहणधारणस्मरणवचनविज्ञानंभ्रश्यमानधातुगुणंवायुधातुप्रायंक्रमेणजीर्णमुच्यतेआवर्षशतम्|
वर्षशतंखल्वायुषःप्रमाणमस्मिन्काले; सन्तिचपुनरधिकोनवर्षशतजीविनोऽपिमनुष्याः; तेषांविकृतिवर्ज्यैःप्रकृत्यादिबलविशेषैरायुषोलक्षणतश्चप्रमाणमुपलभ्यवयसस्त्रित्वंविभजेत्||१२२||

tatra bālamaparipakvadhātumajātavyañjanaṃ sukumāramakleśasahamasampūrṇabalaṃ śleṣmadhātuprāyamāṣoḍaśavarṣaṃ, vivardhamānadhātuguṇaṃ punaḥ prāyeṇānavasthitasattvamātriṃśadvarṣamupadiṣṭaṃ; madhyaṃ punaḥ samatvāgata bala vīrya pauruṣa parākrama grahaṇa dhāraṇa smaraṇa vacana vijñāna sarvadhātuguṇaṃ balasthitamavasthita sattvamaviśīryamāṇa dhātu guṇaṃ pitta dhātu prāyamāṣaṣṭivarṣamupadiṣṭam; ataḥ paraṃ

hīyamānadhātvindriya bala vīrya pauruṣa parākrama grahaṇa dhāraṇa smaraṇa vacana vijñānaṃ bhraśyamāna dhātuguṇaṃ vāyu dhātu prāyaṃ krameṇa jīrṇamucyate āvarṣaśatam|

varṣaśataṃ khalvāyuṣaḥ pramāṇamasmin kāle; santi ca punaradhikonavarṣaśatajīvino’pi manuṣyāḥ; teṣāṃ vikṛtivarjyaiḥ prakṛtyādibalaviśeṣairāyuṣo lakṣaṇataśca pramāṇamupalabhya vayasastritvaṃ vibhajet||122||

Young age is again of two types, viz (i) immature stage lasting upon 16th year of age and (ii) maturing stage lasting upon the 30th year of age. During immature stage various organs of the body are not well developed, there is tenderness, the individual cannot tolerate difficulties, and there is incomplete strength and the dominance of Kapha Dosha in the body. During the second stage i.e the stage of maturing lasting up to 30th years of age, the mental faculties are not properly developed.

During the middle age lasting up to the 60th year of age, there is diminution of the Dhatus (tissue elements), strength of sense organs, energy, manliness and valour, power of understanding, retention, memorizing, speech and analyzing facts and the qualities of all Dhatus; there is the dominance of Pitta dosha.

Thereafter during old age lasting up to 100th year of age, there is diminution of the Dhatus (tissue elements), strength of sense organs, energy, and manliness, and valor, power of understanding, retention, memorizing, speech and analyzing facts. There is gradual diminution in the qualities of Dhatus and dominance of Vata during this age.

 During this Kali age, the span of life is 100 years. There is no doubt that there are people who live for a longer or shorter period than this. Their age is classified in para 94, viz. Prakrti (physical constitution) etc. excluding morbidity and also with the help of characteristic features of individuals having various categories of life-span. [122]

Strength of the Body, Doshas, Medicines

एवंप्रकृत्यादीनांविकृतिवर्ज्यानांभावानांप्रवरमध्यावरविभागेनबलविशेषंविभजेत्|
विकृतिबलत्रैविध्येनतुदोषबलंत्रिविधमनुमीयते|
ततोभैषज्यस्यतीक्ष्णमृदुमध्यविभागेनत्रैविध्यंविभज्ययथादोषंभैषज्यमवचारयेदिति||१२३||

evaṃ prakṛtyādīnāṃ vikṛtivarjyānāṃ bhāvānāṃ pravara madhyāvara vibhāgena bala viśeṣaṃ vibhajet|

vikṛtibalatraividhyena tu doṣabalaṃ trividhamanumīyate|

tato bhaiṣajyasya tīkṣṇa mṛdu madhya vibhāgena traividhyaṃ vibhajya yathādoṣaṃ bhaiṣajyamavacārayediti||123||

The strength of individuals can be classified, depending upon the superiority, mediocrity and inferiority of the above mentioned factors, i.e. Prakrti (physical constitution) etc., except Vikrti or morbidity.

Three types of the strength of the Doshas are inferred from the three type of the intensity of morbidity. Thereafter, depending upon the nature of the Doshas involved, three types of medicaments are administered. They may be strong, mild or moderate. [123]

आयुषःप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोःपुनरिन्द्रियेषुजातिसूत्रीयेचलक्षणान्युपदेक्ष्यन्ते||१२४||

āyuṣaḥ pramāṇa jñāna hetoḥ punarindriyeṣu jātisūtrīye ca lakṣaṇānyupadekṣyante||124||

With a view to ascertaining the life-span of an individual, symptoms will be described in the Indriya section and also in the 8th chapter of Sharira section. [124]


Kala Bheda Division of year

कालःपुनःसंवत्सरश्चातुरावस्थाच|
तत्रसंवत्सरोद्विधात्रिधाषोढाद्वादशधाभूयश्चाप्यतःप्रविभज्यतेतत्तत्कार्यमभिसमीक्ष्य|
अत्रखलुतावत्षोढाप्रविभज्यकार्यमुपदेक्ष्यते-हेमन्तोग्रीष्मोवर्षाश्चेतिशीतोष्णवर्षलक्षणास्त्रयऋतवोभवन्ति, तेषामन्तरेष्वितरेसाधारणलक्षणास्त्रयऋतवः-प्रावृट्शरद्वसन्ताइति|
प्रावृडितिप्रथमःप्रवृष्टःकालः, तस्यानुबन्धोहिवर्षाः|
एवमेतेसंशोधनमधिकृत्यषट्विभज्यन्तेऋतवः||१२५||

kālaḥ punaḥ saṃvatsaraścāturāvasthā ca|

tatra saṃvatsaro dvidhā tridhā ṣoḍhā dvādaśadhā bhūyaścāpyataḥ pravibhajyate tattatkāryamabhisamīkṣya|

atra khalu tāvat ṣoḍhā pravibhajya kāryamupadekṣyate- hemanto grīṣmo varṣāśceti śītoṣṇavarṣalakṣaṇāstraya ṛtavo bhavanti, teṣāmantareṣvitare sādhāraṇa lakṣaṇāstraya ṛtavaḥ- prāvṛṭśaradvasantā iti|

prāvṛḍiti prathamaḥ pravṛṣṭaḥ kālaḥ, tasyānubandho hi varṣāḥ|

evamete saṃśodhanamadhikṛtya ṣaṭ vibhajyante ṛtavaḥ||125||


Kala or time connotes two meanings,

  • the year and
  • the state of the disease in the patient

Depending upon the necessity, year is divided into two, three, six, and twelve and even, 15 days, 7 days or one day.

A year can be classified in different ways depending upon the different purposes in view.

  • On the basis of Ayana or solstitial movement of the sun to north or south., year is divided into two;
  • On the basis of the intensity of cold, heat or rain, the year is divided into three
  • On the basis of seasons it is divided into six
  • On the basis of months it is divided into twelve 
  • On the basis of fortnights, it is divided into twenty four

In the present context, six divisions of the year are envisaged for the sake of different purposes / actions. Among them are Hemanta (winter), Grishma (summer) and Varsha (rainy) weathers which are characterized by presence of cold, heat and rains respectively.  In between them we can see three more seasons i.e. Pravrt, Sharad and Vasanta. The earlier part of rainy season or the part of the year before the rainy season is called as Pravrt. So Pravrt is characterized by beginning of rains. Therefore from the perspective of administering elimination (cleansing, purefaction) therapies one year is divided into six seasons i.e. – Pravrt (pre-monsoon), Varsha (rainy), Sharad (autumn), Hemanta (winter), Vasanta (spring) and Grishma (summer). Each season is of 2 months each. [125]

Additional

Similarly the year can have many divisions on the basis of Prahara (a unit of three hoarse) etc

Division of the year into six seasons each comprising two months is detailed in the table below:

 SeasonsMonths according to Hindu calendarMonths according to Greek calendar (appropriately)
1.Pravrt1.Asadha 2. Shravana  June-July July – August
2VarshaBhadrapada AshvinaAugust- September September- October
3SaratKartika MrugashiraOctober- November November – December
4HemantaPausa MaghaDecember-January January- February
5vasantaPhalguna Chaitra February- March March-april
6GrishmaVaisakha JyesthaApril-may May-june

Shodhana Kala Season for Panchakarma

तत्रसाधारणलक्षणेष्वृतुषुवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिर्विधीयते, निवृत्तिरितरेषु|
साधारणलक्षणाहिमन्दशीतोष्णवर्षत्वात्सुखतमाश्चभवन्त्यविकल्पकाश्चशरीरौषधानाम्, इतरेपुनरत्यर्थशीतोष्णवर्षत्वाद्दुःखतमाश्चभवन्तिविकल्पकाश्चशरीरौषधानाम्||१२६||

tatra sādhāraṇalakṣaṇeṣvṛtuṣu vamanādīnāṃ pravṛttirvidhīyate, nivṛttiritareṣu|sādhāraṇalakṣaṇā hi mandaśītoṣṇavarṣatvāt sukhatamāśca bhavantyavikalpakāśca śarīrauṣadhānām, itare punaratyarthaśītoṣṇavarṣatvādduḥkhatamāśca bhavanti vikalpakāśca śarīrauṣadhānām||126||

Suitable season for administration of elimination therapy:

Amongst the six seasons, elimination therapies, viz, Vamana (emesis) etc.., is administered only in seasons of moderate nature. They are pre-monsoon, autumn and spring seasons. In these seasons ther is moderate amounts of rains, cold and heat respectively and hence are suitable for cleansing therapies. In other seasons having extreme cold, heat or rain, such therapies should not be administered i.e. these therapies should not be done in rainy, winter and summer seasons since the rains, cold and heat are extreme in these seasons respectively.

 Moderate seasons are characterized by moderation in cold heat and rain. They are very enjoyable and they do not adversely affect the conditions of the body and drugs. Remaining seasons are characterized by extreme cold, heat or rain. They are very unpleasant. The body as well as medicines is adversely affected by them. [126]

Unsuitable seasons for elimination therapy:

तत्रहेमन्तेह्यतिमात्रशीतोपहतत्वाच्छरीरमसुखोपपन्नंभवत्यतिशीतवाताध्मातमतिदारुणीभूतमवबद्धदोषंच, भेषजंपुनःसंशोधनार्थमुष्णस्वभावमतिशीतोपहतत्वान्मन्दवीर्यत्वमापद्यते, तस्मात्तयोःसंयोगेसंशोधनमयोगायोपपद्यतेशरीरमपिचवातोपद्रवाय|

tatra hemante hyatimātraśītopahatatvāccharīramasukhopapannaṃ bhavatyatiśītavātādhmātamatidāruṇībhūtamavabaddhadoṣaṃ ca, bheṣajaṃ punaḥ saṃśodhanārthamuṣṇasvabhāvamatiśītopahatatvānmandavīryatvamāpadyate, tasmāttayoḥ saṃyoge saṃśodhanamayogāyopapadyate śarīramapi ca vātopadravāya|

During the Hemanta or winter season, the body is exposed to great levels of discomfort because of affliction by excessive cold.  The Doshas do not get detached. Due to the extreme cold winds and their effect the doshas would acquire firmness. As a result they remain adhered to the channels in the body in a stubborn way. Medicaments used for elimination therapy is hot by nature but because of affliction with excessive cold the therapeutic effectiveness of these medicines are diminshed. When these therapeutically less potent drugs are administered to an individual whose body is unsuitable for the therapy they fail to yield the desired effect. Consequently the body gets afflicted with Vata.

ग्रीष्मेपुनर्भृशोष्णोपहतत्वाच्छरीरमसुखोपपन्नंभवत्युष्णवातातपाध्मातमतिशिथिलमत्यर्थप्रविलीनदोषं, भेषजंपुनःसंशोधनार्थमुष्णस्वभावमुष्णानुगमनात्तीक्ष्णतरत्वमापद्यते, तस्मात्तयोःसंयोगेसंशोधनमतियोगायोपपद्यतेशरीरमपिपिपासोपद्रवाय|

grīṣme punarbhṛśoṣṇopahatatvāccharīramasukhopapannaṃ bhavatyuṣṇavātātapādhmātamatiśithilamatyarthapravilīnadoṣaṃ, bheṣajaṃ punaḥ saṃśodhanārthamuṣṇasvabhāvamuṣṇānugamanāttīkṣṇataratvamāpadyate, tasmāttayoḥ saṃyoge saṃśodhanamatiyogāyopapadyate śarīramapi pipāsopadravāya|

During the Grishma or summer season there is great discomfort in the body because of the affliction of the body with excessive heat. Due to the contoct with excessively hot wind and also the heat of the sun, the doshas undergo excessive looseness and hence remain excessively detached. Medicaments used for elimination therapy are hot by nature and because of their affliction with excessive heat, their therapeutic effect becomes sharper. When these drugs having sharp effect are administered to an individual having an impaired body, they bring about excessive elimination of doshas. Consequently the body gets afflicted with complications including excessive thirst.

वर्षासुतुमेघजलावततेगूढार्कचन्द्रतारेधाराकुलेवियतिभूमौपङ्कजलपटलसंवृतायामत्यर्थोपक्लिन्नशरीरेषुभूतेषुविहतस्वभावेषुचकेवलेष्वौषधग्रामेषुतोयतोयदानुगतमारुतसंसर्गाद्गुरुप्रवृत्तीनिवमनादीनिभवन्ति, गुरुसमुत्थानानिचशरीराणि|

varṣāsu tu meghajalāvatate gūḍhārkacandratāre dhārākule viyati bhūmau paṅkajalapaṭalasaṃvṛtāyāmatyarthopaklinnaśarīreṣu bhūteṣu vihatasvabhāveṣu ca kevaleṣvauṣadhagrāmeṣu toyatoyadānugatamārutasaṃsargād gurupravṛttīni vamanādīni bhavanti, gurusamutthānāni ca śarīrāṇi|

During the Varsha or Rainy season,, the bodies of animals become excessively deliquescent because of their exposure to rain water, invisibility of the sun, moon and stars, over- cast conditions due to the presence of more clouds in the sky and the presence of mud and water all over the earth. There is impairment of all medicaments because of their contact with water and the moist wind associated with clouds. Thus, there is improper effect of drugs used for emesis etc. As a result it takes a long time for the body to recover from the effects of these elimination therapies.

तस्माद्वमनादीनांनिवृत्तिर्विधीयतेवर्षान्तेष्वृतुषु, नचेदात्ययिकंकर्म|
आत्ययिकेपुनःकर्मणिकाममृतुंविकल्प्यकृत्रिमगुणोपधानेनयथर्तुगुणविपरीतेनभेषजंसंयोगसंस्कारप्रमाणविकल्पेनोपपाद्यप्रमाणवीर्यसमंकृत्वाततःप्रयोजयेदुत्तमेनयत्नेनावहितः||१२७||

tasmādvamanādīnāṃ nivṛttirvidhīyate varṣānteṣvṛtuṣu, na cedātyayikaṃ karma|

ātyayike punaḥ karmaṇi kāmamṛtuṃ vikalpya kṛtrimaguṇopadhānena yathartuguṇaviparītena bheṣajaṃ saṃyogasaṃskārapramāṇavikalpenopapādya pramāṇavīryasamaṃ kṛtvā tataḥ prayojayeduttamena yatnenāvahitaḥ||127||

Therefore, in the above mentioned three seasons ending with rainy season elimination therapies i.e. emesis etc. should not be administered unless there is an emergency. In such emergencies, natural manifestations of seasons, viz, excessive cold, heat and rains are counter-acted by artificial means (air conditioning). Similarly the qualities of medicines are rendered opposite to those of the respective seasons by suitable combination, processing and determination of proper dosage. Thus, by bringing the dosage and potency of medicaments to the required level, elimination therapies are administered with utmost care. [127]

Another connotation of kala

आतुरावस्थास्वपितुकार्याकार्यंप्रतिकालाकालसञ्ज्ञा; तद्यथा-अस्यामवस्थायामस्यभेषजस्याकालः, कालःपुनरन्यस्येति; एतदपिहिभवत्यवस्थाविशेषेण; तस्मादातुरावस्थास्वपिहिकालाकालसञ्ज्ञा|
तस्यपरीक्षा-मुहुर्मुहुरातुरस्यसर्वावस्थाविशेषावेक्षणंयथावद्भेषजप्रयोगार्थम्|
नह्यतिपतितकालमप्राप्तकालंवाभेषजमुपयुज्यमानंयौगिकंभवति; कालोहिभैषज्यप्रयोगपर्याप्तिमभिनिर्वर्तयति||१२८||

āturāvasthāsvapi tu kāryākāryaṃ prati kālākālasañjñā; tadyathā- asyāmavasthāyāmasya bheṣajasyākālaḥ, kālaḥ punaranyasyeti; etadapi hi bhavatyavasthāviśeṣeṇa; tasmādāturāvasthāsvapi hi kālākālasañjñā|

tasya parīkṣā- muhurmuhurāturasya sarvāvasthāviśeṣāvekṣaṇaṃ yathāvadbheṣajaprayogārtham|

na hyatipatitakālamaprāptakālaṃ vā bheṣajamupayujyamānaṃ yaugikaṃ bhavati; kālo hi bhaiṣajyaprayogaparyāptimabhinirvartayati||128||

Another connotation of the term Kala or time is the state of the patient which determines

  • the initiation of timely actions and
  • prohibitions of untimely ones

For example, in a particular condition or the state of the patient one medicine may not be useful. Administration of this medicine will be termed untimely whereas administration of another medicine may be useful which will be termed as timely.

Thus the determination of the utility or otherwise of a particular medicine depends upon the state of the patient.  In other words it is known as ‘timely’ or ‘untimely’. To ascertain this with a view to adminstering the therapy, the specific characteristics of all the states of the patient is frequently observed. The therapy does not produce its desired effect, if administered after the passage of appropriate time or before the arrival of the correct time. It is the time wich determines the manifestation of the desired efffects of a drug administered. [128]

Pravrutti

प्रवृत्तिस्तुप्रतिकर्मसमारम्भः|
तस्यलक्षणंभिषगौषधातुरपरिचारकाणांक्रियासमायोगः||१२९||

pravṛttistu pratikarma samārambhaḥ|

tasya lakṣaṇaṃ bhiṣagauṣadhāturaparicārakāṇāṃ kriyāsamāyogaḥ||129||

Pravratti or endeavour is the initiation of the therapieutic action. It represents the combined action of the physician, medicaments, patient and the attendent. [129]

Upaya

उपायःपुनर्भिषगादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्|
तस्यलक्षणं-भिषगादीनांयथोक्तगुणसम्पत्देशकालप्रमाणसात्म्यक्रियादिभिश्चसिद्धिकारणैःसम्यगुपपादितस्यौषधस्यावचारणमिति||१३०||

upāyaḥ punarbhiṣagādīnāṃ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṃ ca samyak|

tasya lakṣaṇaṃ- bhiṣagādīnāṃ yathoktaguṇasampat deśa kāla pramāṇa sātmya kriyādibhiśca siddhikāraṇaiḥ samyagupapāditasyauṣadhasyāvacāraṇamiti||130||

Upaya or means of curative measures comprises of the excellence of the physician etc., and the correct therapy. This is characterised by the existence of the desired qualities in the physician and the administration of the correctly processed drugs, depending upon the locality, time, dosage and homologation. [130]

एवमेतेदशपरीक्ष्यविशेषाःपृथक्पृथक्परीक्षितव्याभवन्ति||१३१||

evamete daśa parīkṣyaviśeṣāḥ pṛthak pṛthak parīkṣitavyā bhavanti||131||


Thus these are the ten factors to be examined separately [131]

Objects of examination

परीक्षायास्तुखलुप्रयोजनंप्रतिपत्तिज्ञानम्|
प्रतिपत्तिर्नामयोविकारोयथाप्रतिपत्तव्यस्तस्यतथाऽनुष्ठानज्ञानम्||१३२||

parīkṣāyāstu khalu prayojanaṃ pratipattijñānam|

pratipattirnāma yo vikāro yathā pratipattavyastasya tathā’nuṣṭhānajñānam||132||


Purpose of the examination is to obtain knowledge regarding the line of treatment that is adopted with a view to correcting the morbidity. [132]

यत्रतुखलुवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिः, यत्रचनिवृत्तिः, तद्व्यासतःसिद्धिषूत्तरमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३३||

yatra tu khalu vamanādīnāṃ pravṛttiḥ, yatra ca nivṛttiḥ, tadvyāsataḥ siddhiṣūttaramupadekṣyāmaḥ||133||

Indications and contra-indications of elimination therapies viz, emesis etc., will be described later in detail in the Siddhi section. [133]

प्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिलक्षणसंयोगेतुगुरुलाघवंसम्प्रधार्यसम्यगध्यवस्येदन्यतरनिष्ठायाम्|
सन्तिहिव्याधयःशास्त्रेषूत्सर्गापवादैरुपक्रमंप्रतिनिर्दिष्टाः|
तस्माद्गुरुलाघवंसम्प्रधार्यसम्यगध्यवस्येदित्युक्तम्||१३४||

pravṛtti nivṛtti lakṣaṇa saṃyoge tu guru lāghavaṃ sampradhārya samyagadhyavasyedanyataraniṣṭhāyām|

santi hi vyādhayaḥ śāstreṣūtsargāpavādairupakramaṃ prati nirdiṣṭāḥ|

tasmādgurulāghavaṃ sampradhārya samyagadhyavasyedityuktam||134||

If the symptoms of a given therapy are responsive (symptoms of cleansing available) and irresponsive (symptoms of proper cleansing not available clearly) simultaneously, mutually contradictory symptoms are available. In such cases the physician should decide to go ahead or stop the administration of the therapy. He shall do this after ascertaining the seriousness or lightness of the (mutually contradictory) symptoms.

General rules and principles for the treatment of the diseases are explained in Ayurveda texts along with the exceptional rules. Also the conditions to implement and not implement treatments are also described. The physician should accordingly initiate action (treament) with utmost care and on ascertaining the seriousness or lightness of the symptoms cocerned. [134]

Vamana Dravya Drugs used in emesis

यानितुखलुवमनादिषुभेषजद्रव्याण्युपयोगंगच्छन्तितान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः|
तद्यथा-फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुधामार्गवकुटजकृतवेधनफलानि, फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुधामार्गवपत्रपुष्पाणिआरग्वधवृक्षकमदनस्वादुकण्टकपाठापाटलाशार्ङ्गेष्टामूर्वासप्तपर्णनक्तमालपिचुमर्दपटोलसुषवीगुडूची-चित्रकसोमवल्कशतावरीद्वीपीशिग्रुमूलकषायैः, मधुकमधूककोविदारकर्वुदारनीपविदुलबिम्बीशणपुष्पीसदापुष्पाप्रत्यक्पुष्पाकषायैश्च, एलाहरेणुप्रियङ्गुपृथ्वीकाकुस्तुम्बुरुतगरनलदह्रीवेरतालीशोशीरकषायैश्च, इक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुवालिकादर्भपोटगलकालङ्कृ(ङ्क)तकषायैश्च,
सुमनासौमनस्यायनीहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रावृश्चीरपुनर्नवामहासहाक्षुद्रसहाकषायैश्च, शाल्मलिशाल्मलिकभद्रपर्ण्येलापर्ण्युपोदिकोद्दालकधन्वनराजादनोपचित्रागोपीशृङ्गाटिकाकषायैश्च, पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरसर्षपफाणितक्षीरक्षारलवणोदकैश्च, यथालाभंयथेष्टंवाऽप्युपसंस्कृत्यवर्तिक्रियाचूर्णावलेहस्नेहकषायमांसरसयवागूयूषकाम्बलिकक्षीरोपधेयान्मोदकानन्यांश्चभक्ष्यप्रकारान्विविधाननुविधाययथार्हंवमनार्हायदद्याद्विधिवद्वमनम्|
इतिकल्पसङ्ग्रहोवमनद्रव्याणाम्|
कल्पमेषांविस्तारेणोत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३५||

yāni tu khalu vamanādiṣu bheṣaja dravyāṇyupayogaṃ gacchanti tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ|

tadyathā- phala jīmūtakekṣvāku dhāmārgava kuṭaja kṛtavedhana phalāni, phala jīmūtakekṣvāku dhāmārgava patra puṣpāṇi āragvadha vṛkṣaka madana svādu kaṇṭaka pāṭhā pāṭalā śārṅgeṣṭā mūrvā saptaparṇa naktamāla picumarda paṭola suṣavī guḍūcī- citraka somavalka śatāvarī dvīpīśigru mūla kaṣāyaiḥ, madhuka madhūka kovidāra karvudāranīpa vidula bimbī śaṇapuṣpī sadāpuṣpā pratyakpuṣpā kaṣāyaiśca, elā hareṇu priyaṅgu pṛthvīkā kustumburu tagara nalada hrīve ratālīśośīra kaṣāyaiśca, ikṣukāṇḍekṣvikṣuvālikā darbha poṭagalakālaṅkṛ(ṅka)takaṣāyaiśca,

sumanāsaumanasyāyanī haridrā dāruharidrā vṛścīra punarnavā mahā sahākṣudra sahākaṣāyaiśca, śālmali śālmalikabhadraparṇyelāparṇyupodikoddālaka dhanvanarājādanopacitrāgopī śṛṅgāṭikā kaṣāyaiśca, pippalī pippalīmūla cavya citraka śṛṅgavera sarṣapa phāṇita kṣīra kṣāra lavaṇodakaiśca, yathālābhaṃ yatheṣṭaṃ vā’pyupasaṃskṛtya vartikriyācūrṇāvaleha sneha kaṣāya māṃsa rasa yavāgū yūṣa kāmbalika kṣīropadheyānmodakānanyāṃśca bhakṣya prakārān vividhānanuvidhāya yathārhaṃ vamanārhāya dadyādvidhivadvamanam|

iti kalpasaṅgraho vamanadravyāṇām|

kalpameṣāṃ vistāreṇottarakālamupadekṣyāmaḥ||135||

We shall now expound the drugs which will be utilized in emetic therapies. They are –

The fruits of
Phala (Randia Dumetorum Lam)
Jimutaka (Luffa echinata Roxb)
Iksvaki (Langenaria Siceraria Standl)
Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica M. Roem)
Kutaja (Holarrhena Antidysentria wall)
Krtavedhana (Luffa acutangula Roxb) and

Leaves and flowers of
Phala (Randia dumetorum Lam)
Jimutaka (Luffa echinata Roxb)
Iksvaka (Lagenaria siceraria Standl) and
Dhamargava (Luffa cylindra M. Roem)

Decoction of the roots of:
Aragvadha (Cassia Fistula Linn)
Vrksaka (Holarrhena antidyesterica Well)
Mandana (Randia Dumetrorum Lam)
Svadukantaka (Tribulus Terrestris Linn)
Patha (Cissampelos Pareia Linn)
Patala (stereospermum suaveolens DG)
Sarngestha (Abrus precatorius Linn)
Murva (Clematis triloba Heyene ex Roth)
Saptaparna(Alstomia  scholaris Merr)
Naktamala(Pongamia pinnata merr)
Pichumarda(Azadirachta indica A. juss)
Patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn)
Susavi (momordica charantia Linn)
Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers)
Chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica Linn)
Somavalka (acacia catechu Willd)
Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Wild)
Dvipi (Solanum xanthocarum Schrad and wendl)
Shigru (moringa oleifera Lam)

Decoctions of

Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Linn)

Madhuka (madhuca indica J.F Gmel)

Kovidara (red variety of Bauhinia Variegata Linn)

Karvaudara (red vareity of Bauhinia Variefata Linn)

Nipa (Anthocephalus indicus A: Rich)

Vidula (Salix caprea Linn)

 Bimbi (Coccinia indica W & A)

Sanapuspi (Crotalaria Verrucosa Linn)

Sadapuspa (Caloripis Gigaantea R. Br Ex Ait)

Pratyakpuspa (Achyranthis aspera Linn)

Decoctions of

Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)

Harenu (Pisum Sativum Linn)

Priyangu (Callicarpa Macrophylla Vahi)

Prthvika (Nigella Sativa Linn)

Kustumburu (Coriandrum Sativum Linn)

Tagara (Valeriana wallichii Dc)

Nalada (Nardostachye Jatamamsi DG)

Hrivera (Pavonia Odorata willd)

Talisa (Abies webbiana Lindl)

Usira (vetiveria Zizanioides Nash)

Decoctions of

Iksu (saccharum officinarum Linn)

Kandeksu (saccharum spontaneum Linn)

Iksuvalika (Asteracantha longifolia Nees)

Darbha (desmostachya Bipinnata Stapf)

Potagala (arundo Dona linn)

Kalankrta (Cassia occidentalis Linn)

Decoctions of

Sumana (jasminum officinale Linn, var gladulifera Bailey)

Saumanasyayani (Myrstica fragrance Hovtt)

Haridra(Curcuma longa Linn)

Daruharidra (Berberis Aristata DC)

Vrscira (white variety of boerhaavia diffusa Linn)

Punarnava (red Variety of Boerhavia Diffusa Linn)

Mahasaha (teramnus labialis Spreng)

Ksudrasaha (Phaseolus Trilobus Ait)

Decoctions of

Salmali (salmalia malabariaca Schott and Endl)

Salmalika (Tecomella Undulata Seem)

Bhadraparni (Paederia Foetida linn)

 Elaparni (Alpinia Galanga Swartz)

Upodika (Basell Rubra Linn)

Uddalaka (Cordia Dibhotoma fort)

Dhanvana (grewia Tiliaefolia Vahl)

Rajadana (Minshops Hexandra Roxb)

Upacitra (Gopi (Hemidesmus Indicus R.B)

Srngatika (trapa Bispinosa Roxb)


Powder of

Pippali (piper longum Linn)

Root of Pippali

Chavya (pipper chaba Hunter)

Chitraka (plumbago Zeylanica Linn)

Srngavera (Zingiber Officine Rose) and

Water mixed with
Penidium MilkAlkali preparations andSalt

The above mentioned drugs in sufficient quantity or as much as available is processed in the forms Varti (tablets in an elongated from like a suppository), powder, linctus, medicated oil, decoction, meat-soup, gruel, yusa (soup), linctus, medicated oil, decoction, meat-soup, gruel, Yusha (soup), Kambabalika (a preparation of sour milk mixed with whey and vinegar) modaka – sweet meats prepared with milk and other forms of eatables. These preparations are properly administered for emesis to a patient after ascertaining his suitability for this therapy. This in brief, is the description of various preparations for emetic therapy. A detailed description of these preparations will be furnished in the Kalpa section later. [135]

Virechana Dravya Drugs used for purgation

विरेचनद्रव्याणितुश्यामात्रिवृच्चतुरङ्गुलतिल्वकमहावृक्षसप्तलाशङ्खिनीदन्तीद्रवन्तीनांक्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलानियथायोगंतैस्तैःक्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलैर्विक्लिप्ताविक्लिप्तैः, अजगन्धाश्वगन्धाजशृङ्गीक्षीरिणीनीलिनीक्लीतककषायैश्च, प्रकीर्योदकीर्यामसूरविदलाकम्पिल्लकविडङ्गगवाक्षीकषायैश्च, पीलुप्रियालमृद्वीकाकाश्मर्यपरूषकबदरदाडिमामलकहरीतकीबिभीतकवृश्चीरपुनर्नवाविदारिगन्धादिकषायैश्च, सीधुसुरासौवीरकतुषोदकमैरेयमेदकमदिरामधुमधूलकधान्याम्लकुवलबदरखर्जूरकर्कन्धुभिश्च, दधिदधिमण्डोदश्विद्भिश्च, गोमहिष्यजावीनांचक्षीरमूत्रैर्यथालाभंयथेष्टंवाऽप्युपसंस्कृत्यवर्तिक्रियाचूर्णासवलेहस्नेहकषायमांसरसयूषकाम्बलिकयवागूक्षीरोपधेयान्मोदकानन्यांश्चभक्ष्यप्र(वि)कारान्विविधांश्चयोगाननुविधाययथार्हंविरेचनार्हायदद्याद्विरेचनम्|
इतिकल्पसङ्ग्रहोविरेचनद्रव्याणाम्|
कल्पमेषांविस्तरेणयथावदुत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३६||

virecana dravyāṇi tu śyāmātrivṛccaturaṅgula tilvaka mahāvṛkṣa saptalā śaṅkhinī dantī dravantīnāṃ kṣīra mūlatvakpatrapuṣpaphalāni yathāyogaṃ taistaiḥ kṣīramūla tvakpatra puṣpa phalai rvikliptā vikliptaiḥ , ajagandhāśvagandhājaśṛṅgī kṣīriṇī nīlinī klītaka kaṣāyaiśca, prakīryodakīryā masūra vidalā kampillaka viḍaṅgagavākṣīkaṣāyaiśca, pīlu priyāla mṛdvīkā kāśmarya parūṣaka badara dāḍimāmalaka harītakī bibhītaka vṛścīra punarnavā vidārigandhādikaṣāyaiśca, sīdhu surā sauvīraka tuṣodaka maireya medaka madirā madhu madhūlaka dhānyāmlakuvala badara kharjūra karkandhubhiśca, dadhi dadhimaṇḍodaśvidbhiśca, gomahiṣyajāvīnāṃ ca kṣīramūtrairyathālābhaṃ yatheṣṭaṃ vā’pyupasaṃskṛtya vartikriyācūrṇāsavaleha sneha kaṣāya māṃsa rasa yūṣa kāmbalika yavāgū kṣīropadheyān modakānanyāṃśca bhakṣyapra(vi)kārān vividhāṃśca yogānanuvidhāya yathārhaṃ virecanārhāya dadyādvirecanam|

iti kalpasaṅgraho virecanadravyāṇām|

kalpameṣāṃ vistareṇa yathāvaduttarakālamupadekṣyāmaḥ||136||

Drugs which can be included under the composition of purgation therapy are the latex, roots, barks, leaves, flowers and fruits of –

Syama (black variety of operculina Turpethum R. B)

Trivrt (white variety of O. Turpethum R., B)

Chaturangula (Cassia Fistula Linn)

Tilvaka (Symplocos Racemosa Roxb)

Mahavrksa (Euphorbia nerriifolia Linn)

Saptala (Acacia concinna DC)

Sankhini (canscora decussate Roem et. sch)

Danti (Baliospermun montanum muell Arg) and

Dravanti (Jatropha Glandulifera Roxb)

According to the requirements, the latex, roots, barks, leaves, flowers and fruits may be combined or used individually. These drugs may be mixed with the following group of drugs. 

Decoctions of

Ajagandha (Gymandropsis Gynandra Briquet)

Asvagandha (withania Somnifera Dunal)

Ajasrngi (Rhus Succedanea Linn)

Ksirini (mimosops Hexandra Roxb)

Nilini – Indigofera tinctorea 

 Klitaka (glycyrrhiza Glabra Linn)

Decoctions of

Prakirya (caesalpinia Crista Linn)

Udakriya (pongamia Pinnata Merr)

Masuravidala (inchnocarpus frutescens R.Br)

Kampillaka (mellitus Philippinensis Muell Arg)

Vidanga (Embelia Ribes Burm F)

Gavaksi (Citrullus colocynthis Schard)

Decoctions of

Pilu (salvadora Persica Linn)

Priyala (Buchanania Lanzan spreng)

Mrdvika (Vitis Vinifera Linn)

Kasmarya (Gmelina Arborea Linn)

Parusaka (Grewia Asiatica Linn)

Badara (zizyphus Jujuba Lam)

Dadima (Punica granatum Linn)

Amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn)

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula linn)

Bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb)

Viscira (white variety of boerhaavia diffusa Linn)

Punarnava (red variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn)

Vidarignddha (desmostachinum gangeticum DC)

Sidhu (fermented liquor from mixture of thickened cane juice and dark brown crude sugar-CSSS)

Sura (fermented liquor from barley etc- CSSS)

Sauviraka (a type of wine)

Tusodaka (sour gruel prepared by fermenting barley along with its husk)

Maireya (a type of wine)

Medaka (a type of wine)

Madira (distilled wine of high alcoholic content)

Madhu (a type of wine)

Dhanyamla (sour fermented liquor from rice gruel)

Kuvala (zizyphus ativa Gaertn)

Badara (Zizyphus Jujuba Lam)

Kharjura (phoenix Sylvestris Roxb)

Karkandhu (Zixyphus Nummularia W. & A)

Curd
Dadhimanda (whey)
Udasvi (a mixture of water and butter milk in equal quantity MW) and
Milk and urine of cow, buffalo, goat and sheep

The above mentioned drugs in sufficient quantity or as much as available is processed in the forms of Vartikriya (eatables in an elongated form like a suppository), powder, alcholic preparation, linctus, medicated ghee, decoction, meat-soup, Yusa (soup), Kambalika (a preparation of sour milk preparation), gruel, milk products, sweet meats like modaka and any other form of eatable shall be prepared with different combinations. They should be administered for purgative therapy after having carefully accessed the constitution etc factors and if the person is eligible for purgation therapy. This in brief is the description of medicines / drugs used in purgation therapies and their various forms of use. These preparations will be furnished in detail the Kalpa section later. [136]

आस्थापनेषुतुभूयिष्ठकल्पानिद्रव्याणियानियोगमुपयान्तितेषुतेष्ववस्थान्तरेष्वातुराणां, तानिद्रव्याणिनामतोविस्तरेणोपदिश्यमानान्यपरिसङ्ख्येयानिस्युरतिबहुत्वात्; इष्टश्चानतिसङ्क्षेपविस्तरोपदेशस्तन्त्रे, इष्टंचकेवलंज्ञानं, तस्माद्रसतएवतान्यत्रव्याख्यास्यामः|
रससंसर्गविकल्पविस्तरोह्येषामपरिसङ्ख्येयः, समवेतानांरसानामंशांशबलविकल्पातिबहुत्वात्|
तस्माद्द्रव्याणांचैकदेशमुदाहरणार्थंरसेष्वनुविभज्यरसैकैकश्येनचनामलक्षणार्थंषडास्थापनस्कन्धारसतोऽनुविभज्यव्याख्यास्तन्ते||१३७||

āsthāpaneṣu tu bhūyiṣṭhakalpāni dravyāṇi yāni yogamupayānti teṣu teṣvavasthāntareṣvāturāṇāṃ, tāni dravyāṇi nāmato vistareṇopadiśyamānānyaparisaṅkhyeyāni syuratibahutvāt; iṣṭaścānatisaṅkṣepavistaropadeśastantre, iṣṭaṃ ca kevalaṃ jñānaṃ, tasmādrasata eva tānyatra vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|

rasasaṃsargavikalpavistaro hyeṣāmaparisaṅkhyeyaḥ, samavetānāṃ rasānāmaṃśāṃśabalavikalpātibahutvāt|

tasmāddravyāṇāṃ caikadeśamudāharaṇārthaṃ raseṣvanuvibhajya rasaikaikaśyena ca nāmalakṣaṇārthaṃ ṣaḍāsthāpanaskandhā rasato’nuvibhajya vyākhyāstante||137||

There are many drugs which are used in Asthapana (decoction enema) for patients suffering from different ailments. The details are too exhaustive to be enumerated. It is desirable that the description of the science should neither be too lengthy nor too brief. At the same time the text should contain the entire scientific knowledge. Hence (some important ones of) these drugs grouped according to their tastes will be described here. [137]

Rarity of herbs having single taste

यत्तुषड्विधमास्थापनमेकरसमित्याचक्षतेभिषजः, तद्दुर्लभतमंसंसृष्टरसभूयिष्ठत्वाद्द्रव्याणाम्|
तस्मान्मधुराणिमधुरप्रायाणिमधुरविपाकानिमधुरप्रभावाणिचमधुरस्कन्धेमधुराण्येवकृत्वोपदेक्ष्यन्ते, तथेतराणिद्रव्याण्यपि||१३८||

yattu ṣaḍvidhamāsthāpanamekarasamityācakṣate bhiṣajaḥ, taddurlabhatamaṃ saṃsṛṣṭa rasa bhūyiṣṭhatvāddravyāṇām|

tasmānmadhurāṇi madhuraprāyāṇi madhuravipākāni madhuraprabhāvāṇi ca madhuraskandhe madhurāṇyeva kṛtvopadekṣyante, tathetarāṇi dravyāṇyapi||138||

Substances are mostly composed of many tastes. Drugs having only one taste so as to be unquestionably included under one of the six groups are very rare. Therefore the below mentioned drugs are included under the Madhuraskandha (group of drugs having sweet taste) –

  • drugs that are sweet or
  • drugs that are predominantly sweet or
  • drugs that are are sweet in Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion) or
  • drugs that produce  the effects similar to those of the drugs having sweet taste

Drugs belonging to other five groups are also selected on the basis of similar criteria. [138]

Madhura Rasa Dravya Drugs having sweet taste

तद्यथा-जीवकर्षभकौजीवन्तीवीरातामलकीकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्णीशालपर्णीपृश्निपर्ण्यसनपर्णीमधुपर्णीमेदामहामेदाकर्कटशृङ्गीशृङ्गाटिकाछिन्नरुहाच्छत्राऽतिच्छत्राश्रावणीमहाश्रावणीसहदेवाविश्वदेवाशुक्लाक्षीरशुक्लाबलाऽतिबलाविदारीक्षीरविदारीक्षुद्रसहामहासहाऋष्यगन्धाऽश्वगन्धावृश्चीरःपुनर्नवाबृहतीकण्टकारिकोरुबूकोमोरटःश्वदंष्ट्रासंहर्षाशतावरीशतपुष्पामधूकपुष्पीयष्टीमधुमधूलिकामृद्वीकाखर्जूरंपरूषकमात्मगुप्तापुष्करबीजंकशेरुकंराजकशेरुकंराजादनंकतकंकाश्मर्यंशीतपाक्योदनपाकीतालखर्जूरमस्तकमिक्षुरिक्षुवालिकादर्भःकुशःकाशःशालिर्गुन्द्रेत्कटकःशरमूलंराजक्षवकःऋष्यप्रोक्ताद्वारदाभारद्वाजीवनत्रपुष्यभीरुपत्रीहंसपादीकाकनासिकाकुलिङ्गाक्षीक्षीरवल्लीकपोलवल्लीकपोतवल्लीसोमवल्लीगोपवल्लीमधुवल्लीचेति; एषामेवंविधानामन्येषांचमधुरवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनसुप्रक्षालितायांस्थाल्यांसमावाप्यपयसाऽर्धोदकेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयेद्दर्व्यासततमवघट्टयन्; तदुपयुक्तभूयिष्ठेऽम्भसिगतरसेष्वौषधेषुपयसिचानुपदग्धेस्थालीमुपहृत्यसुपरिपूतंपयःसुखोष्णंघृततैलवसामज्जलवणफाणितोपहितंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्; शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामुपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेविधिवद्दद्यात्| इतिमधुरस्कन्धः||१३९||

tadyathā- jīvakarṣabhakau jīvantī vīrā tāmalakī kākolī kṣīrakākolī mudgaparṇī māṣaparṇī śālaparṇī pṛśniparṇyasanaparṇī madhuparṇī medā mahāmedā karkaṭaśṛṅgī śṛṅgāṭikā chinnaruhā cchatrā’ticchatrā śrāvaṇī mahāśrāvaṇī sahadevā viśvadevā śuklā kṣīraśuklā balā’tibalā vidārī kṣīravidārī kṣudrasahā mahāsahā ṛṣyagandhā’śvagandhā vṛścīraḥ punarnavā bṛhatī kaṇṭakārikorubūko moraṭaḥ śvadaṃṣṭrā saṃharṣā śatāvarī śatapuṣpā madhūkapuṣpī yaṣṭīmadhu madhūlikā mṛdvīkā kharjūraṃ parūṣakamātmaguptā puṣkarabījaṃ kaśerukaṃ rājakaśerukaṃ rājādanaṃ katakaṃ kāśmaryaṃ śītapākyodanapākī tāla kharjūra mastakamikṣurikṣuvālikā  darbhaḥ kuśaḥ kāśaḥ śālirgundretkaṭakaḥ śaramūlaṃ rājakṣavakaḥ ṛṣyaproktā dvāradā bhāradvājī vanatrapuṣyabhīrupatrī haṃsapādī kākanāsikā kuliṅgākṣī kṣīravallī kapolavallī kapotavallī somavallī gopavallī madhuvallī ceti; eṣāmevaṃvidhānāmanyeṣāṃ ca madhuravargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṃ chedyāni khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvā bhedyāni cāṇuśo bhedayitvā prakṣālya pānīyena suprakṣālitāyāṃ sthālyāṃ samāvāpya payasā’rdhodakenābhyāsicya sādhayeddarvyā satatamavaghaṭṭayan; tadupayuktabhūyiṣṭhe’mbhasi gataraseṣvauṣadheṣu payasi cānupadagdhe sthālīmupahṛtya suparipūtaṃ payaḥ sukhoṣṇaṃ ghṛta taila vasā majja lavaṇa phāṇitopahitaṃ bastiṃ vātavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt; śītaṃ tu madhusarpirbhyāmupasaṃsṛjya pittavikāriṇe vidhivaddadyāt|

iti madhuraskandhaḥ||139||

The following belong to the group of sweet drugs:

Jivaka

Rsabhaka

Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulate W. And A)

 Vira (Asparagus Racemosous Willd)

Tamalaki (phyllanthus Niruri Linn)

Kakoli

Ksirakakoli

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus ait)

Masaparni (teramnus Labialis Spreng)

Salaparni (desmodium Gengeticum Dc)

Prsniparni (Uraria Picts Desv)

Asanaparni (Clitoria ternatea Linn)

Madhuparni (Tinspora corifolia Miers)

Meda

Mahameda

Karkatasrngi (Rhus succedanea Linn)

Srngatika (Trapa bispinosa Roxb)

 Chinnaruha (Tinspora cordifolia Miers)

Chatra (Astercantta Longifolia Nees)

Aticchatra (red variety of Astercantha longifolic nees

Sravani (spaeranthus Indicus Linn)

Mahasrvani (a variety of Sravani)

Sahadeva (Sida rhombifolia Linn)

Visadeva

Sukla (Sugar)

Ksirasukla (bigger variety of Trapa Bispinosa Roxb)

Bala (Sida cordifolia linn)

Atibala (yellow variety of Sida cordifolia linn)

Vidari (Ipomeea Paniculata R. Br)

Ksiravidari (Ipomeea Paniculata R. Br)

Kusdrasaha (Aloe barbadensis Mill

Mahasaha (Teramnus labialis Spreng)

Rsyagandha (a variety of bala- Sida cordifolia Linn)

Asvagandha (withania somenifera Dunal)

Vrscira (white variety of Boerhavia diffusa Linn)

Punarnava (red   variety of Boerhaavia diffusia Linn)

Brhati (Solanum indicum Linn)

Kantakarika (solanum Xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl)

Urubuka (a type of Ricinus Communis Linn)

Morata (clematis Triloba Heyne ex Roth)

Svadamstra (Tribulus Terrestris Linn)

Samharsa (dendrophthoe falcata Ettingshausen)

Satavari (Asparagus racemosa Willd)

Satapuspa (foeniculum vulgare mill)

Madhukapuspi

Yastimadhu (ghycyrrhiza Glabra linn)

Madhulika (Madhuca longifolia maebride)

Mrdvika (vitis vinifera linn)

Kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb)

Paruska (grewia asitica linn)

Atmagupta (Mucuna Pruvia Hook)

Seeds puskara (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaetn)

Kaseruka (Scirpus grossus linn f)

Rajakaseruka (a variety of Scirpus grossus linn f)

Rajadana (Mimusops hexandra Roxb)

Kataka (Strychnos potatorum linn f)

Kasmarya (gmelina arborea linn)

Sitapaki

Odanapaki (blue variety of Barleria Cristala Linn)

Tala (Borassus Flabellier Linn)

Upper Portion of Kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb)

Iksu (Saccharum officinarum Linn)

Iksuvalika (Asteracantha longifolia Nees)

Darbha (a variety of Desmostachya Bipinnaia Stapf)

Kusa (desmostachya Bipinnata Stapf)

Kasa (Saccharum spontaneum Linn)

Sali (Oryza Sativa Linn)

Gundra (Saccharum –sara)

Itkataka

Root of Sara (saccharum Munja Roxb)

Rajaksavaka (euphorbia Microphylla Heyne)

Rsyaprokta (a variety of Sida cordifolia Linn)

Dvarada (Tectona Grandis Linn f)

Bharadvaja (wild variety of Cucumis sativus Linn)

Vanatrapusi (wild variety of Cucumis sativus Linn)

Abhirupatri (a variety of asparagus Racemosus willd)

Hamsapadi (Adiantum Lunulatum Burm)

Kakanasika (Leea acquata linn)

Kulingaksi

Ksiravavalli (a variety of ipomea pamculata R. Br)

Kapotavalli (elettaria cardomomum Moton)

Ela (Elettaria cardomomum Moton)

Somavalli (crinum Latifolium Linn)

Gopaballi (Hemidesmus Indicus R. B) and

Madhuvalli (a variety of Ghycrrhiza Glabara Linn)

The above mentioned ones and such other drugs belonging to the group of sweet drugs are cut or pierced into small pieces, washed well in water, kept in a vessel added with milk diluted with fifty percent water and boiled.

During the process of boiling, they are constantly stirred with a lable. When the water comes to the desired level, and drugs given up their active principles and before milk gets charred, the vessel is removed from the heat and milk is filtered well.

An expert physician should administer this luke-warm milk mixed with ghee, oil muscle fat, marrrow, salt and penidium as enema to a patient sufering from diseases due to vitiation of Vata, following the proper procedure.  To a patient suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of Pitta, this milk is administered as enema after it is cooled down and mixed with honey and ghee, following the proper procedure.

Thus ends the description of the group of sweet drugs [139]

Amla Rasa Dravya Drugs having sour taste

आम्राम्रातकलकुचकरमर्दवृक्षाम्लाम्लवेतसकुवलबदरदाडिममातुलुङ्गगण्डीरामलकनन्दीतकशीतक-तिन्तिण्डीकदन्तशठैरावतककोशाम्रधन्वनानांफलानि, पत्राणिचाम्रातकाश्मन्तकचाङ्गेरीणांचतुर्विधानांचाम्लिकानांद्वयोश्चकोलयोश्चामशुष्कयोर्द्वयोश्चैवशुष्काम्लिकयोर्ग्राम्यारण्ययोः, आसवद्रव्याणिचसुरासौवीरकतुषोदकमैरेयमेदकमदिरामधुशुक्तशीधुदधिदधिमण्डोदश्विद्धान्याम्लादीनिच, एषामेवंविधानामन्येषांचाम्लवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाद्रवैःस्थाल्यामभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावत्तैलवसामज्जलवणफाणितोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्|
इत्यम्लस्कन्धः||१४०||

āmrāmrātaka lakuca karamarda vṛkṣāmlāmlavetasa kuvala badara dāḍima mātuluṅga gaṇḍīrāmalaka nandītaka śītaka- tintiṇḍīka dantaśaṭhairāvataka kośāmra dhanvanānāṃ phalāni, patrāṇi cāmrātakāśmantakacāṅgerīṇāṃ caturvidhānāṃ cāmlikānāṃ dvayośca kolayoścāmaśuṣkayordvayoścaiva śuṣkāmlikayorgrāmyāraṇyayoḥ, āsavadravyāṇi ca surā sauvīraka tuṣodaka maireya medaka madirā madhuśuktaśīdhu dadhi dadhimaṇḍodaśviddhānyāmlādīni ca, eṣāmevaṃvidhānāmanyeṣāṃ cāmlavarga parisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadha dravyāṇāṃ chedyāni khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvā bhedyāni cāṇuśo bhedayitvā dravaiḥ sthālyāmabhyāsicya sādhayitvopasaṃskṛtya yathāvattailavasāmajjalavaṇaphāṇitopahitaṃ sukhoṣṇaṃ bastiṃ vātavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt|

ityamlaskandhaḥ||140||

The following belong to the group of sour drugs:
Fruits of

Amra (mangifera Indica Linn)

Amrataka (spondias Pinnata Kurz)

Lakuca (artocarpus lakoocha Roxb)

Karamarda (Carissa carandas Linn)

Vrksamla (Garcinia indica chois)

Amlavetasa (Rheum Emodi  wall)

Kuvala (Zizyphyus Sativa Gaertn)

Badara (Zizyphus Jujuba Lam)

Dadima (Punica Granatum Linn)

Matulunga (Citrus decumana Linn)

Gandira (Euphorbia Antiquorum Linn)

Amalaka (Emblica officinalis (gaertn)

Nanditaka (Ficus retusa Linn)

Sitaka

Tintidika (Rhus Parviflora Roxb)

Dantasatha (citrus Aurantium Linn)

Airavata (Citrus Aurantium Linn)

Kosamra

Dhanvana (Gerwia Tiliaefolia Vahl)

Leaves of

Amrataka (Sponias pinnate Kurz)

Asmantaka (Bauhinia Racemosa Lann)

Cangeri (Oxalis corniculata Linn)

Four varieties of Amlika (Tamarindus Indica Linn)

Dry and wet Kola (Zizyphus Jujuba Lam)

Wild and cultivated varieties of dried Amlika (Tamarindus indica (linn)

Alcoholic preparations viz

Sura (fermented liquor from barely etc)

Sauviraka (a type of wine)

Tusodaka (sour gruel prepared by fermending barley along with its husk)

Maireya (a type of wine)

Medaka (a type of wine)

 Madira (distilled wine of high alcoholic content)

Madhu (a type of wine)

Sukta (fermented drink)

Sidhu (fermented liquor from mixture of thickened sugarcane juice and dark brown crude sugar)

Curd

Dadhimanda (whey)

Udasvit (a mixture of water butter- milk in equal quantity) and

Dhanyamla (sour fermented liquor from rice gruel)

The above mentioned ones and such others belonging to the group of sour drugs are cut into small pieces, added with liquids and are boiled. They are added with oil, muscle fat, marrow, salt and pendium as mentioned early and administered as enema by an expert physician to patients suffering from diseases caused by the vitiation of vata.

Thus ends the description of the sour drugs. [140]

Lavana Rasa Dravya Drugs having saline taste

सैन्धवसौवर्चलकालविडपाक्यानूपकूप्यवालुकैलमौलकसामुद्ररोमकौद्भिदौषरपाटेयकपांशुजान्येवम्प्रकाराणिचान्यानिलवणवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानि, एतान्यम्लोपहितान्युष्णोदकोपहितानिवास्नेहवन्तिसुखोष्णंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्|
इतिलवणस्कन्धः||१४१||

saindhava sauvarcala kāla viḍa pākyānūpakūpyavālukailamaulaka sāmudra romakaudbhidauṣarapāṭeyakapāṃśujānyevamprakārāṇi cānyāni lavaṇavarga parisaṅkhyātāni, etānyamlopahitānyuṣṇodakopahitāni vā snehavanti sukhoṣṇaṃ bastiṃ vātavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt|

iti lavaṇaskandhaḥ||141||

The following belong to the group of saline drugs:

Saindhava (rock salt)

Sauvarcala (sonchal salt which is obtained by boiling alkalines like Soda with Emblic myrobalans)

Kala (a kind of black, factitious and purgative salt)

Vida (a kind of factitious salt, procured by boiling earth impregnated with saline, particular kind of fetid salt used medicinally as a tonic aperients – to relieve constipation)

Pakya (a type of salt prepared by evaporating earth and water from marshy land)

Anupa (a type of salt prepared by evaporating earth and water from marshy land)

Kupya (a type of salt prepared by evaporating well water)

Valukaila (a type of black salt prepared artificially)

Maulaka (a type of black salt prepared artificially)

Samudra (sea-salt)

Romaka (salt obtained from saline salt or from Sambar Lake)

Audbhida (salt obtained from saline soil)

Pateyaka (Poitu salt) and

Pamsuja (salt prepared from saline clay)

The above mentioned ones and such other substances are mixed with sour things or hot water and added with fat and mixed (ground, churned) thoroughly, and made luke-warm. This mixture is carefully administered as enema by an expert physician to a patient suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of Vata. Thus ends the description of the group saline drugs. [141]

Katu Rasa Dravya Herbs having pungent taste

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलहस्तिपिप्पलीचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदार्द्रकविडङ्गकुस्तुम्बुरुपीलुतेजोवत्येलाकुष्ठ-भल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासकिलिममूलकसर्षपलशुनकरञ्जशिग्रुकमधुशिग्रुकखरपुष्पभूस्तृणसुमुखसुरसकुठेरकार्जक-गण्डीरकालमालकपर्णासक्षवकफणिज्झकक्षारमूत्रपित्तानीति; एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांकटुकवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वागोमूत्रेणसहसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिंश्लेष्मविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्|
इतिकटुकस्कन्धः||१४२||

pippalī pippalīmūla hastipippalī cavya citraka śṛṅgavera maricājamodārdraka viḍaṅga kustumburu pīlu tejovatyelākuṣṭha- bhallātakāsthi hiṅguniryāsakilimamūlaka sarṣapa laśuna karañja śigruka madhuśigruka kharapuṣpa bhūstṛṇa sumukha surasa kuṭherakārjaka- gaṇḍīra kālamālaka parṇāsa kṣavaka phaṇijjhaka kṣāramūtrapittānīti; eṣāmevaṃvidhānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ kaṭuka varga parisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṃ chedyāni khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvā bhedyāni cāṇuśo bhedayitvā gomūtreṇa saha sādhayitvopasaṃskṛtya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇopahitaṃ sukhoṣṇaṃ bastiṃ śleṣmavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt|

iti kaṭukaskandhaḥ||142||

The following belong to the group of pungent drugs:

Pippali (piper longum Linn)

Root of Pippali

Hastipippali (Scndapuspus officinalis Schott0

Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter)

Chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica Linn)

Srngavera (dried Rhizome of Zingiber officicinale Rosc)

Maricha (Piper Nigrum Linn)

Ajamoda (Trachyspermum roxburghianum Sprague)

Ardaka (green Rizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc)

Vidanga ((Embelis ribes Burm f)

Kustumburu (Corriandrum Sativum Linn)

Pilu (Salvadora persica Linn)

Tejovati (Zanthoxylum alatum ROxb)

Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton)

Kustha (Saussurea Lappa C. B Clarke)

Nuts of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn)

Resinous exudation of Hingu (ferula Narthex Boiss)

Kilima (Cedrus deodara Loud)

Mulaka (Raphanus Sativus Linn)

 Sarsapa (Brassica nigar Koch)

Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn)

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata meer)

Sigruka (Moringa oleifera lam)

Madhusigruka (a variety of Moringa oleifera lam)

Kharapuspa (Achyranthes aspera Linn)

Bhustrna (Cymbopogon Citratus Stapf)

Various types of Basils, Viz. Sumukha, Surasa, Kutheraka, Arjaka, Gandiraka, Alamalaka, PArnasa, Ksavaka and Phanijjhaka

Alkaline, urines and biles

The above mentioned ones and such others belonging to the group of pungent drugs are cut into small pieces and boiled with cow-urine. After they are filtered, they are added with honey, oil and salt as per requirements. An expert physician should properly administer this luke-warm mixture as enema to a patient suffering from diseases caused by the vitiation of Kapha.

Thus ends the description of the group of pungent drugs. [142]

Tikta Rasa Dravya Drugs having bitter taste

चन्दननलदकृतमालनक्तमालनिम्बतुम्बुरुकुटजहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रामुस्तमूर्वाकिराततिक्तककटुकरोहिणीत्रायमाणा-कारवेल्लिकाकरीरकरवीरकेबुककठिल्लकवृषमण्डूकपर्णीकर्कोटकवार्ताकुकर्कशकाकमाचीकाकोदुम्बरिकासुषव्यतिविषा-पटोलकुलकपाठागुडूचीवेत्राग्रवेतसविकङ्कतबकुलसोमवल्कसप्तपर्णसुमनार्कावल्गुजवचातगरागुरुवालकोशीराणीति, एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांतिक्तवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिंश्लेष्मविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्, शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्|
इतितिक्तस्कन्धः||१४३||

candana nalada kṛtamāla naktamāla nimba tumburu kuṭaja haridrā dāruharidrā musta mūrvā kirātatiktaka kaṭukarohiṇī trāyamāṇā- kāravellikā karīra karavīra kebuka kaṭhillaka vṛṣa maṇḍūkaparṇī karkoṭaka vārtāku karkaśa kākamācī kākodumbarikāsuṣavyativiṣā- paṭola kulaka pāṭhā guḍūcī vetrāgra vetasa vikaṅkata bakula somavalka saptaparṇa sumanārkāvalguja vacā tagarāguru vālakośīrāṇīti, eṣāmevaṃvidhānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ tiktavarga parisaṅkhyātā nāmauṣadha dravyāṇāṃ chedyāni khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvā bhedyāni cāṇuśo bhedayitvā prakṣālya pānīyenābhyāsicya sādhayitvopasaṃskṛtya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇopahitaṃ sukhoṣṇaṃ bastiṃ śleṣmavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt, śītaṃ tu madhusarpirbhyāmapasaṃsṛjya pittavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt|

iti tiktaskandhaḥ||143||

The following belong to the group of bitter drugs:

Chandana (Santalum album Linn)

Nalada (Nardostachys jatamansi DC)

Krtamala (Cassia fistula Linn)

Naktamala (Pongamia pinnata Meer)

Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)

Tumburu (Zanthoxylon alatum Roxb)

Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall)

Haridra (Curcuma longa linn)

Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC)

Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn)

Murva (Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth)

Kiratatiktaka (Swertia chirata Buch-Ham)

Katukarohini (Picrorhiza kurroo Royle)

Trayamana (Gentiana kurroo Royle)

Karavellika (Momordica charantia linn)

Karira (Capparis deciduas edgew)

Karavira (Nerium indicum Mill)

Keduka

Kathillaka (Boerhavia diffusa Linn)

Vrsa (Adhatoda vasica Nees)

Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica urban)

Karkotaka (Momordica dioica Rpxb)

Vartaku (Solanum melongena Linn)

Karkasa (a variety of Trichosanthes curumerica Linn)

 Kakamaci (Solanum nigrum Linn)

 Kakodumbarika (Ficus Hispida Linn F)

 Susavi (A variety of Mamordica dioica ROxb)

 Ativisa (Aconitum Heterophyllum wall)

 Patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn)

 Kulaka

 Patha (Cissampelos Pareira Linn)

Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers)

Tender shoots of vetra (Salix caprea Linn)

Vetasa (Salix caprea Linn)

Vikankata (Gymnosporia spinosa fiori)

Bakula (Mimusops elengi Linn)

Somavalka (Acacia catechu Willd)

Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br)

Sumana (Jasminum officinale Linn, Vargrandilorum Bailey)

Arka (Caloropis gigantea r. Br ex Ait)

Avalguja (Psoralea corylifolia Linn)

Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn)

Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC)

Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb)

Valaka (Pavonia odorata Wiltd) and

Usira (Veriveria zizanioides Nash)

The above mentioned ones and such others belonging to the group of bitter drugs are cut or pierced into small pieces, washed, added with water and boiled. After it is filtered, this decoction is added with honey, oil and salt as per requirements.

An expert physician should properly administer this luke- warm mixture as enema to a patient suffering from diseases caused by the vitiation of kapha. To a patient suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of Pitta, the expert physician should administer this mixture along with honey and ghee as enema after it is cooled down. [143]

Kashaya Rasa Dravya Herbs having astringent taste

प्रियङ्ग्वनन्ताम्रास्थ्यम्बष्ठकीकट्वङ्गलोध्रमोचरससमङ्गाधातकीपुष्पपद्मापद्मकेशरजम्ब्वाम्रप्लक्षवट-कपीतनोदुम्बराश्वत्थभल्लातकास्थ्यश्मन्तकशिरीषशिंशपासोमवल्कतिन्दुकप्रियालबदरखदिर-सप्तपर्णाश्वकर्णस्यन्दनार्जुनारिमेदैलवालुकपरिपेलवकदम्बशल्लकीजिङ्गिनीकाशकशेरुकराजकशेरुकट्फलवंश-पद्मकाशोकशालधवसर्जभूर्जशणखरपुष्पापुरशमीमाचीकवरकतुङ्गाजकर्णस्फूर्जकबिभीतककुम्भीपुष्करबीज-बिसमृणालतालखर्जूरतरुणानीति, एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांकषायवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिंश्लेष्मविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्, शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामुपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेदद्यात्|
इतिकषायस्कन्धः||१४४||

priyaṅgvanantāmrāsthyambaṣṭhakīkaṭvaṅgalodhra mocarasa samaṅgā dhātakīpuṣpa padmā padmakeśara jambvāmra plakṣa vaṭa- kapītanodumbarāśvattha bhallātakāsthyaśmantaka śirīṣa śiṃśapā somavalka tinduka priyāla badara khadira- saptaparṇāśvakarṇasyandanārjunārimedailavāluka paripelava kadamba śallakī jiṅginī kāśa kaśeruka rājakaśerukaṭphalavaṃśa- padmakāśokaśāladhavasarja bhūrja śaṇa kharapuṣpāpuraśamī mācīkavarakatuṅgājakarṇasphūrjaka bibhītaka kumbhīpuṣkarabīja- bisamṛṇāla tāla kharjūra taruṇānīti, eṣāmevaṃvidhānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ kaṣāya varga parisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṃ chedyāni khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvā bhedyāni cāṇuśo bhedayitvā prakṣālya pānīyenābhyāsicya sādhayitvopasaṃskṛtya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇopahitaṃ sukhoṣṇaṃ bastiṃ śleṣmavikāriṇe vidhijño vidhivaddadyāt, śītaṃ tu madhusarpirbhyāmupasaṃsṛjya pittavikāriṇe dadyāt|

iti kaṣāyaskandhaḥ||144||

The following belong to the group of astringent drugs:

Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl)

Ananta (Hemidesmus indicus RB)

Stones of Amra (Mangifera indica Linn)

Ambasthaki (Cissampelos pareira Linn)

Katvanga (Oroxylum indicum Vent)

Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb)

Mocarasa (Salmalia malbarica Schoot and Endl)

Samanga (Mimosa pudica Linn)

Flowers of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz)

Padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)

Stamens of Padma

Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels)

Amra (Mangifera indica Linn)

Plaksa (Ficus locor Buch-Ham)

Vata (Ficus bengalensis Linn)

Kapitana (a variety of Albizzia lebbeck Benth)

Udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn)

Asvattha (Flcus religiosa Linn)

Nuts of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn f)

Asmantaka (Bauhinia racemosa Lam)

Sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth)

Simsapa (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb)

Somavalka (a variety of Acacia catechy Willd)

Tinduka (Diosphyros peregrine Gurke)

Priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng)

Badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam)

Khadira (Acacia catechu Willd)

Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br)

Asvakarna (Dipterosarpus alatus Roxb)

Syandana

Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna W. and A)

Arimeda (a variety of Axacia catechu Willd)

Elavaluka (Brunus cerasus Linn)

Paripwlava

Kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus A Rich)

Sallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb)

Jingini

Kasa (Saccharum spontaneum Linn)

Kaseruka (Scirpus grossus Linn)

Rajakaseru (A variety of Scirpus grossus Linn f)

Kathala (Myrica nagi Thunb)

Vamsa (Bambusa arundinacea Retx)

Padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don)

Asoka (Saraca indica Linn)

 Sala (Shorea robusta Gaertn f)

Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia wall)

Sarija (Vateria indica Linn)

Bhurja (Betula utilis D. Don)

Sana (Crotalaria juncia Linn)

Kharapuspa (Achyranthes aspera Linn)

Kharapuspa (Achyranthes aspera Linn)

Pura (Commiphora mukul Engl)

Sami (Prososis spicigera Linn)

Macika (Cedrus deodara Loud)

Varaka (Panicum miliaceaum Linn)

 Tunga (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn)

 Ajakarna (a variety of Vateria indico Linn)

 Sphurjaka (a variety of Disopyros peregrina Gurke)

 Bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica roxb)

 Kumbhi (Pistia stratoites Linn)

 Seed of lotus rhizome of lotus stalk of lotus

 Sprouts of Tala (Borassus flabellifer Linn) and

Sprouts of Kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb)

The above mentioned ones and such others belonging to the group of astringent drugs are cut or pierced into small pieces, washed, added with water and boiled. After it is filtered, this decoction is added with honey, oil and salt as per requirement

An expert physician should properly administer this luke- warm mixture as enema to a patient suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of Kapha. To a patient suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of Pitta, the expert physician should administer this mixture along with honey and ghee as enema after it is cooled down. [114]

तत्रश्लोकाः-
षड्वर्गाःपरिसङ्ख्यातायएतेरसभेदतः|
आस्थापनमभिप्रेत्यतान्विद्यात्सार्वयौगिकान्||१४५||
सर्वशोहिप्रणिहिताःसर्वरोगेषुजानता|
सर्वान्रोगान्नियच्छन्तियेभ्यआस्थापनंहितम्||१४६||

tatra ślokāḥ-

ṣaḍvargāḥ parisaṅkhyātā ya ete rasabhedataḥ|

āsthāpanamabhipretya tānvidyātsārvayaugikān||145||

sarvaśo hi praṇihitāḥ sarvarogeṣu jānatā|

sarvānrogānniyacchanti yebhya āsthāpanaṃ hitam||146||

To sum up – The six groups of drugs enumerated on the basis of their tastes can be used as corrective for patients suffering from diseases which are curable by such types of enema. An expert physician should cure all such diseases as are amenable to corrective enema therapy by administering enema composed of all or some of the useful drugs enumerated under a group.  [145- 146]

येषांयेषांप्रशान्त्यर्थंयेयेनपरिकीर्तिताः|
द्रव्यवर्गाविकाराणांतेषांतेपरिकोपकाः||१४७||
इत्येतेषडास्थापनस्कन्धारसतोऽनुविभज्यव्याख्याताः||१४८||

yeṣāṃ yeṣāṃ praśāntyarthaṃ ye ye na parikīrtitāḥ|

dravyavargā vikārāṇāṃ teṣāṃ te parikopakāḥ||147||

ityete ṣaḍāsthāpanaskandhā rasato’nuvibhajya vyākhyātāḥ||148||

Each group of drugs alleviates particular Doshas as mentioned above.

Other Doshas not mentioned against a given group of drugs get aggravated by that group of drugs.

Thus the six groups of drugs for corrective enema classified on the basis of their tastes are explained.  [147-148]

Selection of medicines

तेभ्योभिषग्बुद्धिमान्परिसङ्ख्यातमपियद्यद्द्रव्यमयौगिकंमन्येत, तत्तदपकर्षयेत्; यद्यच्चानुक्तमपियौगिकंमन्येत, तत्तद्विदध्यात्; वर्गमपिवर्गेणोपसंसृजेदेकमेकेनानेकेनवायुक्तिंप्रमाणीकृत्य|
प्रचरणमिवभिक्षुकस्यबीजमिवकर्षकस्यसूत्रंबुद्धिमतामल्पमप्यनल्पज्ञानायभवति; तस्माद्बुद्धिमतामूहापोहवितर्काः, मन्दबुद्धेस्तुयथोक्तानुगमनमेवश्रेयः|
यथोक्तंहिमार्गमनुगच्छन्भिषक्संसाधयतिकार्यमनतिमहत्त्वाद्वाविनिपातयत्यनतिह्रस्वत्वादुदाहरणस्येति||१४९||

tebhyo bhiṣagbuddhimān parisaṅkhyātamapi yadyaddravyamayaugikaṃ manyeta, tattadapakarṣayet; yadyaccānuktamapi yaugikaṃ manyeta, tattadvidadhyāt; vargamapi vargeṇopasaṃsṛjedekamekenānekena vā yuktiṃ pramāṇīkṛtya|

pracaraṇamiva bhikṣukasya bījamiva karṣakasya sūtraṃ buddhimatāmalpamapyanalpajñānāya bhavati; tasmādbuddhimatāmūhāpohavitarkāḥ, mandabuddhestu yathoktānugamanameva śreyaḥ|

yathoktaṃ hi mārgamanugacchan bhiṣak saṃsādhayati kāryamanatimahattvādvā vinipātayatyanatihrasvatvādudāharaṇasyeti||149||

A wise physician should discard such of the drugs which are not found in the treatment of a particular disease from a group.

At the same time even if some other drugs which are not mentioned above, but are found useful in the treatment of a diseases, he should add them to the group concerned.

If the rationale of the therapy for the treatment of a disease so demands, the drugs of some other groups may also be added to those of another group.

Just like a mendicant fills his bag with handful of rice collected as alms from different houses as he roams around or just like a farmer just by sowing few seeds of grains would grow enormous quantity of food (rice, paddy), a wise person would gain immense treasure of knowledge from the aphorisms explained in Ayurveda treatises (and he should commit himself in doing so).

An intelligent physican uses these aphorisms as a guide to understand many other things by reasoning and implications.

A physician possessing lesser intelligence would of course follow only what is described here. In view of the fact that things described here are not too brief to allow any ambiguity, a physician would not commit any serous mistakes, even if he follows only what is stated here by way of illustrations. [149]

Anuvasana Dravya Drugs for anuvasana type of enema:

अतःपरमनुवासनद्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः|
अनुवासनंतुस्नेहएव|
स्नेहस्तुद्विविधः-स्थावरात्मकः, जङ्गमात्मकश्च|
तत्रस्थावरात्मकःस्नेहस्तैलमतैलंच|
तद्द्वयंतैलमेवकृत्वोपदेक्ष्यामः, सर्वतस्तैलप्राधान्यात्|
जङ्गमात्मकस्तुवसा, मज्जा, सर्पिरिति|
तेषांतैलवसामज्जसर्पिषांयथापूर्वंश्रेष्ठंवातश्लेष्मविकारेष्वनुवासनीयेषु, यथोत्तरंतुपित्तविकारेषु, सर्वएववासर्वविकारेष्वपियोगमुपयान्तिसंस्कारविधिविशेषादिति||१५०||

ataḥ paramanuvāsanadravyāṇyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ|

anuvāsanaṃ tu sneha eva|

snehastu dvividhaḥ- sthāvarātmakaḥ, jaṅgamātmakaśca|

tatra sthāvarātmakaḥ snehastailamatailaṃ ca|

taddvayaṃ tailameva kṛtvopadekṣyāmaḥ, sarvatastailaprādhānyāt|

jaṅgamātmakastu vasā, majjā, sarpiriti|

teṣāṃ taila vasā majja sarpiṣāṃ yathāpūrvaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ vāta śleṣma vikāreṣvanuvāsanīyeṣu, yathottaraṃ tu pittavikāreṣu, sarva eva vā sarvavikāreṣvapi yogamupayānti saṃskāra vidhi viśeṣāditi||150||

We shall now expound the drugs used in Anuvasana type of (unctuous) enema. Anuvasana type of enema is composed of fats. Fats are two types, depending upon their sources, viz. vegetable and animal. Vegetable oils may be obtained from Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn) or from other such oil-bearing plants.

Both these types of oil will be described by a single term ‘Taila’ (lit meaning the oil extracted from the seeds of ‘Tila i.e Sesamum Indicum Linn) because the oil extracted from Tila is the most important of all oils. Muscle fat, marrow and ghee constitute the fats of animal origin. The preceding ones bear superiority over the succeeding ones as ingredients of unctuous enema for the treatment of diseases caused by Vata and Kapha. On the other hand for the treatment of diseases due to Pitta, oil, muscle fat, marrow and ghee are the best in that successive order for administering enema.  When processed in a specific manner, all of them are, however, useful in all types of diseases. [150]

Drugs of errhines:

शिरोविरेचनद्रव्याणिपुनरपामार्गपिप्पलीमरिचविडङ्गशिग्रुशिरीषतुम्बुरुपिल्वजाज्यमोदावार्ताकीपृथ्वीकैलाहरेणुकाफलानिच, सुमुखसुरसकुठेरकगण्डीरकालमालकपर्णासक्षवकफणिज्झकहरिद्राशृङ्गवेरमूलकलशुनतर्कारीसर्षपपत्राणिच, अर्कालर्ककुष्ठनागदन्तीवचापामार्गश्वेताज्योतिष्मतीगवाक्षीगण्डीरपुष्प्यवाक्पुष्पीवृश्चिकालीवयस्थातिविषामूलानिच, हरिद्राशृङ्गवेरमूलकलशुनकन्दाश्च, लोध्रमदनसप्तपर्णनिम्बार्कपुष्पाणिच, देवदार्वगुरुसरलशल्लकीजिङ्गिन्यसनहिङ्गुनिर्यासाश्च, तेजोवतीवराङ्गेङ्गुदीशोभाञ्जनकबृहतीकण्टकारिकात्वचश्चेति|
शिरोविरेचनंसप्तविधं, फल-पत्र-मूल-कन्द-पुष्प-निर्यास-त्वगाश्रयभेदात्|
लवणकटुतिक्तकषायाणिचेन्द्रियोपशयानितथाऽपराण्यनुक्तान्यपिद्रव्याणियथायोगविहितानिशिरोविरेचनार्थमुपदिश्यन्तइति||१५१||

śirovirecana dravyāṇi punarapāmārga pippalī marica viḍaṅga śigru śirīṣa tumburu pilvajājyamodāvārtākīpṛthvīkailāhareṇukāphalāni ca, sumukha surasa kuṭheraka gaṇḍīrakālamālaka parṇāsa kṣavaka phaṇijjhaka haridrā śṛṅgavera mūlaka laśuna tarkārī sarṣapa patrāṇi ca, arkālarka kuṣṭha nāgadantī vacāpāmārga śvetā jyotiṣmatī gavākṣī gaṇḍīra puṣpya vākpuṣpī vṛścikālī vayasthātiviṣāmūlāni ca, haridrā śṛṅgavera mūlaka laśuna kandāśca, lodhra madana saptaparṇa nimbārka puṣpāṇi ca, devadārvaguru sarala śallakī jiṅginyasana hiṅguniryāsāśca, tejovatī varāṅgeṅgudī śobhāñjanaka bṛhatī kaṇṭakārikātvacaśceti|

śirovirecanaṃ saptavidhaṃ, phala-patra-mūla-kanda-puṣpa-niryāsa-tvagāśrayabhedāt|

lavaṇa kaṭu tikta kaṣāyāṇi cendriyopaśayāni tathā’parāṇyanuktānyapi dravyāṇi yathāyogavihitāni śirovirecanārthamupadiśyanta iti||151||

The following drugs help in the elimination of Doshas from the head (errhines)
Fruits of

Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera Linn)

Pippali (Piper longum Linn)

Marica (Piper nigum Linn)

Vidanga (Embelia Ribes Burm f)

Sigru (Moringa oleifera Lam)

Sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth)

Tumburu (Xanthoxylom Roxb)

 Pilu (Salvadora persica linn)

 Ajaji (Cuminum cyminum Linn)

 Ajamoda (Tachyspermum roxburghianum spague)

Vartaki (Solanum melongen Linn)

 Prthvika (Nigella saliva Linn)

 Ela (Electtaria cardamoum Maton)

 Harenuka (Pisum sativum Linn)

Leaves of

Various types of basils, viz, Sumukha, surasa, Kutheraka, Gandira, kalamalakam Parnasa, ksavaka and Phanijjhaka

Srngavera (Curuma longa Linn)

Srngavera (Zingriber officinale Rose)

Mulaka (Raphanus sativus Linn)

Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn)

Tarkari (Sesbania sesban Marr)

Sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch)


Roots of

Arka (Calotropis gigantean R. Br. Ex Ait)

Alarka (A type of Arka)

Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B Clarke)

 Nagadanti, (a varity of Baliospermum montanum muell- Arg)

Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn)

 Apamarga (Achyarnthes aspera Linn)

 Sveta (white variety of Clitria ternatea Linn)

Jyotismati (Celastrus paniculata Willd)

 Gavaksi (Citrullus colocynthis Schard)

Gandirapuspi (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn)

Avakpuspi (Achyranthes aspera Linn)

 Vrcikali (Tragia involucrata Linn)

Vayastha (Bacopa monnieri Pennel)

 Ativisa (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall)

Rhizomes etc of

Haridra (Curcuma Longa Linn)

 Srngavera zingiber Offianale Rose)

Mulaka (Raphanus sativus Linn)

 Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn)

Flowers of

Lodhra (Symplocos Roxb)

 Masana (Randia dumetorum Lam)

Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br)

Nimbi (Azadirachta indica A. Juss0

Arka (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. Ex Ait)

Resinous exudations of

Devadaru (Cedrus deodara Loud)

Aguru (Aquilaria agaliocha Roxb)

 Sarala (Pinus roxburghii Sergent)

Sallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb)

Jingini

Asana (Terminalia tomentosa W & A)

Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss)

Barks of

Tejovati (Zanthoxylom alatum Roxb)

Varanga (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume)

Ingudi (Balanites aegvptica Delile)

Sobhanjanaka (Moringa oleifera Lam)

Brhati (Solanum indicum Linn)

Kantakarika (Solanum xanthocapum Schard & Wendl)

These articles used as errhines are classified into seven types, depending upon their source, viz, fruit, leaf, root, rhizome, flower, resinous exudation and bark.

Such of the saline, pungent and bitter drugs as are soothing to the sense organs and other which are not enumerated here but have similar Properties may also be used (as errhines) for the elimination of Doshas from the head. [151]

तत्रश्लोकाः-
लक्षणाचार्यशिष्याणांपरीक्षाकारणंचयत्|
अध्येयाध्यापनविधीसम्भाषाविधिरेवच||१५२||
षड्भिरूनानिपञ्चाशद्वादमार्गपदानिच|
पदानिदशचान्यानिकारणादीनितत्त्वतः||१५३||
सम्प्रश्नश्चपरीक्षादेर्नवकोवमनादिषु|
भिषग्जितीयेरोगाणांविमानेसम्प्रकाशितः||१५४||

tatra ślokāḥ-

lakṣaṇācāryaśiṣyāṇāṃ parīkṣā kāraṇaṃ ca yat|

adhyeyādhyāpanavidhī sambhāṣā vidhireva ca||152||

ṣaḍbhirūnāni pañcāśadvādamārgapadāni ca|

padāni daśa cānyāni kāraṇādīni tattvataḥ||153||

sampraśnaśca parīkṣādernavako vamanādiṣu|

bhiṣagjitīye rogāṇāṃ vimāne samprakāśitaḥ||154||

To sum up:- examination of the text, the preceptor and the disciple, objects of such examination, procedure for study, teaching and deliberations in  a seminar, forty – four terms concreting the arguments in seminar., ten other terms, viz, cause  etc. nine queries about   examination etc. drugs used for emesis etc- all these topics are discussed in this chapter on the “Determination of the Specific Requirements for the treatment of Diseases”. [152-154]

बहुविधमिदमुक्तमर्थजातंबहुविधवाक्यविचित्रमर्थकान्तम्|
बहुविधशुभशब्दसन्धियुक्तंबहुविधवादनिसूदनंपरेषाम्||१५५||
इमांमतिंबहुविधहेतुसंश्रयांविजज्ञिवान्परमतवादसूदनीम्|
नसज्जतेपरवचनावमर्दनैर्नशक्यतेपरवचनैश्चमर्दितुम्||१५६||
दोषादीनांतुभावानांसर्वेषामेवहेतुमत्|
मानात्सम्यग्विमानानिनिरुक्तानिविभागशः||१५७||

bahuvidhamidamuktamarthajātaṃ bahuvidhavākyavicitramarthakāntam|

bahuvidhaśubhaśabdasandhiyuktaṃ bahuvidhavādanisūdanaṃ pareṣām||155||

imāṃ matiṃ bahuvidhahetusaṃśrayāṃ vijajñivān paramatavādasūdanīm|

na sajjate paravacanāvamardanairna śakyate paravacanaiśca marditum||156||

doṣādīnāṃ tu bhāvānāṃ sarveṣāmeva hetumat|

mānāt samyagvimānāni niruktāni vibhāgaśaḥ||157||

Thus the various aspects of the specific Determination have been explained decorated with a variety of sentences elegant with relevant meanings, endowed with the conjunction of the various auspicious terms and with powers to nullify the various arguments put-forth by opponents.
One who is well acquainted with the contents of this chapter based on the various principles of causality and with powers to nullify the arguments put forth by opponents would not surrender to the views of opponents nor can he ever be defeated by the specific Determinations classified according to the measurement of the therapeutic aspects like the Doshas etc. are described here with apt arguments. [155-157]

इत्यग्निवेशकृतेतन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेविमानस्थाने
रोगभिषग्जितीयविमानंनामाष्टमोऽध्यायः||८||
(अग्निवेशकृतेतन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृते|
अनेनावधिनास्थानंविमानानांसमर्थितम्|)|

ityagniveśakṛte tantre caraka pratisaṃskṛte vimānasthāne

rogabhiṣagjitīyavimānaṃ nāmāṣṭamo’dhyāyaḥ||8||

(agniveśakṛte tantre carakapratisaṃskṛte|

anenāvadhinā sthānaṃ vimānānāṃ samarthitam|)|

Thus ends the eight chapter on “The Determination of the specific requirements for the Treatment of Diseases” of the Vimana Section of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. [8]

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