Durva (Bermuda Grass) Cynodon dactylon Uses, Research, Remedies, Medicines

Bermuda Grass – Cynodon dactylon is an Ayurvedic herb used for the treatment ofeye disorders, herpes,  uterine disorder, convulsion etc. It is called Doorva / Durva in Ayurved. 

Latin name- Cynodon dactylon Pers.
Family- Graminae

Vernacular names

Bermuda grass – Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Doobh
English name- Conch grass, Bermuda grass, Indian doab
Bengali name- Durva
Gujarati name- Drow
Kannada name- Garike
Marathi name- Harali
Punjabi name- Dubda
Tamil name- Arugam pullu
Telugu name- Goriya gaddi

Morphology

Morphology of Cynodon dactylon:
Durva is a small herb spreading in the soil with its small roots emerging from the thin stem like structure. These root stick to the ground and the plant spread throughout the ground. The blades are 0.5-4 inches long with green to greyish green color. The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 inch) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in color.

The flowers are small and of purple to pale green color. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long.The plant is found all over India in the temperate climate.

Raja Nighantu has classified Durva into Neela durva, Shweta Durva, Maalaa Durva, Gandaali Doorva

Properties, part used, dosage

Properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet), Kashaya (Astringent)
Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion)
Vipaka – Madhura (Undergoes sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and pitta dosha)

Part used- Whole plant
Dosage-
Juice of plant- 10 to 20 ml
Decoction- 40 to 50 ml

Chemical composition

Chemical composition of Cynodon dactylon:
The plant is reported to contain Phenolic phyto- toxins, ferulic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydro- xybenzoic and O-hydroxyphenyl acetic acids. The leaves contain tricin, ?avone C- glycosides and a ?avonoid sulphate.

Uses

Uses of Durva – Bermuda grass: 

  • The paste of the durva plant is prepared and applied over fresh wounds and ulcers to control bleeding and quicken the process of healing.
  • In conjunctivitis, the fresh juice from the plant Cynodon dactylon is used as eye drops to reduce the reddishness, burning sensation and treat the condition.
  • Fresh juice of durva is given in a dose of 15-20 ml in conditions of epileptic seizures and psycho- somatic disorders.
  • In conditions of bleeding piles and blood mixed diarrhea, the cold infusion or decoction of Doorva is given in a dose of 50 ml.
  • To control bleeding from nose, the fresh juice of durva is installed as nasal drops.
  • To treat condition of menorrhagia and uterine prolapse, the decoction of durva is given in a dose of 50-60 ml. The decoction control bleeding and provide strength to the uterine muscles.
  • To treat condition of burning micturition, burning sensation of the body, cold infusion prepared from bermuda grass is given in a dose of 50-60 ml.
  • In skin diseases like scabies, herpes and discoloration of the skin, the paste of durva is applied over the affected area.
  • In case of scorpion bite, the fresh juice of durva is given in a dose of 30-40 ml to nullify the effect of poison.
  • Durva is used in religious function of Hindu religion; hence it is called Conch grass.

Sanskrit verse

Indications

Traditional uses and indications:
Neela Durva – Blue variety of flower
Hima – coolant
Tikta – bitter
Madhura – sweet
Tuvara – astringent
Balances Kapha and Pitta Dosha

Indicated in:
Asrajit – useful in blood disorders such as abscess, skin disorders, bleeding disorders such as menorrhagia, nasal bleeding etc.
Visarpa – herpes
Trushna – excessive thirst
Daha –  burning sensation, as in gastritis, neuropathy, burning sensation in eyes etc
Tvagamaya – skin disorders

White flowered Durva grass: Shveta Durva:
Varnya – Improves skin tone and complexion
Jeevaneeya – anti ageing, enlivening

Adverse effect

Need to be carefully used in Vata dominant conditions.
No adverse effect is known or reported after the use of Durva.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Ayurvedic medicines

Ayurvedic medicines containing Durva:
Patoladi choorna: This is a powder given for the treatment of cardiac disorder, digestive disorder and liver diseases.
Femicare syrup: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine indicated in the treatment for irregular menstrual cycle, excessive vaginal bleeding, painful periods, cervical erosion, habitual abortion, PID, Leucorrhea.

Raktasthambaka tablet: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine indicated in the treatment of Bleeding Disorders like Bleeding gums, Epistaxis, Haemoptysis, Haematuria, Anal bleeding due to Piles, Fissure & Fistula, DUB, Menorrhagia.
Kamdudha rasa: It is used in the treatment of Gastritis, diarrhea with blood discharge, leucorrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding and diabetes.

Durvadi taila: It is an oil used externally in the treatment of ulcers, wounds, dandruff and scabies on the scalp region.
Manasmitra vataka: It is a tablet used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions, to improve intelligence, speech problems, etc.

Arukaladi taila: It is an oil used externally to relieve jaundice and other hepatic conditions.
Amroid capsule: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine indicated in the treatment of piles and hemorrhoids.

Research

Research articles related to Cynodon dactylon:
Anti- microbial action: The antimicrobial action of the leaves of cynadon dactylon has been found by different solvent extracts including solvents like water, ethanol, alcohol as well as crude extract .since the use of these solvents as extracting agents has been proved to be more efficient in extorting the active compounds. All the extracts exhibited different degree of inhibition against selected gram positive and gram negative bacteria due to their varying polarity and solubility.

Anti- convulsant action: Anticonvulsant activity was studied against maximal electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The extract suppressed hind limb tonic extensions (HLTE) induced by MES and also exhibited protector effect in PTZ-induced seizures. In conclusion, we showed that the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon has anticonvulsant effect in the both models, suggesting their possible depressant action in the central nervous system.

Wound healing action: Aim of the present study is scientific validation of the plant for wound healing activity in detail. Aqueous extract of the plant was prepared and phytochemical constituents were detected by HPLC analysis. Acute and dermatological toxicity study of the extract was performed. The ointment was applied on selected clinical cases of chronic and complicated wounds and efficacy was evaluated on basis of scoring on granulation, epithelialization, vascularity as well as routine hematological investigations. Significant results (p<0.05) were observed both in pharmacological and clinical studies.

Anti- tumor activity: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Cynodon dactylon against Ehrlich ascitic Lymphoma (ELA) in Swiss albino mice. The tumor was induced in mice by intra-peritoneal injection of EAC (1X106cells/mouse). Methanolic extract of cynodon dactylon was administered to the experimental animals at a dose of 80µg/kg/day after 24 h of tumor inoculation. The methanolic extract brought back the altered levels of the hematological parameters and liver enzymes. Thus the present study revealed that methanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon possessed significant antitumor activity and hepato-protective effect.

Classical categorization

Charaka samhita-
Prajasthapana – group of herbs used in securing pregnancy
Dhanvantari Nighantu- Karaveeradi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu- Oushadhi varga
Raja Nighantu- Shalmalyadi varga
Shodala Nighantu- Karaveeradi varga

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: C. dactylon

Sanskrit Synonyms

Namaskarya – worth bowing down. Auspicious, favourite herb of God Sri Ganesha.
Shataparva- The root has many branches
Shatavalli- The plant has hundreds of branch like structure
Harita – green colour
Amruta, Vijaya, Mahaushadhi – very useful medicinal herb
Jaya, Mangalya, Subhaga, Shiva, Shiveshta, Mangala, Shanta – peaceful, auspicious, liked by God Shiva.
Bhutahantri – useful against demons, microbes
Doorvaa, Bhaargavi, Shatparvaa, Tiktaparvaa, Shatviryaa, Sahastravirya, Shitaa, Anantaa, Golomi
Shadvala, Gauri, Shambhavi, Shyama,
Darma, Shara, Nala – these three together called Durvatraya (triplets)

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: [email protected]
Click to consult Dr Prashanth BK

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