Pineapple Benefits, Research, Remedies Side Effects

Pineapple Ananas comosus is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of anorexia, dysmenorrhea, renal calculi, intestinal worms and general debility. 

Latin name- Ananas comosus Merr.
Family- Bromeliaceae

Vernacular names

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Ananas
English name- Pineapple
Bengali name- Anarasa
Many of the Indian languages know the plant as Ananas.
Brazilian name – Ananas, Nana
Burmese name – Nunnati
Camarines – Malisa
Cambodia – Meneas
Canarese name – Anunasa hannu
Catalan – Pinu de-America

Sanskrit synonyms

Bahunetra- Has many eye like projection in the fruit

Morphology

Morphology of Ananas comosus:
Ananas comosus is a small plant, which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 m tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. The individual fruit of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red. The ovaries develop into berries, which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple fruit. The plant is cultivated all over India for its fruit.

Properties, part used, dosage

Medicinal properties of Pineapple: 
Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet), Amla (Sour)
Guna (Qualities) – Guru (Heavy for digestion), Snigdha (Slimy in nature)
Vipaka – Madhura (Undergoes sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)
Karma (Actions) – Vatapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated vata and pitta dosha)

Part used- Fruit
Dosage-
Fruit juice- 25 to 50 ml

Chemical composition

Leaves contain starch, ergo sterol peroxide 5 stigmastene 3 ß – 7∞ diol besides ß –sito sterol. Campesterol, stigmasterol, camlpestenol, myristicacid and 2 aliphatic esters.  Presence of pipe colinic acid, an oil, wax and asrcorbic acids is also reported. Stem contains 2 anti- oxidants.  Fruits contain steriols glucose vitamin A, B and C, volatile constituents, P-Co umaric caffeic, ferulic and sinapic aids, sesquiter pene, hydro carbons and several amino acids.

Uses, Sanskrit verse

Uses of Ananas:

  • Fresh juice of the unripe fruit of pineapple is given to expel intestinal worms.
  • Ripened fruit juice of Ananas is given in a dose of 25-50 ml to improve the urine output and part of treatment in renal calculi.
  • The pulp of the unripe fruit of pineapple is beneficial to treat dysmenorrhea.
  • Fresh fruit juice is given in a dose of 40-50 ml to treat anorexia and improve digestion.
  • Fresh fruit of pineapple is beneficial during the condition of fever, thirst, jaundice and constipation.
  • Pineapple fruit is beneficial in improving the cardiac rhythm and in giving strength.
  • Both unripe and ripened Pineapple is used in many recipes, desserts all over the world.

बहुनेत्रफलं चाम्लं कृमिघ्नं मधुरं सरम् ।
बल्यं वातहरं रुच्यं श्लेष्मलं तर्पणं गुरु॥ Ni. Ra.

Adverse effect

No adverse effect is known or reported after the normal use of ripened Ananas.
But fresh juice of unripe pineapple can cause purgation and contraction of the uterine muscles. Hence best avoided during late pregnancy.
Related: Oxytocic effect of Ananas comosus
The research on its dangers during pregnancy usage is not well established, scientifically. Hence, it is good to assume that ripe pineapple fruit is safe during pregnancy.
Related: Investigation of uterotonic properties of Ananas comosus extracts.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Research

Research articles related to Ananas comosus:
Anti- diabetic study:  Hence, in the present study, an earnest attempt has been made to explore the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ananas comosus leaves in STZ induced diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Ananas comosus leaves extract (300mg/kg b.w.) on the levels of biochemical parameters was determined in experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of biochemical parameters in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values upon treatment with the leaves extract.

Anti- coagulant action: This study was conducted to determine the viability of pineapple (Ananas comosus) extract as laboratory anticoagulant and substitute for ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). With regard to the ability to prevent blood coagulation, extract obtained through Expression with spiral twist obtained positive results comparable for EDTA.

Wound healing action: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral bromelain on perineal pain and wound healing after episiotomy in primiparous women. Bromelain is a crude, aqueous extract derived from pineapple stems and fruits. In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 82 primiparous women fulfilling the inclusion criteria received bromelain or placebo randomly. Episiotomy pain significantly reduced in bromelain group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05) and wound healing was faster in bromelain group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05) on follow-up days.

Anti- microbial action: The study assessed the antimicrobial activity of crude bromelain extracted from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L.) on some microorganisms isolated from fresh and overnight meat at different temperatures and pH. Six bacteria namely, Proteus spp, Corynebacterium spp, B. subtilis, S. pyogenesand two different strains of E. coli., were isolated and identified by the conventional methods. Crude bromelain seems to be more effective in inhibiting gram positive bacteria than gram negative. Crude bromelain may be an effective antimicrobial agent against E. coli and Proteus spp.

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Family: Bromeliaceae
Subfamily: Bromelioideae
Genus: Ananas
Species: A. comosus

Gana and varga

Phala Varga – Priya Nigantu
Anannasadi Varga – Nigantu Adarsha

Market available variants of pineapple

Pineapple, raw, all varieties

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing

Pineapple, canned, water pack, solids and liquids

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha nourishing (pineapple is Kapha increasing but when stored in water pack, the nutrients get diluted and hence becomes less Kapha increasing)

Pineapple, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing

Pineapple, canned, light syrup pack, solids and liquids

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (less kapha increasing when compared to Pineapple, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids)

Pineapple, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – more heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (more Kapha increasing as it is heavy syrup)

Pineapple, canned, extra heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – more heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (greatly Kapha increasing as it is extra heavy syrup)

Pineapple, frozen, chunks, sweetened

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous (more heavy and unctuous than raw fruit as it is sweetened)
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (more kapha increasing due to sweeteners)

Pineapple, raw, traditional varieties

Taste – sweet, sour
Properties – heavy, unctuous
Potency – cold
After digestion taste transformation (Vipaka)  – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing

Pineapple, raw, extra sweet variety

Taste – sweet
Properties – heavy, unctuous
Potency – cold
After digestion taste transformation (Vipaka)  – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (more Kapha increasing when compared to traditional varieties

Pineapple juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added ascorbic acid

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing

Pineapple juice, frozen concentrate, unsweetened, undiluted

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – more heavy, unctuous (as it is concentrated from)
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (more kapha increasing as it is concentrated form)

Pineapple juice, frozen concentrate, unsweetened, diluted with 3 volume water

Rasa – sweet, sour
Guna – heavy, unctuous (not as heavy as frozen undiluted concentrate as it is diluted)
Veerya – cold
Vipaka – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (but does not increase Kapha as much as Pineapple juice, frozen concentrate, unsweetened, undiluted because it has been diluted, which makes it comparatively less heavier and less kapha increasing)

Pineapple juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, with added ascorbic acid

Taste – sweet, sour
Properties – heavy, unctuous
Potency – cold
After digestion taste transformation (Vipaka)  – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing

Pineapple juice, canned, not from concentrate, unsweetened, with added vitamins A, C and E

Taste – sweet, sour
Properties – heavy, unctuous
Potency – cold
After digestion taste transformation (Vipaka)  – sweet
Effect on Doshas
Vata balancing
Pitta balancing
Kapha increasing (slightly more Kapha increasing than pineapple juice without added vitamins)

Author: Dr.B.K.Prashanth M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
E mail: [email protected]
Click to consult Dr Prashanth BK

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