Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Similarities of characters in 2 or more things are explained through Taacheelya – by means of comparison.
The word Taacheelya is split as Tat + Sheela
Tat = That, Sheela = Similar
Saying – ‘This has the nature (swabhaava) just like (similar to) that has!’ is called Taacheelya. Here we have used comparison as a tool to study similarity. Thus comparison is the tool which helps in studying resemblances between 2 things in Taacheelya.
The iron by nature does not burn anything. But when the same iron is brought in contact with the fire and burnt red hot, it acquires the Ushna Guna or hot nature.
Now the swabhaava of loha (iron) has become similar to the agni swabhava (nature of fire).
This acquiring of nature of some other thing and becoming similar to it is called Taacheelya Dharma.
Now, the iron (which has been made hot by contact of fire) also has acquired the nature of burning things just like fire. The hot iron can burn your hands just like the fire does.
Now we say that ‘the nature of iron is just similar to the nature of fire’. This is called Taacheelya.
Thus, the knowledge of certain faculty associated with Saadrushya Dharma (property of similarity of one thing with some other thing) is called Taacheelya.
Let us understand this concept using a word which has 2 meanings, Supti.
Supti means loss of sensation or loss of activity. When a part of the body has Supti (numbness, caused by nerve deformity wherein there is less sensation or nil sensation) there will be no sensation in that part. When that part is pricked with a pin or a needle, the person doesn’t feel any sensation. It can be said that the part of the body having supti is sleeping.
Similarly Supti (supta, supta avastha, nidra) is a term used to describe a ‘state of sleep’. When the person is in Supti (sleep), there will be no activity. The person in Supti will not recognize any sensation of anything going around him.
Thus, to explain how a person suffering from Supti or numbness feels, the condition can be explained by comparing it to a person in Supti or in sleep.
The knowledge of Suptataa (numbness, less sensation in some part of your area) of any organ or part of a body to a prick of a pin or nail is gained in the same way as the knowledge of Supti (Nidraa or sleep) is gained.
The knowledge of Taacheelya helps us to understand the swabhaava or nature of one thing in comparison to the nature of another thing.
Types of Taacheelya
There are 17 types of Taacheelyas. They are as below mentioned.
- Taacheelya: Understanding things on basis of similarity
- Avayava: Understanding sections of a subject, knowing the unsaid on the basis of said information
- Vikaara: Understanding the changed forms of the same things based on comparison
- Saameepya: Understanding things on the basis of their proximity
- Bhooyastwam: Understanding exceptions and generalization
- Prakaara: Understanding categorizing and grouping things on the basis of similarity
- Guni-Guna Vibhava: Understanding the relationship between things and their qualities
- Samsaktataa: Understanding methods of substitutions
- Tad dharmataa: Understanding similar action of different things by comparison
- Sthaana: Understanding the relationship between the location and the localized
- Saahacharya: Understanding the association between things
- Tadarthya: Understanding the purpose of using or administering anything
- Karma: Understanding the working or action of things
- Guna Nimittataa: Understanding judicious use of qualities of things
- Cheshtaa Nimittataa: Understanding action of things
- Moola Samgjnaa: Understanding controversial terms
- Taatasthyam: Understanding the difference between real and virtual things
Taacheelya helps in getting the knowledge of unfamiliar things – Taacheelya helps us in understanding unfamiliar things in comparison (on the basis of similarity) familiar things. Example, understanding Supti (unfamiliar) on the basis of knowledge of Supta (familiar) is Taacheelya.
Just before conclusion –
We learn a lot of things in our life on the basis of similarity, proximity, resemblance and association of one thing with other thing or things. Taacheelya provides us 17 tools of such learning which makes a physician skilful and analytical.
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