Tantrayukti: Vidhana, Anagata Vekshana, Atikrantavekshana, Samshaya

By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat

Vidhana

vidhānam – Statement of contents :-
Vidhānam is the method of stating the gist of contents (bhihitamiti yathākramamuktam), in the very beginning of the monograph (prakaraṇānupūrvyā) to be established henceforth.

रकरणानुपूर्व्याऽभिहितं विधानम् । यथा- सक्थिमर्माण्येकादश प्रकरणानुपूर्व्याऽभिहितानि ॥सु.उ/२९॥
rakaraṇānupūrvyā’bhihitaṃ vidhānam | yathā- sakthimarmāṇyekādaśa prakaraṇānupūrvyā’bhihitāni ||Su.U/29||

Vidhānam is the method of stating the gist of contents (bhihitamiti yathākramamuktam), in the very beginning of the monograph (prakaraṇānupūrvyā) to be established henceforth.

Example:- sakthimarmāṇyekādaśa prakaraṇānupūrvyā’bhihitāni.
The marmas in shakthi pradesha are 11 in numbers. This statement which provides an in prior anticipatory and established knowledge of the contents (regarding the 11 marmas) to follow, hence forth with the elaborate details of those 11 marmas, their location, number and viddha lakshanas etc., gets known as Vidhānam.

Anaghata Vekshana

Anāgatāvekṣaṇam – Reference to a future statement :-

एवं वक्ष्यतीत्यनागतावेक्षणम् । यथा- श्लोकस्थाने ब्रूयात्- चिकित्सितेषु वक्ष्यामीति ॥सु.उ/३०॥
evaṃ vakṣyatītyanāgatāvekṣaṇam | yathā- ślokasthāne brūyāt- cikitsiteṣu vakṣyāmīti ||Su.U/30||

Mentioning of the topic “which is to be discussed in future or in the forthcoming chapters(evaṃ vakṣyati)” is known as Anāgatāvekṣaṇam. Example:- ślokasthāne brūyāt- cikitsiteṣu vakṣyāmīti – In the sutra sthāna, over a particular topic’s sandarbha – mentioning that “it’s details will be explained in chikitsā sthāna”. This sort of yukti is referred as Anāgatāvekṣaṇam

Atikranta Vekshana

Atikrāntāvekṣaṇaṃ – Reference to a past statement :-

यत्पूर्वमुक्तं तदतिक्रान्तावेक्षणम् । यथा- चिकित्सितेषु ब्रूयात्- श्लोकस्थाने यदीरितमिति ॥सु.उ/३१॥
yatpūrvamuktaṃ tadatikrāntāvekṣaṇam | yathā- cikitsiteṣu brūyāt- ślokasthāne yadīritamiti ||Su.U/31||

Atikrāntāvekṣaṇaṃ is the term of tantra yukti used when a topic explained in the past is referred to, in pertinence with the topic currently under discussion.
Example – cikitsiteṣu brūyāt- ślokasthāne yadīritamiti – Mentioning  in the Chikitsā-sthāna that “it (the topic under discussion) had already been dealt with in the Sutra-sthāna”.

Samshaya

Saṃśayaḥ – Doubt:-
उभयहेतुदर्शनं संशयः । यथा – तलहृदयाभिघातः प्राणहरः, पाणिपादच्छेदनमप्राणहरमिति ॥सु.उ/३२॥
ubhayahetudarśanaṃ saṃśayaḥ | yathā – talahṛdayābhighātaḥ prāṇaharaḥ, pāṇipādacchedanamaprāṇaharamiti ||Su.U/32||

Saṃśayaḥ yukti is the term used when explanations of two different opposite and dissimilar reasons (ubhayahetudarśanaṃ) are cited for two situations  which are identitical in nature.
Example – talahṛdayābhighātaḥ prāṇaharaḥ, pāṇipādacchedanam aprāṇaharamiti , which means – “Statement 1:- Any injury to the talahṛdaya, located in the center of the palm and soles are fatal to life. Statement 2:- Amputation of hand and foot is not fatal and saves one’s life.

The reason for the confusion is if the hand and foot giving ashraya to the talahṛdaya when amputated if not fatal to life, then how come the injury to the talahṛdaya be fatal. This confusion raises the doubt in the reader’s mind. But, either of the case is true in it’s own merits.

A spear or a cut injury caused over the talahṛdaya, which is present in the area of palmar and plantar aponeurosis if injured, the resultant swelling underneath the compositively placed aponeurosis, would cause immense pain, due to the anatomical limitations of the spreading of the swelling in the foot in want of space for the extra cellular fluids to seep around the viable space available in and around the aponeurosis. The fulminant pain at times, when left unattended for quite a period of time (as in those days this sort of injury usually occurs in the battle field, and the delay in getting immediate access to a sainika vaidya for first aid and or delay in getting mobilesed from the site of war need to be imagined to understand this concept), might result in neurogenic shock and or death due to the pain.

The other reason being, marmas are the site of the prAna vayu and the seat of manas too. Hence any severe injury resulting to the marmas, is vulnerable to life in general.

Given with the amputation of the hands or the legs, the procedure usually avoids the areas of the marmas, and amputation is done far away from the reach of the adjacent marmas.
Considering  the above two explanations though the statement initially creates a doubt, still could be understood to be true, when proper analysis gets done.

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