By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat
Pradesa is the determination of a present action from past events. For example—Devadatta’s Salya has been extracted by this person, hence Yajnadatta’s Salya will also be extracted by him.
प्रकृतस्यातिक्रान्तेन साधनं प्रदेशः । यथा- देवदत्तस्यानेन शल्यमुद्धृतं तथा यज्ञदत्तस्याप्ययमुद्धरिष्यतीति ॥सु.उ/१६॥
prakṛtasyātikrāntena sādhanaṃ pradeśaḥ | yathā- devadattasyānena śalyamuddhṛtaṃ tathā yajñadattasyāpyayamuddhariṣyatīti ||Su.U/16||
साधनमतिदेशः । यथा- यतोऽस्य वायुरुर्ध्वमुत्तिष्ठते तेनोदावर्ती स्यादिति ॥सु.उ/१७॥
sādhanamatideśaḥ | yathā- yato’sya vāyururdhvamuttiṣṭhate tenodāvartī syāditi ||Su.U/17||
Atideśa helps in recogniszing a future (anāgatasya) event from the present (prakṛtam) event. For example – The present event of “vāyorurdhvamutthānaṃ (vāyu moving upwards)” through atideśa tantra yukti,- is indicative of “bhaviṣyadudāvartitvaṃ sādhyate (possibility of manifestation of udāvarta roga in future)”
Apavargaḥ – Exception to a rule:-
अभिव्याप्यापकर्षणमपवर्गः । यथा- अस्वेद्या विषोपसृष्टाः, अन्यत्र कीटविषादिति ॥सु.उ/१८॥
abhivyāpyāpakarṣaṇamapavargaḥ | yathā- asvedyā viṣopasṛṣṭāḥ, anyatra kīṭaviṣāditi ||Su.U/18||
Apavarga is the an exception of a genral rule at certain specific occasions. Example – Svedana (fomentation) is contra indicated in persons afflicted with poisoning. The rule of exception (apavarga) is it is indicated in poison due to insect bites.
येन पदेनानुक्तेन वाक्यं समाप्येत स वाक्यशेषः । यथा- शिरः पाणिपादपार्श्वपृष्ठोदरोरसामित्युक्ते पुरुषग्रहणं विनाऽपि गम्यते पुरुषस्येति ॥सु.उ/१९॥
yena padenānuktena vākyaṃ samāpyeta sa vākyaśeṣaḥ | yathā- śiraḥ pāṇipādapārśvapṛṣṭhodarorasāmityukte puruṣagrahaṇaṃ vinā’pi gamyate puruṣasyeti ||Su.U/19||
The knowledge obtained inspite of evidently refraining the mention of a particular word in the sentence (padenānuktena vākyaṃ) describing the qualities of the unmentioned word, though at the outset seems to be an incomplete sentence, in actual considered as a complete sentence (Vākyaśeṣa).
Example – If in a samhitha or tantra related to Ayurveda, there be a context of verse mentioning just the name of the following structures – “śiraḥ, pāṇi, pāda, pārśva, pṛṣṭha, udara, urasām-ityukte” alone. Still it is understood to be the structures of the purusha (human) getting mentioned under that context.
This indirect understanding of the knowledge of purusha from that statement, though it is half in its structural composition, still it is considered as a complete statement (Vākyaśeṣa), since it succeeds in providing the complete knowledge, that the body structures of a human is being mentioned in that stanza of verse.