Tantrayukti: Anekanta, Purvapaksha, Nirnaya, Anumata

By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat

Anekanta

Anekanta – Variable rules:-
Anekāntaḥ (Variable rules) is the term used to denote certainty in some cases and uncertainty in some other cases. Example – many authorities hold that ‘Dravya’ as the principal factor (dravyaṃ pradhānaṃ), some hold the Rasa’ or taste present in a dravya to be the principal factor (kecidrasaṃ), some again hold the ”VIrya” or potency to be the principal factor (kecidvīryaṃ) and others hold “Vipaka”  to be the principal factor (kecidvipākam).  This variability of rules when applied in a treatise is known as Anekāntaḥ yukti (Variable rules).

क्वचित्तथा क्वचिदन्यथेति यः सोऽनेकान्तः । यथा- केचिदाचार्या ब्रुवते द्रव्यं प्रधानं, केचिद्रसं, केचिद्वीर्यं केचिद्विपाकमिति ॥सु.उ/२४॥
kvacittathā kvacidanyatheti yaḥ so’nekāntaḥ | yathā- kecidācāryā bruvate dravyaṃ pradhānaṃ, kecidrasaṃ, kecidvīryaṃ kecidvipākamiti ||Su.U/24||

Anekāntaḥ (Variable rules) is the term used to denote certainty in some cases and uncertainty in some other cases. Example – many authorities hold that ‘Dravya’ as the principal factor (dravyaṃ pradhānaṃ), some hold the Rasa’ or taste present in a dravya to be the principal factor (kecidrasaṃ), some again hold the ”VIrya” or potency to be the principal factor (kecidvīryaṃ) and others hold “Vipaka”  to be the principal factor (kecidvipākam).  This variability of rules when applied in a treatise is known as Anekāntaḥ yukti (Variable rules).

Purvapaksha

Pūrvapakṣaḥ – Prima facie view :-
आक्षेपपूर्वकः प्रश्नः पूर्वपक्षः । यथा- कथं वातनिमित्ताश्चत्वारः प्रमेह असाध्या भवन्तीति ॥सु.उ/२५॥
ākṣepapūrvakaḥ praśnaḥ pūrvapakṣaḥ | yathā- kathaṃ vātanimittāścatvāraḥ prameha asādhyā bhavantīti ||Su.U/25||

During a logical discourse (epistemology), raising a query in pro tempore (for the time being) along with an objection (ākṣepapūrvakaḥ praśnaḥ) to beget clarity of the statement, falls under the pūrvapakṣaḥ yukti.
Example – – kathaṃ vātanimittāścatvāraḥ prameha(Why is that the vāta caused four types of prameha) asādhyā bhavantīti (is considered to be asādhyā aka incurable).

The onus probandi (burden of proof) thus fall over the person explaining the prima facie of the questioner, to  produce the evidence that will either shift the conclusion away or stick with the conclusion from the default position (asādhyā), to that party’s (explainer’s) own position of logical knowledge.

Nirnaya

Nirṇayaḥ yukti – onus probandi (Burden of proof) :-

तस्योत्तरं निर्णयः । यथा- शरीरं प्रपीड्य पश्चादधो गत्वा वसामेदोमज्जानुविद्धं मूत्रं विसृजति वातः एवमसाध्या वातजा इति ।२६।तथा चोक्तम्- कृत्स्नं शरीरं निष्पीड्य मेदोमज्जावसायुतः । अधः प्रकुप्यते वायुस्तेनासाध्यास्तु वातजाः ।२७।
tasyottaraṃ nirṇayaḥ | yathā- śarīraṃ prapīḍya paścādadho gatvā vasāmedomajjānuviddhaṃ mūtraṃ visṛjati vātaḥ evamasādhyā vātajā iti |26|tathā coktam- kṛtsnaṃ śarīraṃ niṣpīḍya medomajjāvasāyutaḥ | adhaḥ prakupyate vāyustenāsādhyāstu vātajāḥ |27|

Nirṇaya (probandi aka Burden of proof) is the reply to a Purva-paksha or primafacie question raised.

Example – To a primafacie raised regarding why the 4 types of vAtajaprameha are to be conisderd as asadya? The related onus probandi aka nirṇaya yukta reply will be in the following manner.

The vata on having aggravated from its site of origin consequently moves in adho gati carrying the medas,vasa and majja to the bladder and gets excreted through the urine leading to kshaya of the afore said dhatus, by the effect of vAta. Only hence the four vataka varieties prameha is asadhyam. More over due to the the effect of majja kshaya, the purva purva dhathu kshaya too gets inferred which being the reason for the incurability of the vataja varieties of prameha (ato majjakṣaye pūrvapūrvadhātukṣayādasādhyatvamityarthaḥ).

Anumatam

20. Anumataṃ – Agreement or approbation :-
परमतमप्रतिषिद्धमनुमतम् । यथा- अन्यो ब्रूयात्- सप्त रसा इति, तच्चाप्रतिषेधादनुमन्यते कथञ्चिदिति ॥सु.उ/२८॥
paramatamapratiṣiddhamanumatam | yathā- anyo brūyāt- sapta rasā iti, taccāpratiṣedhādanumanyate kathañciditi ||Su.U/28||

Anumata is the term used when an opinion of another person (paramatam) is quoted as such or is quoted by  not refuting or not discrediting  it (apratiṣiddham).
Example –  anyo brūyāt (Some other authorities state )- sapta rasā iti (that there are seven Rasas or tastes), tacca (this is) pratiṣedhād(not refuted), anumanyate kathañciditi (and is said to be Anumata or sanctioned i.e., approbated by the author)
Tail note:- In linguistics, approbatives are the words or grammatical forms that denote a positive affect. That is, they express the appreciation or approval of the speaker. Sometimes a term may begin as a pejorative word and eventually be adopted in an approbative sense.

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