Tantrayukti – Niyoga, Vikalpa, Samucchaya, Uhya

By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat

Table of Contents

Niyoga

NiyogaḥDictum or Aphorism :-
Niyoga yukti is the dictum or aphorism directing a principle to be followed as a rule or duty, in an authoritative tone.
Example:- The wholesome food (Pathya) alone should be partaken (to maintain one’s health). 

इदमेव कर्तव्यमिति नियोगः । यथा- पथ्यमेव भोक्तव्यमिति ॥सु.उ/३७॥
idameva kartavyamiti niyogaḥ | yathā- pathyameva bhoktavyamiti ||Su.U/37||
Niyoga yukti is the dictum or aphorism directing a principle to be followed as a rule or duty, in an authoritative tone.

Example:- The wholesome food (Pathya) alone should be partaken (to maintain one’s health).

Vikalpa

Vikalpaḥ- Options :-
इदं वेदं वेति विकल्पः । यथा- रसौदनः सघृता यवागूर्वा ॥सु.उ/३९॥
idaṃ vedaṃ veti vikalpaḥ | yathā- rasaudanaḥ saghṛtā yavāgūrvā ||Su.U/39||

Vikalpa is the term used when something is said to be this or that, i. e., when alternatives are used. Forexample – either meat-soup or Yavagu (gruel) cooked with clarified butter (should be used in such and such a case).

Vikalpa yukti omes to play a role when some suggestions based on “Either/or” principle gets advocated, as a means of alternative options.

Example :- rasaudanaḥ (Meat soup) saghṛtā yavāgū: (rice gruel with ghee added in it), vā (or).
Which means, either the person (probably getting adviced for a debilitated person) can partake meat soup. Or in case if he is averse to the meat, instead he can drink gruel added with ghee in it either (for the purpose of santarpanam).
It may be noted, that vikalp type of yukti providing options the word “vā” (vāśabda) will be seen accompanying the statement.

Samucchaya

samuccayaḥ- Combination / Grouping :-
इदं चेदं चेति समुच्चयः । यथा- मांसवर्गे एणहरिणादयो वतित्तिरिशारङ्गश्च प्रधानानीति ॥सु.उ/३८॥
idaṃ cedaṃ ceti samuccayaḥ | yathā- māṃsavarge eṇahariṇādayo vatittiriśāraṅgaśca pradhānānīti ||Su.U/38||Grouping of the matters based on their commonality where in the mentioning of a primary domain name of the matter collectively becomes responsible for indicating the other secondary domain names grouped under its heading.
Example in mAmsa varga, EnAdaya refers to two kinds of deers namely ena (antelope) & harina (stag); the lAvAdaya refers to two kinds of birds namely lAvA (common quail) & tittira (partridge bird).

Uhyam

ūhyam– Inferred / what is understood :-
यदनिर्दिष्टं बुद्धयाऽवगम्यते तदूह्यम् । यथा- अभिहितमन्नपानविधौ चतुर्विधं चान्नमुपदिश्यते- भक्ष्यं भोज्यं लेह्यं पेयमिति, एवं चतुर्विधे वक्तव्ये द्विविधमभिहितम्; इदमत्रोह्यम्- अन्नपाने विशिष्टयोर्द्वयोर्ग्रहणे कृते चतुर्णामपि ग्रहणं भवतीति; चतुर्विधश्चाहारः प्रविरलः, प्रायेण द्विविध एव; अतो द्वित्वं प्रसिद्धमिति । किञ्चान्यत्- अन्नेन भक्ष्यमवरुद्धं, घनसाधर्म्यात्; पेयेन लेह्यं, द्रवसाधर्म्यात् ॥सु.उ/४०॥
दल्हन:- साम्प्रतमूह्याख्यां तन्त्रयुक्तिमाह- यदित्यादि। अनिर्दिष्टमिति साक्षादित्यर्थः। उदाहरणमाह- यथाऽमिहितमित्यादि। कथमत्रोह्यं भवतीति कथनायाह- भक्ष्यं भोज्यं लेह्यं पेयमिति चतुर्धा वक्तव्ये द्विविधममिहितमत्रोह्यं भवति चातुर्विध्यमत्रोह्यं भवतीत्यर्थः। बुद्धिगम्यमूह्यं प्राक् प्रतिपादितं तत् कीदृश्या बुद्ध्या गम्यत इत्याह- अन्नपाने इत्यादि। अन्नपानयोर्विशिष्टयोरभ्यवहार्ययोर्ग्रहणे चतुर्णामभ्यवहार्यविशेषाणां भक्ष्यभोज्यलेह्यपेयानां ग्रहणं भवतीति। चातुर्विध्यमेव किमिति नोक्तमित्याशङ्कयाह- चतुर्विध इत्यादि। प्रविरल इति प्रकर्षेण विरलः क्वचित्कथञ्चिद्भावात्। प्रकारान्तरेणापि चतुर्विधत्वमाह- किञ्चान्यदित्यादि। अन्न केचित्पूर्वपक्षं कुर्वन्ति वाक्यार्थस्यास्पष्टाविद्यमानस्य योजनादूह्यं न तन्त्रयुक्तिरिति, लीनस्यानिर्दिष्टस्य चार्थस्य वाक्यादेवोहनेनोभयरूपस्य योजनादूह्यं तन्त्रयुक्तेरेव॥सु.उ/४०॥

 yadanirdiṣṭaṃ buddhayā’vagamyate tadūhyam | yathā- abhihitamannapānavidhau caturvidhaṃ cānnamupadiśyate- bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ peyamiti, evaṃ caturvidhe vaktavye dvividhamabhihitam; idamatrohyam- annapāne viśiṣṭayordvayorgrahaṇe kṛte caturṇāmapi grahaṇaṃ bhavatīti; caturvidhaścāhāraḥ praviralaḥ, prāyeṇa dvividha eva; ato dvitvaṃ prasiddhamiti | kiñcānyat- annena bhakṣyamavaruddhaṃ, ghanasādharmyāt; peyena lehyaṃ, dravasādharmyāt ||Su.U/40||

DalhaNa:- sāmpratamūhyākhyāṃ tantrayuktimāha- yadityādi| anirdiṣṭamiti sākṣādityarthaḥ| udāharaṇamāha- yathā’mihitamityādi| kathamatrohyaṃ bhavatīti kathanāyāha- bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ peyamiti caturdhā vaktavye dvividhamamihitamatrohyaṃ bhavati cāturvidhyamatrohyaṃ bhavatītyarthaḥ| buddhigamyamūhyaṃ prāk pratipāditaṃ tat kīdṛśyā buddhyā gamyata ityāha- annapāne ityādi| annapānayorviśiṣṭayorabhyavahāryayorgrahaṇe  caturṇāmabhyavahāryaviśeṣāṇāṃ bhakṣyabhojyalehyapeyānāṃ grahaṇaṃ bhavatīti| cāturvidhyameva kimiti noktamityāśaṅkayāha- caturvidha ityādi| pravirala iti prakarṣeṇa viralaḥ kvacitkathañcidbhāvāt| prakārāntareṇāpi caturvidhatvamāha- kiñcānyadityādi| anna kecitpūrvapakṣaṃ kurvanti vākyārthasyāspaṣṭāvidyamānasya yojanādūhyaṃ na tantrayuktiriti, līnasyānirdiṣṭasya cārthasya vākyādevohanenobhayarūpasya yojanādūhyaṃ tantrayuktereva||Su.U/40||

Uhya is the term used when something more can be inferred by an intelligent man, though not definitely used. For example—it has been said in the chapter on Anna-pana-vidhi (Chapter XLVI, Sutra- Sthana) that Anna (food) is of four kinds, viz.,. Bhakshaja (chewable) or the solid food that has to be bitten with the teeth before eating, (2) Bhojya (edible) or the solid food proper i. e., which has not to be bitten with the teeth, (3) Lehya (lickable) or the semi-liquid food that has to be licked like an electuary, and (4) Peya (drinkable) or the liquid food proper that has to be drunk ; but of these four kinds, two kinds only (i.e., Anna and Paniya) have been mentioned (in naming the chapter). Here it is (said that the other two kinds) are understood. For, when only two are mentioned in respect of food and drink, the inclusion of all the four therein is easily comprehended.

And why? Because the term ‘ Bhakshya ‘ is included in the term ‘ Anna ‘ —both being of the same kind, viz., solid food ; and the term ‘Lehya’ is included in the term ‘Peya’—both being of the same kind, viz , liquid. And the articles of food, though they are really of four kinds, are usually spoken of in the common language as being of two kinds only {viz , solid and liquid).

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