Tantrayukti – Arthapatti, Prasanga, Viparyaya, Ekanta

By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat

Arthapatti

Arthapatti – Disjunctive hypothetical syllogism :-
An artha or object  though when not directly mentioned, still if it can be presumed or deduced indirectly to beget the knowledge, the process of yukti involved in acquiring the jnAna of the object is known as Arthāpatti  yukti. 

यदकीर्तितमर्थादापद्यते साऽर्थापत्तिः । यथा- ओदनं भोक्ष्ये इत्युक्तेऽर्थादापन्नं भवति- नायं पिपासुर्यवागूमिति ॥सु.उ/२०॥
yadakīrtitamarthādāpadyate sā’rthāpattiḥ | yathā- odanaṃ bhokṣye ityukte’rthādāpannaṃ bhavati- nāyaṃ pipāsuryavāgūmiti ||Su.U/20||

DAlhaNa:-
अर्थापत्तिमाह- यदकीर्तितमित्यादि। अकीर्तितम् अप्रतिपादितम् तदुदाहरणमाह- यथौदनमित्यादि। नायं पातुमिच्छुर्यवागूमित्यर्थ॥सु.उ/२०॥
arthāpattimāha- yadakīrtitamityādi| akīrtitam apratipāditam tadudāharaṇamāha- yathaudanamityādi| nāyaṃ pātumicchuryavāgūmityartha||Su.U/20||

An artha or object  though when not directly mentioned, still if it can be presumed or deduced indirectly to beget the knowledge, the process of yukti involved in acquiring the jnAna of the object is known as Arthāpatti  yukti.
Example –
A person when says – “odanaṃ bhokṣye – I will enjoy odanam (cooked rice)”, it is indirectly undertood of himself saying “nāyaṃ pipāsuḥ yavāgūmiti – which means,- I don’t drink yavāgu (rice gruel)”.

The disjunctive hypothetical syllogism of knowledge thus obtained is through arthāpatti tantra yukti.

Viparyaya

viparyayaḥ – Contradiction :-
यद्यत्राभिहितं तस्य प्रातिलोम्यं विपर्ययः । यथा- कृशाल्पप्राणभीरवो दुश्चिकित्स्या इत्युक्ते विपरीतं गृह्यते दृढादयः सुचिकित्स्या इति ॥सु.उ/२१॥
yadyatrābhihitaṃ tasya prātilomyaṃ viparyayaḥ | yathā- kṛśālpaprāṇabhīravo duścikitsyā ityukte viparītaṃ gṛhyate dṛḍhādayaḥ sucikitsyā iti ||Su.U/21||

Viparyaya yukti (contradiction) is seen to have been utilized ,- “when the (visible) words in a statement (yadyatrābhihitaṃ), simultaneously conveys an (hidden) secondary statement with quite an opposite and different meaning(prātilomyaṃ iti viparītam), along with the original meaning of the primary statement. (viparyayeṇa viparītameva gamyate- DalhaNA).
Example -The statement – “kṛśālpaprāṇabhīravo – emaciated, debilitated & depressed persons are difficult to be treated medically (duścikitsyā). Through viparyaya yukti, it gets understood that “dṛḍhādayaḥ sucikitsyā iti – Persons with strong physique, physical strength and will power etc., are easy to be treated with medicines”.

Prasanga

Prasaṅgaḥ – Premise:

प्रकरणान्तरेण समापनं प्रसङ्गः, यद्वा प्रकरणान्तरितो योऽर्थोऽसकृदुक्तः समाप्यते स प्रसङ्गः ।
यथा- पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरुषस्तस्मिन् क्रिया सोऽधिष्ठानमिति वेदोत्पत्तावभिधाय, भूतचिन्तायां पुनरुक्तं- यतोऽभिहितं पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरूष इति, स खल्वेष कर्मपुरुषश्चिकित्साधिकृत इति ॥सु.उ/२२॥

prakaraṇāntareṇa samāpanaṃ prasaṅgaḥ, yadvā prakaraṇāntarito yo’rtho’sakṛduktaḥ samāpyate sa prasaṅgaḥ |
yathā- pañcamahābhūtaśarīrisamavāyaḥ puruṣastasmin kriyā so’dhiṣṭhānamiti vedotpattāvabhidhāya, bhūtacintāyāṃ punaruktaṃ- yato’bhihitaṃ pañcamahābhūtaśarīrisamavāyaḥ purūṣa iti, sa khalveṣa karmapuruṣaścikitsādhikṛta iti ||Su.U/22||

The ending of explanation of a primary monograph (prakaraṇāntara) in one chapter leading to the start of the seconday premise explained in another chapter, and there by  providing the conclusion (samāpanaṃ) for the primary monograph is due to the adaption of Prasaṅgaḥ yukti.

The Prasaṅgaḥ yukti also applies to a situation where in, “when the same essence of topic is repeated in different words at different places (pertaining to the same topic).

Example – Over the chapter of “Vedotpatti” in Sutra-Sthana it gets explained about a primary monograph on Purusha that,-  ‘Purusha is the combination of  the pañcamahābhūta and śarīri (the soul). Since the physiological karmas occur with in the purusha, he becomes the object of treatment (in maintaining the physiological karmas in his body in not getting converted into pathological karmas).

More or less the same version of statement gets repeated in “bhUtavidyA” chapter as a secondary monograph or premise, wherein it gets stated as “yato’bhihitaṃ pañcamahābhūtaśarīrisamavāyaḥ purūṣa iti, sa khalveṣa karmapuruṣaścikitsādhikṛta iti”. And thus it gets concluded that the Karma Purusha who is an enlivened human, is the adhikrta to undergo chikitsa, when he faces some health issues.

Another example:-

snehavirekādhikārayornavajvarī niṣiddhaḥ, punarjvarādhikāre taruṇajvariṇaḥ snehaśodhane niṣiddhe iti adhikaraṇe’ntaritasyarthasyāsakṛduktiḥ.
Over here the primary monograph is  Snehana karma. The secondary premise which provides a conclusive knowledge is jvara.  In the chapte of sneha adhikAra it is getting stated as “snehana is contra indicated in nava jvara (acute fever)”. The same statement as premise aka Prasaṅgaḥ gets conclude in the jvara adhikAra where in the tatement reflects the following conclusion “in taruna jvara (acute fever), the sneha shodhana is contra indicated”.

Ekanta

Ekāntaḥ – Invariable rule :-

यदवधारणेनोच्यते स एकान्तः । यथा- त्रिवृद्विरेचयति, मदनफलं वामयति(एव) ॥सु.उ/२३॥
yadavadhāraṇenocyate sa ekāntaḥ | yathā- trivṛdvirecayati, madanaphalaṃ vāmayati(eva) ||Su.U/23||

Ekāntaḥ yukti  is the term used to denote a thing which is constant and certain in every case. Example – Trivrit causes purgation, and Madana phala produces vomiting.

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