By Prof. Vd. Rangaprasad Bhat
The pratyaksha jnAna is broadly classified into two types
Savikalpa pratyaksha jnAna or bahya jnana
Nirvikalpa pratyaksha jnAna or Abhyantara jnana
Savikalpa Pratyaksha Jnana
The Savikalpa jnAna or bAhya jnANa gives a determinate idea and knowledge about a dravya as against the nirvikalpa where in the knowledge of a dravya is indeterminate(not cognizable even after having proper conjunction of the indriyartha and satva).
Read related: Pratyaksha Pramana: Knowledge Perception Through Sense Organs
An experienced Dermatologist easily identifies various types of lesions of the skin like vesicular; pustular, sanguinous, sero-sanguinous, macula etc. This helps him to provide a provisional diagnosis. The cognition of knowledge involved in above case is known as savikalpa pratyaksha jnAna.
Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha Jnana
The nirvikalpa pratyaksha jnAna or Abhyantara jnANa is not perceivable through the sensory organs but is related to perception of the mind and soul directly. Such a concept of perception is known by the name ESP (Extra Sensory Perception) amongst the scientists of Parapsychology.
Extrasensory perception, ESP, also called sixth sense, includes reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but sensed with the mind.Such psychic abilities are known variably as intuition, telepathy, psychometry, clairaudience, and clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retro-cognition.
Dr. Stuart Hameroff, MD, Emeritus Professor and Director of the Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona, and Sir Roger Penrose, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford have together done a study on consciousness based on the quantum physics. Working in unison, in the late 1980’s they both proposed “the theory of Orchestrated Objective Reduction, popularly known as Orch-OR, one among many existing models of consciousness”.
In 1982, Dr. Hameroff had devised the theory that microtubules in the brain hold memories. according to him – “Biologically, the quantum physical processes (intrinsic to the universe) occur at a deeper level, smaller, faster scale inside brain neurons, in protein structures called microtubules which seem to be natural quantum resonators, and can store and process memory and information”.
OR is objective reduction, is the mechanism which,Sir Roger Penrose – proposed for consciousness due to quantum state reduction connected to the fine scale structure of the universe — space time geometry. Simultaneously Dr Stuart Hameroff worked on Orch aka orchestration, the means by which quantum processes in micro-tubules can be programmed and connected to membrane and synaptic-level events. Micro-tubule functions include axoplasmic transport and control of the cell’s movement, growth and shape.
Quantum processes imply non-locality — conscious connections when physically separated. And Roger proposed that Platonic values embedded in the universe influence our conscious perceptions and choices. Humans are part of the universe. In his opinion, Hemeroff states that “this has possible implications for spirituality”.
Hameroff futher states that – “For many years critics said the brain was too ‘warm, wet and noisy’ for delicate quantum processes, but now we know plants use warm quantum coherence in photosynthesis, birds use it for navigation, and our sense of smell depends on quantum processes. Most importantly, Anirban Bandyopadhyay discovered warm temperature quantum resonances in brain microtubules, proving the plausibility of our proposal. The resonances occur across many scales, and can interfere to give slower vibrations seen as the EEG, or brain waves. EEG has been used for a century but its underlying origin has remained mysterious. We think EEG brain waves originate in a deeper level inside neurons, due to quantum vibrations in microtubules.”
He further reveals – “Classical science sees neuronal firings and synaptic connections as basic bits, or information states in the brain. And billions of dollars are going to mapping all these connections in the hope to capture the essential feature of brain function – consciousness. This brain mapping may be missing the point entirely. We should be mapping deeper levels of scale, into the quantum vibrations in microtubules and other biomolecules. And therapeutically, stimulating microtubule resonances, for example with ultrasound megahertz vibrations, appears clinically useful in psychiatric, neurological and cognitive disorders. For example, in Alzheimer’s disease, brain neuronal microtubules fall apart,’and brain ultrasound may put them back together”.
In his abstract of the study titled “Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain micro-tubule” Anirban Bandopadhyaya states -“We demonstrate that a single brain-neuron-extracted microtubule is a memory-switching element, whose hysteresis loss is nearly zero. Our study shows how a memory-state forms in the nanowire and how its protein arrangement symmetry is related to the conducting-state written in the device, thus, enabling it to store and process ∼500 distinct bits, with 2 pA resolution between 1 nA and 1 pA. Its random access memory is an analogue of flash memory switch used in a computer chip. Using scanning tunneling microscope imaging, we demonstrate how single proteins behave inside the nanowire when this 3.5 billion years old nanowire processes memory-bits.”
Savikalpa pratyaksha jnana classification
The savikalpa pratyaksha jnAna is sub categorized into two.
1. Laukika pratyaksha jnAna
2. Alaukika pratyaksha jnAna
Laukika pratyaksha jnAna:- This sub category of jnAna essentially required the mutual conjunction of the components of the Atma-satva-indriya-artha axis. This is a usual or normal pattern of cognition in procuring the knowledge.
Laukika pratyaksha jnana classification
The laukika pratayaksha jnAna is further getting sub categorized into the following six varieties based on specific characteristics.
- Samyoga pratyaksha jnANa
- Samyukta-samavAya pratyaksha jnANa
- Samyukta-samveta-samavAya pratyaksha jnANa
- SamavAya jnANa
- Samaveta-samavAya jnANa
- VisheShana-visheShyabhAva jnANa.
Samyoga pratyaksha jnana
Samyoga pratyaksha jnANa (Conjunction):-
The eyes coming in contact with – the lesions present in the skin; mass visibly seen over the abdomen (उदर उत्सेध) ; swelling over the lips, face, TM joint; gait disturbances( ओष्ठ-मख-हनुसन्धि शोथ ) ; deformity of the joints
( संधि वक्रता ); chemosis (सिरा उत्पात ) over the conjunctiva etc falls under this category.
Samyukta samavaya pratyaksha jnana
Samyukta-samavAya pratyaksha jnANa :-
The cognition of shape and nature of the lesion in tvagrogAs; the colour of the swelling in the lips, face, TM joint; the local discoluration of the vakra sandhi; the colour and size of the distended veins in sirotpAta – knowledge of the nature of the pathological sign falls under this category. The stuctures in samyukta (contact) with the eyes like the skin, conjunctiiva, joints etc as in above examples are in samavAya (concomitance) with the features depicting its clinical presentation.
Samyukta samveta samavaya pratyaksha
Samyukta-samveta-samavAya pratyaksha jnANa :-
In the aforesaid example the eyeas are in samyoga (contact) with the diseased parts. The colour,shape size of the diseased parts are in samaveta (intrinsic or inherent factor) with the samvAya (inseparable) i.e the common or normal parameters of the diseased structures. Since they are the normal charectersitics of the body, they (samvAya charecters) are inseparable and exist in perpetual co-inherent plane of existence.
Contact between the sound (object) and ears (indriya) resulting in the cognition of hearing is illustrative of samvAya sannikarSha. The karNa being the seat of AkAsha; and the shabda being the quality of AkAsha, there lies a samavAya sambandha or sannikarsha (perpetual co-inherence) between both AkAsha & the sound (object).
Samaveta samavaya jnana
Samaveta- samavAya jnANa:-
The cognition of the exact nature of sound (like flute, drums, high pitched, low pitched, timbre, bass etc.,) happens due to the samaveta-sammavAya sannikarSha. Because the shabdatva (nature of sound) has samavAya sambhandha with the shabda (sound as an object), so is the relation of samvAya exists between the shabda & the karna (ear as sensory organ).
Visheshana visheshyabhava jnana
VisheShaNa visheShyabhAva jnANa:-
The sandhi of this when split provides the words visheShaNa visheShi abhAva jnAna. Which means the knowledge of an non existent object like a pot is understood from the visual contact with the earth, from the mud of whic the pot gets prepared. Where in the prthvI or earth is visheShI, and the unseen pot (ghata abhAva) is the visheShaNa.
Clinically speaking – in case of hearing, the ear (which is in contact with naked eyes of the physician) is visheShI and the cochlear apparatus is visheShaNa.
In case of vision, the eye of the patient (which is in contact with naked eyes of the physician) is visheShI and the retina (chakshurindriya) is visheShaNa.
In case of taste perception, the tongue of the patient (which is in contact with naked eyes of the physician) is visheShI and the taste buds (rasanendriya) which are hidden behind the surface of tongue, visheShaNa.
In case of olfaction, the nose of the patient (which is in contact with naked eyes of the physician) is visheShI and the olfactory apparatus (ghrAnendriya) is visheShaNa.
like wise in tactile perception, the tvak of the patient (which is in contact with naked eyes of the physician) is visheShI and the tavgIndriya is visheShaNa.
Alaukika pratyaksha jnAna
This is a unusual or uncommon pattern of direct cognition in procuring the knowledge.
The alukika jnAna is further sub classified into the following three types.
- SAmAnya lakshaNa pratyAsatti
- JnAna lakshana pratyAsatti and
- Yogaja pratyaksha.
Samanya lakshana pratyasatti
SAmAnya(common) lakshanA (attribute) pratyAsatti (analogy) is the direct knowledge obtained through the analogy of common attributes of a given object, where in by seeing or hearing about a common name of an object (say for eaxmple cattle), the entire ideas regarding the various species of the breeds of the cattle present all over the world get percieved at that given moment of time, by a cow farmer (who has learnt about those species and their traits previously). To explain further when one sees a cattle grazing over the farm, instead of percieving the attributes of that single cattle seen by him, perceives the knowledge of entire species of cattles like AlambAdi Deoni (Indian cattle), Bargur, Gangatiri, Gir, Guzerat, Haryanvi, Jhavari, Kangayam, Kasargod dwarf, Nellore, Punganur etc varieties of Indian cattle, or Danish Jersey(Denmark), Jersey (chanel Islands), Dexter (Ireland), Dutch belted (Netherlands), the such perceived jnAna gets denoted as SAmAnya lakshanA pratyAsatti.
Same is the case with the “fumes emerging from an agarbathi”. Instead of just perceiving it as the one emerging from agarbathi, if the person at that given point of contact with the object (agarbathi) and it’s attribute (flame), percieves various sources of flames like the one emerging from Homa; burning charcoal/ paper/ hay/ cigarette bud/ forest fire etc, it gets possible due to the SAmAnya lakshanA pratyAsatti.
In terms of Ayurveda when one sees “ShuNThi”, and when his mind translates it to its botanical name “Zingiber officianalis”, in above type of aloukika pramANa, the perosn mind starts processing quickly all the other species of Zingiber, namely –
Zingiber (sp) ‘Burmese Ruby’
Zingiber macradenium etc
Jnana lakshana pratyasatti
JnAna lakshana pratyAsatti (Multiple Cognition)
Word meaning:- jnANa = acquaintence; lakShaNa = attribute; pratyAsatti = analogy
In a way this some what refers to multi tasking ability of perception of objects of various sensory organs by the mind, wherein actually the direct contact (samyoga) occurs just between one object related to one sensory organ at a given point of time which occurs spontaneously and unnoticed.
Well this can be understood with a scenerio a person going in search of a herb, to be specific KrSHNa nirgunDi (Vitex negundo) over the forest. A few furlongs of walking his eyes gets in contact with the black variety of Vitex negundo and gets fixed with the tree and starts analysing to confirm that it is the krSHNa nirgundi. But at this point of conjunction occuring between the eyes and the nirgundi, if the person simultaneously and synchronously gets the knowledge of the krSHNa Tulasi (a species not related to the Vitex negundo) present near by through the sense of smell, and further perceives the presence of a snake passing near by him due to the rustling sound it creates while moving over the dried leaves fallen over the ground, it is to be understood that the multi tasking perception of the events in a combined manner has occurred due to the involvement of the JnANa-lakShaNa-pratyAsatti pramANa at that given point of indriyArtha sannikarSha occuring between just the eyes & the Vitex species.
It may be recollected that, the other two sensory organs namely the nose and the ears were not in direct contact with their objects and that only one sensory organ was in perfect contact with its object (Vitex species), which was the eyes. In a way, the extra sensory perception played a role wsrt perception of jnANa of the tulasi & snake respectively through the nose & ears, hence this sub type falls under the Alaukika sannikarSha jnANa.
Yogaja pratyaksha, an extra ordinary form of pratyaksha jnAna is possible only in Yogis who have attained the aShTamahA siddhis. The eight siddhis are aNimA (Ability to reduce one’s size),mahimA (to increase one’s size), garimA (to increase one’s weight infinitely), laghimA (to become lighter than the lightest), prApti (Ability to Obtain anything), prAkAmya (to acquire anything desired), Ishitva (Lordship over creation), vashitva (Having control over things).
Coming back to the point, the ability to perceive the presence of atoms or sensing and perceiving the objects viprakrShTa (far away) from the person which is present in a different space and time zone is not a possible task of which can happen with laukika pratyaksha Jnana.
But, gets possible only through the yogapratyaksha sub type of alaukika jnAna alone. This is possible only through spiritual upliftment of the Kundalini shakti through meditation practices related with the purpose of transcending the KunDalini shakti. They were capable of perceiving the pratyaksha Jnana of an object present in the different time and space zone through their ESP.
The analysis of prabhAva of any given herb, Atma vijnAna, explanation of sUkshma srotases, the marmas, vAtavaha-pittavaha-kaphavaha nadis, iDA-pingaladi dasha vidhi nadis etc are visible to the eyes of the yogis through the yogaja pratyaksha pramANa category of alukika pratyaksha jnAna (aka Nirvikalpa pratyaksha jnana) only.
Padmanilayam”, (Ayurveda & Non Conventional Marma Chikitsa Clinic) 49/46, Kanagaraya Malaiyappan St, Raja Annamalaipuram, Mandavelipakkam, Chennai- 600028