Understanding Agni: Concept, Definition, Functions, Types

Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay)
According to Ayurveda, man is created from the essence of the 5 basic elements which make up the nature. They are Prithvi (Earth or mud), Ap or Jala (Water), Teja or Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind) and Akasha (Space or ether). These elements along with the life element Atma take part in the formation of our physical form. All the body and mind components are made up of these elements. Thus, human body constitutes a miniature nature.

The same elements combine in various permutations and combinations to form the Tri-Doshas or 3 vital factors which govern the existence and functioning of the human body and mind.

Prithvi and Jala combine to form Kapha, the basic cementing substance or matrix of the body.
Agni and Jala combine to form Pitta, the basic metabolic component of the body.
Vayu and Akasha combine to form Vata, the driving force and energy of the body which is responsible for all small and big activities taking place in our system.

In short, we can say –
The Air is represented within us in the form of Vata
The Fire is represented within us in the form of Pitta
The Water is represented within us in the form of Kapha

Agni, the fire within –
Agni means FIRE. Fire is a basic essential of life and has been a proof of our evolution and a source of lot of innovations through ages. Even today much of our life activities depend on fire and its utility in one or the other form.

Human body too needs fire for the mechanisms of life to keep going and the life element depends on the quality and quantity of fire located in the system. There is an activity in each and every cell and according to Ayurveda this activity is more or less dependent on the fire, its quality and quantity in each of these cells.

Classification of Agni

Broadly there are 2 types of Agni in our body. These 2 Agni’s are once again sub-classified into 13 types.

The broad types of Agni are:
Macro-Fire or Jataragni and
Micro-Fire or the Sub-agnis 

Jataragni

Macro-Fire or Jataragni 
‘The Stomach is a slave that must accept everything that is given to it, but which avenges wrongs as slyly as does the slave’ – Emile Souvestre

Jatara which means gut or belly (the digestion zone) and
Agni means Fire.
Thus Jataragni means ‘Fire in the belly’ which depicts the physiological components of digestion and metabolism which takes place in the stomach and intestines.

It is the fire which governs the preliminary process of digestion before the food is converted into a form in which it could be absorbed, assimilated and utilized in various body functions in the form of nutrition and energy. It functions independently and helps in primary digestion.

All other types of Agni depend on the quality and quantity of Jataragni. Jataragni is said to be the central government of all the other Agni’s (micro-fires controlling micro metabolic processes in the cells).

If this fire gets increased or depleted, the metabolism gets disturbed. This in turn gives rise to a chain of pathological events which leads to many systemic illnesses.

If Jataragni is proper, balanced and healthy, the other forms of Agni’s under its control are also in equilibrium. Thus, protecting and taking care of our Gut fire is mandatory for us to be healthy.

‘Happiness requires three things, a good bank account, a good cook and good digestion’ – Jean Jacques Rousseau
‘Men who pass most comfortably through this world are those who possess good digestions and hard hearts’ – Harriet Martineau

On the other hand, if Jataragni gets vitiated, it disturbs all the other Agni’s in the body. This results in lowering of cellular immunity and formation of systemic ama (intermediate products of digestion, the food essence which cannot be utilized in the body as nutrition or energy due to its unprocessed nature).

The cells cannot take up nutrition nor identify it. Rather, the cells identify nutrition as toxins and unwanted materials. The tissue building comes to a cease. The cells fail to flush toxins and waste products of digestion. These toxins due to their sticky nature, gets adhered in the cells and get stubborn.

This is called Dhatugata Ama (cellular toxins). The cells get weak and lethargic. The sequence of weak Jataragni followed by weak dhatu-agni (cellular fire) and formation of systemic and cellular ama forms an ideal platform for many diseases to manifest.

‘Indigestion is charged by God with enforcing morality on the stomach’ – ‘Victor Hugo

Micro-Fire or the Sub-agnis –
Jataragni helps in primary digestion of food and sets up the platform for the metabolism to take place at cellular level.
There are few more types of Agni’s which basically are dependent on Jataragni. These are present at tissue and cellular levels.
They work under the control of Jataragni and their status is directly proportional to how good or bad is Jataragni in terms of its quality and quantity.

Bhutagni

The Sub-Agni’s or Micro-Agni’s are –
Bhutagnis –
They are the structural or anatomical fire’s related to Pancha Mahabhutas or 5 basic elements of creation responsible for our physical being.

The permutations and combinations of these 5 elements make up different tissues and organs in our system. Similarly, the imbalances of these 5 elements (one or more) can disturb the body dynamics leading to a wide array of health issues.

Each Bhuta or element of nature making up our body composition is said to have a fire of its own. These fires take the essential parts of the nutrition and metabolize them so as to support selves. Thus, we have 5 Bhutagnis.

They are –
Prithvi or Parthiva Agni (fire within the Earth element),
Apya Agni (fire within the Water element),
Taijasa or Agneya Agni (Fire within the Fire element),
Vayaveeya Agni (Fire element within the Wind or Air element) and
Akasheeya / Naabhasa Agni (Fire within the Space or Ether element).

भौम आप्य आग्नेय वायव्याः पञ्च ऊष्मणः स नाभसाः।
पञ्च आहार गुणान् स्वान् स्वान् पार्थिवादीन् पचन्ति हि॥ (च.चि.१५/१३)
Bhouma aapyaa aagneya vaayavyaaha pancha ooshmanaha sa naabhasaaha
Pancha aahaara gunaan svaan svaan paarthivaadeen pachanti hi (Ref – Charaka Chikitsa 15/13)

Each Bhutagni helps in digestion and assimilation of their own components from nutrient food into the tissues.
Eg: Bones are dominant with Pruthvi. Pruthvi Agni (Parthivagni) helps to absorb the pruthvi components of food into the pruthvi parts of the body.

The food which we take comprises of the 5 basic elements of nature which compensate their counterparts in the body (The body is also made of Pancha Mahabhutas or 5 basic elements mentioned above).
Example: The Parthiva Amsha (Earth part or solid part of the food) of the food first gets digested by the Jataragni (Gut fire). When this digested food reaches the tissues, it further gets digested and micro-processed by the Bhoumagni or Parthivagni located in the tissues. After this micro-processing the Parthiva amsha (earth part) of the food nourishes the Parthiva guna’s of those dhatus (tissues), srotas (channels or transport systems of the body which are again formed by the tissues) and the whole body.

The micro processed Parthiva part of the food supports and nourishes all the cells and tissues but mainly nourishes the tissues which are predominantly made up of Prithvi Mahabhuta (Earth element), Ex. hard tissues of the body like bone, muscle etc are made up predominantly of Earth or Parthiva element.

The same process takes place with respect to Apya amsha, Taijasa amsha, Vayavya amsha and Nabhasa amsha of the food. Firstly, they are digested by the Jataragni. Later their minute parts reach the tissues and, in the tissues, they are acted upon by their respective Bhutagnis. The processed parts of food further nourish the tissues, channels and the body.

Functions of Bhutagnis:
When in normal condition, the Bhutagnis digest and micro-process the minute fractions of food supplied to them after the action and digestion of Jataragni on all types of food that we consume. Each Bhutagni acts on the fractions of food which are concerned to them.

The overall effect of the Bhutagnis on the food at the cellular / tissue level converts them into nutritive components which nourish the tissues, channels of the body, Vayu, heat and the body as a whole. The food thus digested properly, flow in the channels of the body uninterruptedly and nourish all the tissues apart from providing Upachaya (tissue building), Bala (Strength, endurance, immunity), Varna (Colour and complexion), Sukha (Happiness, saturation, health) and Ayush (good and extended life span).

When Disturbed:
When the Bhutagnis get vitiated (deficit or excess) the above said benefits are not obtained. The micro-processing of the food doesn’t take place leading to depletion and subsequent contamination of the tissues with stagnant toxins. This forms an ideal environment for the disease process.

Dhatvagni

Dhatu meaning Tissue and
Agni meaning Fire.
Thus Dhatvagni means the fire which is located inside the tissue. This fire acts on the nutritive part they receive and convert them into finer components.

The components thus formed after the action of Dhatvagni on the food (in circulation) help in the formation of the same tissue, nourishes the next tissue in sequence, produce energy and tissue toxins or waste components which are meant to be expelled.

Thus, Dhatvagnis are the functional or physiological fire’s related to the 7 dhatu’s or tissues of the body and denotes regular operations taking place at the cellular level.

यथा स्वेन ऊष्मणा पाकं शारीरा यान्ति धातवः।
स्रोतसां च यथा स्वेन धातुः पुष्यति धातुतः॥ (च.चि.९/३९)
Yathaa svena ooshmanaa paakam shaareeraa yaanti dhaatavaha
Srotasaam cha yathaa svena dhaatuhi pushyanti dhaatutaha (Ref – Charaka Chikitsa 9/39)

सप्तभिः देह धातरो धातवो द्विविध पुनः।
यथास्वं अग्निभिः पाकं यान्ति किट्ट प्रसादवत्॥ (च.चि.१५/१५)
Saptabhihi deha dhaataaro dhaatavo dvi vidha punaha
Yathaasvam agnibhihi paakam yaanti kitta prasaadavat (Ref – Charaka Chikitsa 15/15)

Dhatvagnis are 7 in number:
Rasa Dhatvagni (fire in the plasma tissue)
Rakta Dhatvagni (fire in the blood tissue)
Mamsa Dhatvagni (fire in the muscle or flesh tissue)
Meda Dhatvagni (fire in the fat or adipose tissue)
Asthi Dhatvagni (fire in the bone tissue)
Majja Dhatvagni (fire in the bone marrow tissue)
Shukra Dhatvagni (fire in the semen or reproductive tissue)

If Jataragni is normally functioning, the Dhatvagnis also function normally in accordance.
If the Jataragni is hyper-active, the Dhatvagnis also will be hyper-active. This leads to tissue depletion (dhatu kshaya).

On the other hand, if the Jataragni is weak the Dhatvagni too will be weak. This depleted Dhatvagni will not be capable enough to metabolize the nutrients available at their disposal. There is an accumulation of unprocessed food (ama), improperly processed and formed dhatu and toxins in the cells of the tissue.

This will cause cellular blocks as the sticky ama cannot be expelled. As a result, the nutrition to the body tissues will reduce leading to weakening of tissue compliance and immunity. This leads to formation of various systemic diseases. In this condition the quantity and mass of the tissues will increase (dhatu vriddhi). Dhatu vriddhi and Dhatu kshaya – both are pathological conditions.

In the Dhatu’s while the Bhutagnis are involved in digesting and micro-processing the fractions of food which are confined to them, Dhatvagnis are involved in utilizing the food portions in a different way.

With the help of self-generated heat, the Dhatvagnis digest and process themselves in a process called Dhatvagni paka and also on the fractions provided after the action of Bhutagnis. This process leads to the formation of 2 fractions i.e. Sara Bhaga or Prasada Bhaga (Nutrient part) and Kitta Bhaga (Tissue Wastes).

The Prasada Bhaga once again gets divided into 3 fragments. The first portion forms the Sthanika Dhatu (Local tissue) or nourishes it. The second portion forms the Poshaka Dhatu (The supporting tissue or tissue responsible in the formation of its subsequent dhatu). The third portion helps in the formation of Upadhatus (sub-tissues).

The Kitta Bhaga gets eliminated as tissue wastes and is finally eliminated from the body after joining the main metabolic wastes of digestion.
During Dhatupaka process heat and energy is liberated which is used for body functions

Functions:
Dhatvagni when in normal condition helps in the formation of tissues and takes part in their nourishment and maintenance. It also helps in the formation of Upadhatus, heat and energy and causes elimination of tissue toxins

When Disturbed:
When Dhatvagnis get diminished or get sluggish (weak), the dhatu’s accumulate along with toxins and cause pathological increase in the Dhatu’s (Dhatu Vriddhi). When the Dhatvagnis get increased (vitiated, aggravated), the Dhatu’s are burnt and undergo deterioration or get destroyed (Dhatu Kshaya).

Both these conditions lead to the formation of various diseases. Moreover, the tissue toxins are not eliminated, the Upadhatus are not properly formed, the consequent tissues are not properly formed and thus the immunity and strength get decreased making one susceptible for a wide array of health issues.

Agni synonyms

Synonyms of Agni:
Tejas / Teja / Tejo Bhuta / Tejo Mahabhuta / Tejo Mahabhuta
Vahni
Agni Tatva
Shikhi
Anala

Agni in nature

AGNI IN NATURE
How is Agni created?
वायोः अग्निः। (तैत्तरीय उपनिषद्)
Vayoho Agnihi (Ref – Taittareeya Upanishad)
Agni or Fire is created from Vayu (Air).
There is a chronology of formation of the 5 elements in nature according to Indian philosophical books. According to this, the first element to be formed is Akasha (space or sky or ether).

Thus, the whole creation takes place from shunya i.e. zero or empty space. From Akasha, Vayu (air) is created. Vayu will have components of Akasha, its predecessor in it. Vayu will create Agni (fire). This Agni will have the components of its parents i.e. Vayu and Akasha. From Agni, Jala or Water is created. Jala will have components of Agni, Vayu and Akasha. Jala leads to the formation of Prithvi (earth or soil). Thus, Prithvi will have components of Jala, Teja, Vayu and Akasha in it.

Vayu has Gati (movements) and we have seen that movements can produce heat or fire. This is to tell that movements create heat or fire. When we rub 2 things against each other we cause movement or friction and this in turn produces heat or fire.

Ex. Rubbing hands against each other. The more the rub or friction, the more is the heat or fire produced. When we are rubbing the hands, there is a friction taking place not only between the hands but also within the air present between the hands.

Practically wind or air has large amounts of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Both oxygen and hydrogen take part in combustion and thus in production of fire. We can tell that the fire (tendency to ignite fire or produce combustion) naturally exists within the air in a latent form. This fire gets manifest when there is gati in Vayu or wind (air) element.

Properties

Properties of Teja or Agni: 
तेज रूप स्पर्शवत्। (वै.द.२/१/३१)
Teja rupa sparshavat (Ref – Vaisheshika Darshana 2/1/31)
Teja or Agni has the properties of Roopa (Sight, Vision) and Sparsha (Touch). Rupa is a natural property of Agni. Sparsha is inherited from its predecessor Vayu. Thus, we tell that Vayu manufactures Agni and leaves its component in Agni.

Anything which possesses the property of Roopa and Sparsha is said to be Agni. On the other hand, it is also true that anything which has roopa and sparsha quality embedded in it / them possess Agni or Teja in them.

तेजसः उष्णता। {वै.द.२/२/४}
Tejasaha ushnataa (Ref – Vaisheshika darshana 2/2/4)
The sign of existence of Teja Tatva (Fire factor) is the presence of heat explains the presence of fire.

उष्णं स्पर्शः तेजसः तु स्यात् रूपं शुक्ल भास्वरम्।
नैमित्तिकं द्रवत्वं च नित्यता आदि च पूर्ववत्॥
इन्द्रियं नयनं वह्निः स्वर्णादि विषयो मतः। (मुक्तावली)
Ushnam sparshaha tejaha tu syaat roopam shukla bhaasvaram
Naimittikam dravatvam cha nityataa aadi cha purvata
Indriyam nayanam cahnihi svarnaadi vishesho mataha (Ref – Muktaavali)
Sparsha (Touch) – Ushna (Hot)
Roopa (Form) – Bhasvara Shukla (Glittering white)
Naimittika Guna (Basic property) – Dravatva (Liquidity / Fluidity)
Bheda (Types) – Nitya and Anitya
Indriya (Sense organ related) – Nayanam (Organ of sight, Eye)
Vishaya (Subject) – Suvarna ityadi (Gold etc)

अग्निः यथा एको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव।
Agnihi yathaa eko bhuvanam pravishto rupam rupam prati rupo babhoova
Agni is a single entity but it is submerged in almost everything in the world. It obtains the form of the object in which it is located. This proves that AGNI is all-prevailing.

समवाय सम्बन्धेन उष्ण स्पर्शत्त्वं तेजस्त्वम्।
Samavaaya sambandhena ushna sparshatvam tejastvam
That which consists of Ushna Sparsha (hot touch or heat) related in Samavaya Sambandha (inseparable relationship) is called Teja or Agni. The fire consists of 2 principle characters / properties – Roopa (form) and
Sparsha (Touch)

रूप स्पर्श संख्या परिमाण पृथक्त्व संयोग विभाग परत्व अपरत्व द्रवत्व संस्कारवत्। पूर्ववत् एषां सिद्धिः॥
तत्र शुक्लं भास्वरं च रूपम्।
उष्ण एव स्पर्श। (प्रशस्तपाद)
Sparsha sankhyaa parimaana pruthaktva samyoga vibhaga paratva aparatva dravatva samskaaravat
Purvavadeshaam siddhihi
Tatra shuklam bhaasvaram cha rupam
Ushnam eva sparsha (Ref – Prashastapaada)

Characteristic features

11 characteristic features of Agni are:
Roopa – Form / Vision / Sight
Sparsha – Touch
Samkhya – Number
Parimaana – Quantity
Pruthaktva – Isolation
Samyoga – Unification
Vibhaga – Separation
Paratva – Dependent
Aparatva – Independent
Dravatva – Liquidity / Fluidity
Samskara – Transformation / Processing
Its Roopa (form) – Shukla Bhasvara (Glittering White)
Its Sparsha (Touch) – Ushna (Hot / Heat)

Types

Types of AGNI
उष्ण स्पर्शत्वात् तेजः। तत् च द्वि विधम्। नित्यं अनित्यं च। नित्यं परमाणु रूपम्। अनित्यं कार्य्य रूपम्। पुनः त्रिविधम् शरीर इन्द्रिय विषय भेदात्। शरीरम् आदित्य लोके प्रसिद्धम्। इन्द्रियम् रूप ग्राहकम् चक्षुः कृष्ण तारा अग्रवर्ति। विषयः चतुः विधो भौम दिव्य औदर्य आकरज भेदात्। भौमं वह्नि आदिकम्। अबिन्धनं दिव्यं विद्युत् अदि। भक्तस्य परिणाम हेतुः उदर्यम्। आअकरजम् सुवर्नादि। (तर्क संग्रह)
Ushna sparshatvaat tejaha. Tat cha dvividham – nityam anityam cha. Nityam parama anu rupam. Anityam kaarya rupam. Punaha trividham shareera indriya vishaya bhedaat. Shareeram aaditya loke prasiddam. Indriyam roopa graahakam chakshuhu krushna taaraa agravarti. Vishayaha chaturvidho bhouma divya audarya aakaraja bhedaat. Bhoumam vahni aadikam. Abindhanam divyam vidyut adi. Bhuktasya parinaam hetuhu udaryam. Aakarajam suvarnaadi. (Tarka sangraha)
That which has an Ushnasparsha (Hot touch) or that which is hot on touch is called Agni or Teja.
Agni is of 2 types:
Nitya – This is of Paramanu Roopa (Micro or atomic form)
Anitya – This is of Karya Roopa (Functional form)

Types of Anitya Teja / Agni: 
3 types:
Tejo Shareera:
Tejo Shareera (Body of the Fire) is always located in the Adityaloka (Solar world or region) in a highly illuminated and bright form i.e. The body of the Fire is located in the core of the Sun
Tejo Indriya:
Tejo Indriya (Sense of the Fire) is located in the form of Chakshurindriya (Eye) which perceives the sense of vision or sight i.e. The sense (sense organ) of Fire is the organ of Sight i.e. Eye (its functional part)
Tejo Vishaya:
Tejo Vishaya (Subject of Teja) is again subdivided into 4 parts.
Bhauma Teja – That fire which is present on / in Earth. This fire takes its origin from the Earth. Here the sources of fire like wood etc and the fire which erupts from the core of the Earth viz Volcanoes can be considered as Bhauma Agni
Divya Teja – Fire which takes place from the water or is present in the water in the latent form. Example electricity
Udarya Teja – The fire which is located in the stomach and digests the food which we consume
Aakaraja Teja – The fire which is present in the objects with glitter. Example – Minerals like Gold, Silver etc.

Agnyatmaka Angam

Agnyatmaka Angam (Organs / Components of body and mind related to Fire):
अग्नि आत्मकं रूपं दर्शनं प्रकाशः पंक्तिः औष्ण्यं च। (च.शा.४/१२)
तेजसाः तु रूपं रूपेन्द्रियं वर्णः सन्तापो भ्राजिष्णुता पंक्तिः अमर्षः तैक्ष्ण्यं शौर्यं च॥ (सु.शा.१/२०)
Agnyaatmakam rupam darshanam prakaashaha paktihi aushnyam cha (Ref – Charaka Shaareera 4/12)
Tejasaaha tu roopam roopendriyam varnaha santaapo bhraajishnutaa paktihi amarshaha taikshnyam shouryam cha (Ref – Sushruta shaareera – 1/20)
Roopa (Lavanya) – Vision (Sight) / Beauty / Attraction
Darshana / Roopendriya – Organ of Sight (Eye)
Prakasha / Deepti / Bhrajishnuta – Brightness, Glow, Light
Pankti / Paripaka – Digestion
Oushnya / Paritapa / Santapa – Heat
Varna – Colour and complexion
Amarsha / Krodha – Anger
Taikshnyam / Ashukriya – Quick action, Intense
Shourya – Courage

Till here we have seen the nature and function of the Bahya Agni (External fire or fire in nature). At some places during the classification of fire we have also touched upon the aspects of fire which are governing the body and mind i.e. Abhyantara Agni (Internal fire or fire in the body). Now we shall discuss the most important part of the fire, the fire within us, which controls us, our body and mind i.e. Abhyantara Agni.

Antaragni

Antaragni – The internal fire –
Abhyantara meaning internal and Agni meaning Fire.
Abhyantara Agni represents the Bahya Agni (external fire) inside our body and does almost all the same functions of the external fire.

According to Ayurveda this is the AGNI which is responsible for digestion, metabolism, intelligence, colour, and complexion and for all the life activities. The antaragni carries out and supports all the above-mentioned functions and activities when it is in a state of normalcy. The same Agni becomes responsible for manifestation of diseases when it gets disturbed (deficit agni or increase in agni). When Jataragni totally gets diminished (ceases to be) it causes death.

In which form does Agni exist in the body?
न खलु पित्त व्यतिरेकात् अन्यो अग्निः उपलभ्यते।(सु.सू.२१/९)
तस्मात् तेजोमयं पित्तं पित्त ऊष्मा यः स पक्तिमान्॥(भोज)
अग्निः एव पित्त अन्तर्गतः कुपित अकुपितः शुभ अशुभानि करोति।(च.सू.१२/२१)
Na khalu pitta vyatirekaat anyo agnihi upalabhyate (Ref – Sushruta sutra 21/9)
Tasmaat tejomayam pittam pittoshmaa yaha sa paktimaan (Reference – Bhoja)
Agnireva pitta antargataha kupita akupiatha shubha ashubhaani karoti (Ref – Charaka Sutra Sthana 12/21)
AGNI or fire is located in the body in the form of PITTA or is located within Pitta. The functions of the fire and Pitta are alike.

When this Pitta is balanced and is not contaminated, it is beneficial for the body and mind. All the functions of the body like segregation, digestion, absorption, assimilation, conversion of food into body elements and tissues and elimination of toxins and wastes from the body takes place in an undisturbed way.

Strength, Colour, Complexion, Immunity, Nourishment, Enthusiasm, Intelligence and many other factors depend on normalcy of Pitta and Agni located within it.

When the same Pitta gets contaminated (morbid) it can lead to untoward consequences like disturbed health, metabolism and immunity and also death. Morbid Pitta can be manifested in an increased (Vriddhi / Prakopa) or decreased (Kshaya) form in terms of quality and quantity.

Acharya Sushruta has declared that ‘We can’t find any other Agni or fire in the body other than Pitta’
This substantiates and clears all confusions.
‘Agni or fire in the body prevails in the form of Pitta’

Site of Agni

What is the site of Agni?
विसर्ग आदान विक्षेपणैः सोम सूर्य अनिला यथा।
धारयन्ति जगत् देहं कफ पित्त अनिलाः तथा॥(सु.सू.२१/८)
Visarga aadaana vikshepaihi soma soorya anilaa yathaa
Dhaarayanti jagat deham kapha pitta anilaaha tathaa (Ref – Sushruta Sutra 21/8)
The Moon (being cool) does the function of Visarga – providing energy and vitality to the World. Kapha represents Moon in the body and does the work of giving, i.e it acts as a building block and constructive element, gives energy, strength and immunity.

The Sun (being hot) does the function of Adana – Squeezing off the strength, energy and nutrients from all life due to his heat. Pitta represents SUN in the body and does the work of taking, i.e. it acts as elimination, extracting and squeezing agent. Thus, it balances Kapha by squeezing of excess fluidity and its stagnation caused by Kapha.

The Wind does the function of Vikshepa – Distribution of elements of both cold and heat all over. Vata or Vayu represents the Wind in the body and distributes heat and cold all over the body apart from distribution of various elements needed for construction & maintenance and also helps in elimination of unwanted things.

Speaking about Agni and its site, Agni – as already discussed is represented in the body in the form of Pitta. Since Pitta is all-pervading it is also understood that Agni present in the Pitta is also all-pervading. Thus, Pitta and its sub-types are present all over the body.

स्व स्थानस्थः तस्य कायाग्नेः अंशा धातुषु संस्थिताः।
तेषां सादाति दीप्ताभ्यां धातु वृद्धि क्षय उद्भवः॥(अ.हृ.सू.११/२४)
Sva sthaanasthaha thasya kaayaagnehe amshaa dhaatushu samsthitaahaa
Teshaam saadati deeptaabhyaam dhaatu vriddhi kshaya udbhavaha (Ref – Ashtanga Hridaya Sutra 11/24)
According to Acharya Vagbhata, A small part of Kayagni (Gut Fire) is represented in all the Dhatus (tissues and all cells included in those tissues, i.e. all the cells of the body). Thus Agni is present in each and every cell of the body. This Agni is called Datvagni (Tissue fire).

The increase of Dhatvagni leads to the burn-out and resulting depletion of tissues (Dhatu Kshaya). The decrease of Dhatvagni leads to accumulation and increase of the tissues (Dhatu Vriddhi). The Kayagni or Jatharagni being located in its place (Svasthana – Gut) governs and maintains all these Micro-Agni’s located in the tissue.

Jataragni site, functions

Site and Function of Kayagni / Jataragni: 
स्व स्थानं कायाग्नेः पक्व आमाशययोः मध्यम्। (अरुणदत्त)
Svasthaanam kaayaagnehe pakva aamaashayayoho madhyam (Ref – Arunadatta)
Svasthana – Arunadatta in his commentary further clarifies the meaning of Svasthana of Kayagni. He tells that the site of manifestation of Kayagni is at a place in between Pakvashaya (Large Intestine) and Amashaya (Stomach). Thus, the site of Kayagni or Jatharagni is Grahani (Duodenum, First part of Small Intestine).

तत् च अदृष्ट हेतुकेन विशेषेण पक्व आमाशय मध्यस्थं पित्तं चतुः विधं अन्न पानं पचति विवेचयति च दोष रस मूत्र पुरीषाणि।
तत्रस्थम् एव च आत्म शक्त्या शेषाणां पित्त स्थानानां शरीरस्य च अग्नि कर्मणा अनुग्रहं करोति, तस्मिन् पित्ते पाचको अग्निः इति संज्ञा॥ (सु.सू.२१/१०)
पक्व आमाशय मध्यस्थम् इति नाभि स्थानम्।(डल्हण)
Tat cha adrushta jetukena visheshena pakva aamaashaya madhyastham pittam chatuhu vidham anna paanam pachati vivechayati cha dosha rasa mutra pureeshaani
Tatra asthma eva cha aatma shaktyaa sheshaanaam pitta sthaanaanaam shareerasya cha agni karmanaa anugraham karoti tasmin pitte paachako agnihi iti sanjgnaa (Ref – Sushruta Sutra 21/10)
Pakva aamaashaya madhyastham iti naabhi sthaanam (Ref – Dalhana)
The Pitta located between Pakvashaya (Large Intestine) and Amashaya (Stomach) is also called Pachakagni (Digestive fire). Being located here, the Pitta takes part in the digestion of all the 4 types of food –
Ashita (Chewable),
Khadita (Swallowable),
Peeta (Drinkable) &
Leeda (Lickable).

It helps in the formation of Dosha’s, Rasa (essence of food), Mutra (Urine) and Pureesha (Stools / Faeces) from the food.

Being situated in its place this pitta (agni) nourishes and controls other Pitta’s / Agni’s (Sub-Pitta’s – Bhrajaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka and Alochaka), site of Pittas and the body as a whole by its Agni-Karma (Fiery or hot potency and property)

Acharya Dalhana gives a clarification regarding the site between Pakvashaya and Amashaya and tells that it is Nabhi Sthana (Navel region)

Jataragni importance

AGNI and Physiology (Normal Agni) – Importance of Kayagni or Jataragni: 
बलम् आरोग्यम् आयुः च प्राणाः च अग्नौ प्रतिष्ठिताः॥(च.सू.२७/३२)
अग्नौ प्रतिष्ठिता इति अग्नि आधीनाः। प्राणा रति वायवः। (चक्र)
आयुः वर्णो बलं स्वास्थ्यं उत्साह उपचयौ प्रभा।
ओजः तेजो अग्नयः प्राणाः च् औक्ता देह अग्नि हेतुकाः॥
शान्ते अग्नौ म्रियते युक्ते चिरं जीवयति अनामयः।
रोगी स्यात् विख्रुते मूलम् अग्निः तस्मात् निरुच्यते॥
यत् अन्नं देह धातु ओजो बल वर्ण आदि पोषकम्।
तत्र अग्नि हेतुः आहार अन्न हि अपक्वात् रसादयः॥ (च.चि.१५/३-४)
Balam arogyam ayuhu cha praanaaha cha agnau pratishthitaaha (Ref – Charaka Sutra 27/32)
Agnau pratishthitaa iti agni aadheenaaha. Praanaa rati vaayavaha (Ref – Chakrapani)
Aayuhu varnam balam svaasthyo utsaaha upachayao prabhaa
Ojaha tejo agnayaha praanaaha cha uktaa deha agni hetukaaha
Shante agnau mreiyate yukte chiram jeevati anaamayaha
Rogi syaat vikrute mulam agnihi tasmaat niruchyate
Yat annam deha dhatu ojo bala varnaadi poshakam
Tatra agnihi hetuhu aahaara anna hi apakvaat rasaadayaha (Charaka Chikitsa 15/3-4)
Agni in its state of normalcy is provides following benefits:
Bala – Strength and immunity
Arogya / Swasthya – State of good health
Ayu – Prolonged life span
Prana – Life / Supports Pranadi Vayu’s i.e. Prana Vayu and other Subtypes of Vayu (Prana Vayu, Udana Vayu, Samana Vayu, Vyana Vayu, Apana Vayu) and keeps them functioning normally
Varna – Colour and complexion
Utsaha – Enthusiasm
Upachaya – Nourishment, growth
Prabha – Reflection / Grace
Oja – Essence of nutrition / Immune complexes
Teja – Warmth and Heat, Metabolism

Agni and Pathology

Why Agni should be preserved, protected and conserved?
शान्ते अग्नौ म्रियते युक्ते चिरं जीवयति अनामयः।
रोगी स्यात् विकृते मूलम् अग्निः तस्मात् निरुच्यते॥ (च.चि.१५)
Shante agnau mriyate yukte chiram jeevayati anaamayaha
Rogi syaat vikrute moolam agnihi tasmaat niruchyate (Ref – Charaka Chikitsaa.15)

शम प्रकोपौ दोषाणां सर्वेषाम् अग्नि संश्रितौ।
तस्मात् अग्निं सदा रक्षयेत् निदानानि च वर्जयेत्॥ (च.चि.५/१३६)
Shama prakopau doshaanaam sarveshaam agni samshritau
Tasmaat agnim sadaa rakshet nidaanaani cha varjayet (Charaka Chikitsaa 5/136)

रोगाः सर्वे अपि मन्दे अग्नौ सुतराम् उदराणि तु। (अ.हृ.नि.१२/१)
Rogaaha sarve api mande agnau sutaraam udaraani tu (Ref – Ashtanga Hridaya Nidana. 12/1)
Agni’s – Well being and functioning of other Agni’s distributed over the body
Agni is said to be the Mula (Root) of our being, the root of our life, body, mind and senses.

Agnimandya Nidana

Factors that cause loss of digestion strength – Agnimandya Nidana:

अत्यम्बुपानाद्विषमाशनाच्च सन्धारणात् स्वप्नविपर्ययाच्च |
कालेऽपि सात्म्यं लघु चापि भुक्तमन्नं न पाकं भजते नरस्य ||७||
ईर्ष्याभयक्रोधपरिप्लुतेन लुब्धेन रुग्दैन्यनिपीडितेन |
प्रद्वेषयुक्तेन च सेव्यमानमन्नं न सम्यक्परिपाकमेति ||८||
atyambupānādviṣamāśanācca sandhāraṇāt svapnaviparyayācca |
kāle’pi sātmyaṃ laghu cāpi bhuktamannaṃ na pākaṃ bhajate narasya ||7||
īrṣyābhayakrodhapariplutena lubdhena rugdainyanipīḍitena |
pradveṣayuktena ca sevyamānamannaṃ na samyakparipākameti ||8||
(Reference – Madhava Nidana 6/7-8)
Atyambu pana – drinking water excessively
Vishama ashana – improperly timed food intake
Sandharana – suppression of natural urges
Swapna viparyaya – sleeping during the day, keeping awake at night
If indulging in these factors, even the food consumed timely, that is compatible for that individual and light to digest does not get digested properly.
Irshya – jealousy
Bhaya – fear
Krodha – anger
Lubdha – confused
Ruk nipidita – suffering from pain
Dainya nipidita – suffering from depression
Pradvesha yukta – aversion to food

These factors lead to derangement of digestive strength (Agni).

मात्रयाऽप्यभ्यवहृतं पथ्यं चान्नं न जीर्यति |
चिन्ताशोकभयक्रोधदुःखशय्याप्रजागरैः ||९||
mātrayā’pyabhyavahṛtaṃ pathyaṃ cānnaṃ na jīryati |
cintāśokabhayakrodhaduḥkhaśayyāprajāgaraiḥ ||9||
(Reference – Madhava Nidana 6/9)
Even if foods that are wholesome (Pathya) are consumed in proper quantities (matraya), it does not get digested if the person is suffering from
Chinta – worry
Shoka – grief
Bhaya – fear
Krodha – anger
Dukha shayya – uncomfortable resting place
Prajagara – keeping awake at night

When Agni diminishes or gets destroyed, the life comes to an end with inevitable death. This is reflected by the fact that we generally keep warmth as long as we live (sign of life) and the body gets cooled when the person has lost his or her life (sign of death). These 2 signs reflect the presence of actively functioning Agni and its absence respectively.

When the same Agni is in a normal condition (qualitative and quantitative equilibrium) it supports life unconditionally. With a normally functioning Agni one can enjoy an extended life span devoid of illness or disease.
When this Agni gets morbid or contaminated (disturbed in the form of either a pathological increase or abnormal decrease) it becomes a cause for many diseases.

It is also said that all the diseases have their origin in the morbid Agni i.e. a disturbed Agni is the chief culprit in the causation of all psychosomatic diseases.

We know that the morbid Dosha’s cause diseases by attacking and disturbing the normalcy of body’s tissues which are the mainstays of defence, immunity and maintenance of health. The morbidity of these Dosha’s in the form of a pathological increase or decrease always depends on the status of Agni.

If the Agni is functioning normally, the Dosha’s also remain in an undisturbed form and support our body, mind and life. On the contrary if the Agni gets disturbed, the Dosha’s too will get disturbed and cause many diseases by attacking the body’s defences.

After having learnt in detail about the nature and function of the Abhyantara Agni (Internal fire or fire in the body), the site of Agni, its functions, normal and abnormal behavior of Agni and the relationship between Agni and Pitta, we shall now try to know more things about the types of Agni and the importance of protecting and securing the Agni, the fire within.

Types of Agni –विविधम् अशितं पीतं लीढं खादितं जन्तोः हितं अन्तरग्नि संधुक्षित बलेन यथा स्वेन ऊष्मणा सम्यक् विपच्यमानं कालवत् अनवस्थित सर्व धातु पाकं अनुपहत सर्व धातु ऊष्मा धातु स्रोतः केवलं शरीरम् उपचय बल वर्ण सुख आयुषा योजयति, शरीर धातून् ऊर्जयति। धातवो हि धातु आहाराः प्रकृतिम् अनुवर्तन्ते॥(च.चि.२८/३)
Vividham ashitam peetam leedham khaaditam jantoho hitam antaragni sandhukshita balena yathaa svena ushmanaa samyak vipachyamaanam kaalavat anavasthita sarva dhatu paakam anupaha sarva dhaatu ooshma maaruta srotaha kevalam shareeram upachaya bala varna sukha aayushaa yojayati, shareera daatoon oorjayati. Dhaatavo hi dhaatu aahaaraaha prakrutim anuvartante (Ref – Charaka Samhita Sutra 28/3)

इति भौतिक धातु अन्न पक्तृणां कर्म भाषितम्॥ (च.चि.१५/३८)
Iti bhoutika dhaatu anna paktrunaam karma bhaashitam (Ref – Charaka Chikitsa 15/38)
Agni is of 13 types and is classified as –
Jataragni / Jatharagni / Kayagni –
This is the Prime fire located in the Stomach and Duodenal part of the Small Intestine {Amashaya and Grahani respectively}. This is the major fire and is represented by Pachaka Pitta or Pachakagni in the belly.

Function:
This fire in its state of normalcy digests all types of food and drinks consumed by us. The food we take is the fuel for this fire and should be provided on a regular basis keeping in view the time, quality and quantity of food to keep it intact and healthy.

This Agni or Pitta being located in its own place – supports, nurtures and governs the other fires (sub types of Pitta) in the body. Each cell or tissue is said to have its own Agni which takes part in the local metabolism and formation of tissues. These Micro-fires and their health are dependent on how healthy the belly fire is!!

When disturbed:
When this fire is disturbed it becomes the cause of various systemic diseases starting with anorexia and indigestion. Deficit Agni and Excess Agni, both are harmful. The other smaller fires present all over the body are also disturbed and causes morbidity at the cellular level leading to tissue burnouts and storage of toxins. This leads to serious illness which may get out of control of effective management.

Types of Pitta and related Agni:
We have already learnt that Agni is represented in the body in the form of Pitta. We also know that Pitta and Agni are not different entities. Pitta is of 5 types. Thus the related Agni also is of 5 types and will follow the name of the Pitta.

They are as mentioned below –
Pachaka Pitta or Pachakagni – The fire in the form of Pachaka Pitta which is located in Grahani (Stomach / Duodenum) – Primarily takes part in the digestion of food and controls the other subtypes of Pitta (mentioned below)
Ranjaka Pitta or Ranjakagni – The Pitta or fire located in Yakrit (Liver) and Pleeha / Pliha (Spleen) – Takes part in Haematopoiesis, imparts colour to the blood
Bhrajaka Pitta or Bhrajakagni – The Pitta or fire located in the skin, imparts colour and complexion
Alochaka Pitta or Alochakagni – The Pitta or Fire located in the eyes, Takes part in processing vision
Sadhaka Pitta or Sadhakagni – The Pitta or fire located in Hridaya. Hridaya taken as Heart – The agni takes part in circulation process, Hridaya taken as Brain – The Agni takes maintains the brain functions and also higher skills, intelligence, emotions, decision making capacity, memory, etc
Agni or Fire is the basis and secret of our physical, mental, sensual and spiritual health. Therefore Keep the Fire intact and healthy.

Importance of Jataragni

अन्नस्य पक्ता सर्वेषां पक्तृणां अधिपो मतः।
तत् मूलाः ते हि तत् वृद्धि क्षयात्मकाः॥
तस्मात् तं विधिवत् युक्तैः अन्न पान इन्धनैः हितः।
पालयेत् प्रयतः तस्य स्थितौ हि आयुः बल स्थितिः॥ (च.चि.१५/३९,४०)
अन्न पान इन्धनैः च अग्निः ज्वलयति व्येति च अन्यथा॥ (च.सू.२७/३४२)
Annasya paktaa sarveshaam paktrunaam adhipo mataha
Tat moolaaha te hi tat vriddhi kshayaatmakaaha Tasmaat tam vidhivat yuktaihi anna paana indhanaihi hitaha
Paalayet prayataha tasya sthitau hi aayuhu bala sthitihi (Ref – Charaka Chikitsaa 15/39, 40)
Anna paana indhanaihi cha agnihi jwalati vyeti cha anyathaa (Ref – Charaka Sutra 27/342)

Jatharagni or the belly fire which digests anything offered to it (when it is in the state of equilibrium) is said to be the king of all Agni’s in the body. The other agni’s totally depend on the status of Jatharagni. Increase or decrease of Jataragni will have a similar impact on the other Agni’s of the body.

For this fire, food taken consciously in terms of quality and quantity is the fuel. We need to fuel this fire regularly as and when the fire shows a sign of want of fuel in terms of manifestation of hunger. By providing suitable food at proper time we can take care of the health of Agni and in turn secure and protect our health and immunity. If the gut fire is stable it forms a foundation for a good life span, strength and immunity. If the fuel is not provided in proper quantity and in proper time, the fire diminishes. This leads to a wide array of diseases and also death.

Just Before Finish –
Agni – is a word which is used very frequently in Ayurveda. Since Ayurveda preaches that Mandagni or ‘Low strength of the core or interior fire of the body’ is the root cause of many diseases, the mainstay of treatment of many psychosomatic disorders too lays on correcting the fire. Good health and good immunity depend on how good is the Agni balanced inside us.

Be it the fire in the outer world or the fire in the interior world of our body, if it is used skilfully it proves to be constructive and on the other side an ineffectively maintained or improperly managed fire is definitely destructive in nature. If discovery of fire is the key factor of evolution of mankind, well managed interior fire will surely be the key factor for evolution of good health in successive generations.

Now, good digestion waits on appetite, and health on both! – William Shakespeare

Bad digestion, lack of interest in having food and tastelessness are the earlier symptoms to show that your Agni is going from bad to worse, especially if the symptoms get stubborn or prevail for a longer time duration. It is not just that. It is also a sign that there is some serious health disorder setting its foot in the beautiful paradise of your body and mind.

What fools, indeed, we mortals are to lavish care upon a car with ne’er a bit of time to see about our own machinery! – John Kendrick Bangs

Secure your inner fire; don’t neglect the language of your stomach!!

Addition By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S

Effective Decoctions For Weak Digestion From Sahasrayogam

1. Shleshmajwarahara Kashayam

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Kashaya Prakaranam, 4

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
HaritakiTerminalia chebulaThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh mixed with honey and powder of asafetida1. fever of kapha origin associated with colic, weak digestion power, tastelessness and dryness of mouth  
KatphalaMyrica esculenta
GingerZingiber officinale
MustaCyperus rotundus
VachaAcorus calamus
BhunimbaAndrographis paniculata
CorianderCoriandrum sativum
BharangiClerodendron serratum
ParpatakaFumaria officinalis

2. Sannipata Jwaradihara Kashayam (Bharangyadi Kashayam)

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Kashaya Prakaranam, 16

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
BharangiClerodendron serratumThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh1.Fevers caused by all three doshas 2.Intermittent fevers, cold induced fevers, chronic fevers with swelling, cough, dyspnea, pain in flanks 3. Weak digestion
PushkaramulaInula racemosa
HaritakiTerminalia chebula
ParpataFumaria parviflora
MustaCyperus rotundus
GingerZingiber officinale
DashamulaTen roots
PippaliPiper longum

3. Varunadi Gana Siddha Kashayam (Vidradhihara Kashayam)

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Kashaya Prakaranam, 41c

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
VarunaCrateva nurvulaThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh1. Kapha disorders 2. Weak digestion / Indigestion 3.Gout, headache, abdominal tumors, internal abscesses  
Saireyaka yugmaTwo types of Barleria prionitis
ShatavariAsparagus racemosus
ChitrakaPlumbago zeylanica
MurvaMarsdenia tenacissima
BilwaAegle marmelos
KarkatashringiPistacia chinensis
BrihatiSolanum indicum
KantakariSolanum xanthocarpum
KaranjaPongamia pinnata
ChirabilvaHoloptelea integrifolia
AgnimanthaClerodendrum phlomidis / Premna integrifolia
HaritakiTerminalia chebula
DrumstickMoringa oleifera
DarbhaDesmostachya bipinnata
RujakaraBarleria prionitis / Semicarpus anacardium

4. Varshabvadi Kashayam (Gulmahara Kashayam)

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Kashaya Prakaranam, 43b

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
Rakta PunarnavaBoerhavia diffusa, red varietyThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh with jaggery, rock salt, Piper longum and asafetida1.Constipation 2.Weak digestion, Indigestion 3.Severe pain in vagina, pain in cardiac region and, pelvis,  flanks, backache,    4.Enlargement of prostate gland & spleen, abdominal tumors
BilwaAegle Marmelos
Horse gramDolichos biflorus
CastorRicinus communis
SahacharaStrobilanthes heynianus
GingerZingiber officinale
AgnimanthaClerodendrum phlomidis

5. Pathyadi Kashayam (Mahodarahara Kashaya)

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Kashaya Prakaranam, 45a

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
HaritakiTerminalia chebulaThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh with alkali of barley and asafetida1.Abdominal tumors, enlargement of spleen and prostate gland 3. Piles, flatulence, colic, ascites 4. Weak digestion, Indigestion    
PutikaranjaPongamia pinnata / Holoptelea integrifolia
GingerZingiber officinale
ChitrakaPlumbago zeylanica
PippaliPiper longum
Pippali mulaRoots of Piper longum
ChavyaPiper retrofractum
AjagandhaCleome gynandra
Rakta PunarnavaBoerhavia diffusa, red variety
BilwaAegle marmelos
Horse gramDolichos biflorus
CastorRicinus communis
SahacharaStrobilanthes heynianus
GingerZingiber officinale
AgnimanthaClerodendrum phlomidis

6. Twag Nagapushpadi Kashayam

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Parishishta Prakaranam, 40

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
TwakCinnamomum zeylanicumThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh with sugar, camphor and juice of Feronia linonia  1.tastelessness 2.Loss of appetite, weak digestion 3.Alcoholic intoxication
NagapushpaMesua ferrea
PippaliPiper longum
MarichaPiper nigrum
AjajiCuminum cyminum
CorianderCoriandrum sativum
ParushakaGrewia asiatica
MadhookaMadhuca longifolia
CardamomElettaria cardamomum
DevadaruCedrus deodara

7. Bilwambudadi Kashayam

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Parishishta Prakaranam, 47

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
BilwaAegle marmelosThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh with (rock) salt1.Diarrhea associated with blood and kapha 2.Ama dosha – disorders caused due to ama 3. Colic
MustaCyperus rotundus
AtivishaAconitum heterophyllum
KutajaHolarrhena antidysenterica
ChavyaPiper retrofractum
PippaliPiper longum
GingerGood variety of Zingiber officinale
Pippali mulaRoots of Piper longum
HriveraPavonia odorata
PrishniparniUraria picta

8. Dhanyabalakadi Kashayam

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Parishishta Prakaranam, 48

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
CorianderCoriandrum sativumThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh1.Colic caused by ama 2.Diarrhea 3.Digests ama 4.Enhances digestive fire, cures weak digestion
HriveraPavonia odorata
BilwaAegle marmelos
MustaCyperus rotundus
GingerZingiber officinale

9. Nagara Pippalyadi Kashayam

Ref – Sahasrayogam, Parishishta Prakaranam, 49

IngredientsBotanical NameMethod of usingIndications
GingerZingiber officinaleThe decoction prepared with these ingredients should be served fresh with rock salt and powder of cumin seeds1.Kindles digestive fire, cures weak digestion 2. Cures irritable bowel syndrome and sprue
Pippali mulaRoots of Piper longum
DevadaruCedrus deodara
CorianderCoriandrum sativum
Bilwa mulaRoots of Aegle marmelos
PippaliPiper longum

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3 thoughts on “Understanding Agni: Concept, Definition, Functions, Types”

  1. Very informative article with all classical references.. Wonderful explanations..
    Well done Sir..

    Reply
  2. Please provide some medication to balance low Agni and list some medicine under this article to balance Agni in all types of individual thank doctor for ur help will be indebted for ur help and info
    Thank u

    Reply

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