Agnimantha – Uses, Side effects, Dose, Research

Agnimantha is a medicinal tree. Agni means fire. Mantha means churning. Its wood pieces was rubbed with each other to generate fire in ancient times. It is one among Dashamoola group of herbs. (Group of ten roots). 
Botanical names-  There are 2 – 3 herbs used in the name of Agnimantha –
Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.f. (Clerodendrum multiforum (Burn.f) O. Kurtz)
Premna mucronata / Premna corymbosa
Family- VERBINACEAE (Nirgundi Kula)

Classification

Division – Angiospermae
Class – Dicotyledanaeae
Subclass – Gamopetalae
Series – Bicarpellate
Order (cohort)- Lamiceales
Family – verbenaceae
Genus – Premna
Species – integrifolia

Vernacular names

Names in different languages:
Hindi Name -Tekar, Arni, Agathu, Ganiyari
Tamil Name – Taludalai, Talanaju, Munnay, Munnai
Telugu Name – Nelli, Gabbunulli, Gabbunelli
Marathi name – Eirani, Eran, Takali, Airana, Takalu, Chamari
Gujarati name – Arani, Aranel, Airanamula
Bengali name – Ganibhari, Ganiyari, Ganira
Kannada name – Arani, Taggiberu, Taggi
Malayalam name – Munja, Munnai
Oriya name – Ganiary
French name – Arbe a la migraine

Sanskrit synonyms

Arani, Arani, Ganakarika, Jaya, Tarkari, Vataghni, Vaijayantika, sriparna.

Its sticks were used to produce fire by rubbing together so it is called Agnimantha.
It has inflorescence projecting like banner so it is name Ganikarika.
Its leaf is very beautiful, so it is called Sreeparni.
It grows along with other plants so it is called Ganikarika.
Due to its Gunadhikya it brings a good opinion among the people hence it is called Tarakari.
It grows in the banks of river so it is named as Nadeeja or Nadeyi.
Due to its smell it is named as Patragandhi.
It overcomes many disorders so it is called jaya.It grows along with other plants in a group.
Many people after doing tarka considered it as good one
It overcomes many disorder like shotha, pandu
It grows on the river bank

Classical categorization

Classical Categorization of Agnimantha
Charaka-
Shothahara – Anti inflammatory group of herbs
Sheetaprashamana – group of herbs to relieve cold
Anuvasanopaya – group of herbs useful in Oil Basti (enema)
Vagbhata- Viratarvadi, Varunadi
Susruta- Viratavadi, Varunadi, Vatasamsamana

Chemical constituents

Clerodendrum phlomidis chemical constituents:
Pectolinarigenin, Suutllarein,Apigenin, Hispidulin, Clerosterol, Clerodin, Clerodendrin, A, Cerolic acid, Cerylalcohol, raffinose etc.
Premna mucronata chemical constitnuents –
B- sitosterol, Luteolin, (leaves); aphelandrine, Premnine, Betulin, Ganiarine, Ganikarine, Caryophellen, Premnenol, Premnaspirodiene etc.
(Reference: Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnana, Vol. II, by Dr JLN Shastry)

Morphology

Morphology of Agnimantha  –
The leaves are deergha [elongated], shlakshna [glossy]. Color of leaf is dark green above and light green underneath.
The flowers are whitish or greenish-white in color and are arranged in clusters.
The fruits of agnimantha resembles peanut in size measuring about 5 mm in width and is almost round in shape. When ripen, the seeds turn shining into blackish from green.
It can be cultivated by seed or through stem cutting.

Medicinal qualities

Agnimanth – medicinal qualities:
Rasa (taste)- Tikta (bitter), Katu (pungent), Kashaya (astringent), Madhura (Sweet)
Guna (qualities) – Laghu (lightness), Rooksha (dry)
Vipaka- Katu – Undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion
Veerya- Ushna – Hot potency
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Vata and Kapha

Part used, dose

Part used – Root bark, leaf
Dose
Powder 1-3 g,
decoction 50-100ml,
leaf juice 10-20ml in divided dose, per day.

An general adult dose according to Sharangadhara samhita Madhyama kanda for swarasa in 12ml for kwatha is 100ml and that of churna is 10g. Agnimantha can be used in the form of swarasa, churna and kwatha for internal administration.

According to Dravyaguna P.V.Sharma dose of churna 1 to 3gm, swarasa form 10-20ml, kwatha 50 – 100ml.

Side effects: None known.

Sanskrit verse

agnimantha benefits

Pandujit – Useful in anemia
Shvayathu, Shopha – Useful in swelling, inflammation
Agnimandya – Low digestion strength
Ama – Useful in altered digestion and metabolism
Vibandha – useful in constipation
Agnida – improves digestion strength
Pandu – useful in anemia
Arsha – useful in hemorrhoids
Adhmana – Useful in bloating.
Useful in cough, cold and asthma
Clerodendron phlomidis is useful in diabetes and urinary tract infection.
Its decoction is useful to improve strength and immunity after fever treatment.

Interaction with medicines, supplements

Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.

Can this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.

With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.

Ayurvedic pharmacodynamics

The Ayurveda pharmacodynamic of agnimantha: 

By the virtue of bitter; pungent and astringent tastes present in agnimantha the kapha dosha gets alleviated upon its administration.

The hot virya of agnimantha appeases the vata dosha.

In diseases influenced by the aggravation of vata and vatakapha, the utility of agnimantha is beneficial.

In Charaka Samhita, agnimantha gets mentioned under the shotha hara [inflammation reducing agents] ganas.

Thus, in inflammatory conditions caused by kapha and that of vata the decoction prepared of agnimantha bark helps control the aetiopathogenesis.

Likewise, agnimantha is beneficial in vataja fever1, vataja cough2; vataja anemia3 and in intrinsic vataja diseases.

By the virtue of its hot virya [potency] the agnimantha stimulates the digestive enzymes [agni dIpana].

  1. Vataja fever clinical features: Hyperthermia felt irregularly over the body parts during its onset. At times patient feels increase in body heat starting at head, at other times over the back or over the thighs, during the initial onset of vataja type of fever.
    Myalgia of body parts; numbness of feet; cramps in gastrocnemius muscle, feeling of weakness of knees in bearing the body weight; stressful breathing; different types of pain experienced in the regions of waist, flanks, shoulders, scapular region and or chest  regions; tinnitus; pulsating pain in temples; dysgeusia [altered perception of taste]; predominance of astringent taste in the tongue; excessive thirst; intercostalis muscles sprain; dry cough, empty vomiting; sneezing and eructation, anorexia, ptyalism; longing for hot food,drinks and climate are some of the clinical features of vataja fever as documented in Charaka Samhita.
  2. Vataja cough clinical features: Pain in precordial region [in intercostalis muscles]; flanks – due to strain caused during uncontrollable coughing; Pain in the head [due to increase in intracranial pressure caused by the severe coughing]; hoarseness of voice; dryness of mucosal in the throat and upper part of the chest causing a feeling of emptiness in those regions; low intensity of rattling sound audible over the throat cavity and chest [on auscultation]; dry cough, general debility; amelioration from indulging in oily, acrid, salty and hot diet. These are the clinical features of vataja kasa or cough documented in Charak Samhita.

The clinical features of Vataja anemia as documented in Charaka Samhita are – Dryness of skin, brownish hue of skin especially over joints, malaise, pricking pain of body, shivering, pain in flanks; head ache; constipation, dysgeusia, edematous skin, misperistalsis and general debility.

Research

Clerodendrum phlomidis: 
Anti obesity activity
Lysosomal membrane stabilization and anti-inflammatory activity
Analgesic activity

Premna mucronata
Experimental evaluation of cardio-protective activity

Ayurveda medicines

Ayurveda medicines with Agnimantha ingredient:
Maharajaprasarini Thailam – useful in neuralgia, arthritis, muscular dystrophy
Nalikerasavam – useful in premature ejaculation
Ajamamsa Rasayanam – usfeul in parkinson’s disease, hemiplegia, paraplegia etc.
Mahamasha tailam – used in tinnitus, paralysis, headache

Different Ayurveda medicines of Agnimantha mentioned in different text books –

Charaka samhita:

Vishista yogaRogaghnataReferences
Shonakadi lepaUrustambhaCha.Chi.27/57
Baladi lepaGranthiCha.Chi.21/125
Agaruwadi tailaJwara, sheetajwaraCha.Chi.3/269
Kansaharitaki lehaRaktapitta, amlapitta, amavata, gulma, swasaCha.Chi.12/50
Brhmana rasayanaRasayana, deergayu, manoabhilashaCha.Chi.1.1/43
Chavanprasha lehaRasayana, kasa, swasa, kshataksheenaCha.Chi.1/69
Tarkaradi lepaUrustambhaCha.Chi.27/52
Dashamooladi ghritaKasa, Hikka, SwasaCha.Chi.17/140
Dashamoola kwathaKasa, SwasaCha.Chi.17/105
Dwipanchamooladi ghritaKshaya, kasaCha.Chi.18/160
Dashamooladi yavaguSwasa, HikkaCha.Chi.19/103
Agastya haritakiVishama jwara, kshaya, kasaCha.Chi.18/62
Patoladi basti kashayaUdavartha, vibandhaCha.Chi.2/13
Agnimanthadi swarasaMedoroga stoulyaCha.Chi.21/24

Sushruta samhita:

Vishista yogaRogaghnataReferences
Aushadheeya ayaskritiSthoulya, mutrakrichra, rajayakshmaSu.Chi.10/13
Panchamooladi ghritaShiroroga, karnarogaSu.Chi.26/5
Dashamoola ksheera bastiShoola, pravahikaSu.Ut.
Dwipanchamoola kwathaShoola, pavahikaSu.Ut.40/144
Bilwadi suraGarbani vyapatSu.Ut

Astanga Hridaya:

Vishista yogaRogaghnataReferences
Agnimanthadi lepaVatajashophaA.H.Chi.17
Agnimantha dhumapanaDushtapeenasaA.H.Chi.20/16
Dashamooladi avalehaSvayathu, jwara, gulma, amavataA.H.Chi.17/16
Kalamushkakadi ksharaAshmari, gulma, agnimandya, arbudaA.H.Su.10/12
Agasthya haritaki rasayanaRasayana, kasa, swasa, kshaya, prameha,A.S.Chi.5/81
Dashamoola haritakiShotha, amavata, gulmaroga, panduA.S.Chi.19/29
GandeeraristaPandu, granthi, arbuda,A.S.Chi.18/21

Chakradatta chikitsa sangraha:

Vishista yogaRogaghnataReferences
Guggulu prayogaKaphaja vidradhi43/11
Punarnavadi pralepaKaphavataja shotha,44/9
Punarnavadya ghritamShotha39/31
Punarnavadya avalehaShotha39/46

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