Varuna – Crataeva nurvala is a famous diuretic Ayurvedic herb. It is used extensively in migraine, dysuria, renal calculi, intestinal worms etc. This herb is in use since the time of Vedas.
Botanical name – Crataeva nurvala
Family – Capparidaceae
Botanical classification as per Engler and Prantl’s classification
Kingdom – Plantae
Division – Spermatophyta
Subdivision – Angiospemae
Class – Dicotyledone
Subclass – Polypetalae
Order – Parietales
Series – Thalamiflorae
Family – Capparidaceae
Genus – Crataeva
Species – nurvula
Scientific name – Crataeva nurvula.Linn.
Vernacular names, Sanskrit synonyms
Names in different languages:
English name – Three leaved caper, holy garglic pear, lengam Tree, Triune leaf tree, sacred lingam tree.
Hindi name – Barna, Barun, bila, bilasi, biliana
Kannada – Adhiraaja, bilpatri, bitusi, doddelanage, hoddelenage, holetalkki, matamoolangi
Telugu name – Ulimiri Chettu
Marathi name – Bhatavarna, Hadavarna, Kawan, Kumla
Tamil Name – Maralingam
Bengali name – Barun Tiktoshak
Burmese name – Kadat, Kadet, Katat
Canarese name – Bilpatri, bitusi, hoddelenage, mavilinga
Central provinces – Bela, bel
Coorg – Nerajane, nirajani, vettasi
Gujarati – Varno, vayavarno
Hansot – Kagdakeri
Konkani – Nervol
Depeha – Purbong
Malaya – Cadat
Malayalam – Kili, niravila, nirumaliyan
Meehi – Bunboronda, tailadu
Punjabi name – Barna, Barnahi
Saharanpur name – Barna
Simhalese – Lunuwarana
Tamil name – Adhicharam, adhimalam, anjali, narvala, nilluvam,
Telugu – Bilvaram, chinnavulimidi, maredu, ulimidi
Tulu name – Thudenakki, Neernekki
Urdu – Barna
Oriya name – Boryno
Varana, Kumaraka, Setu, Tamalaka, Ajapa, Ashmarygna, Barhapushpa, Kumara, Kumaraka, mahakapitta, setuka, vasana, Shakadruma, Setuvruksha, Rodha Vruksha, Sadhu Vruksha,
Shweta Pushpa – having white flower
Tikta shaka – Having bitter taste
Marutapaha – balances Vata dosha
Crataeva nurvala is a moderate sized deciduous tree. It grows upto 20 meters in height. Leaves are compound, lanceolate. Inflorescence is terminal corymb. Fruits are berries, spherical or oval in shape, contains fleshy yellow pulp consisting multiple reniform seeds. Bark is rough, grey to grayish brown outside and pale inner side.
Charaka – Tikta Skandha – Bitter tasting group of herbs
Sushruta has included this herb in Varunadi group of herbs.
He has also included this in Vata Samshamana and Kapha Samshamana group of herbs. (herbs that alleviates Vata and Kapha)
Categorization in Nighantus –
Sushruta Nighantu – Varunadi gana
Astanga Nighantu – Varunadi gana
Dhanwantari Nighantu – Amradi
Hridayadipika Nighantu – Dwinama varga
Madanapala Nighantu – Vatadhi Varga
Raja Nighantu – Prabhadradi Varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu – Oshadhi Varga
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Vatadi Varga
Nighantu Adarsha – Kareeradhi Varga
Priya Nighantu – Haritakyadi varga
Distribution, Chemical constituents
Found in Myanmar, wildly grown in forests or cultivated, in South Asia and Indo-Malaysian region.
In India, it is found in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Konkan and Tamil Nadu. Often found along streams, river banks, also in dry deep boulder formation in Sub-Himalayan tracts.
Chemical constituents: Stem bark contains Rutin, Varunol, quercetin etc.
Crataeva nurvala Medicinal properties
Rasa (taste) – Tikta, Kashaya – Bitter, Astringent
Guna (qualities) – Laghu (Light to digest), Rooksha (Dry)
Vipaka – Taste conversion after digestion) – Katu (Pungent)
Veerya – Hot potency (Ushna)
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Vata Dosha
Pittala – Increases Pitta Dosha
Bhedi – piercing,
Deepana – improves digestion strength
Jantujit, Krumihara – useful in worm infestation, infected wounds
Vatasrahara – useful in gout
Mutraghatahara – useful in dysuria, urinary retention
Hrudgada – useful in cardiac disorders
Vataghna – useful in treating disorders of Vata Dosha imbalance such as neuralgia, paralysis, constipation, bloating, etc
Vidradhihara – useful in abscess
Raktadoshahara – useful in blood disorders
Ashmahara – useful in renal calculi (Kidney stones)
Gulmahara – useful in abdominal tumors
Sheershavatahara – useful in headache, migraine
Qualities of flowers, fruits
Varuna flower uses –
Pittasrahara – useful in bleeding disorders such as nasal bleeding, menorrhagia, rectal bleeding etc. Grahi – absorbent, useful in diarrhea, IBS
Varuna fruit –
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Sara – induces mobility, causes diarrhea, purgation, relieves constipation
Guru – heavy
Svadu – sweet
Madhura Vipaka – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion
Ushna – hot in potency
Balances all the three Doshas
Parts used, Dosage
Part used: Root bark, stem bark, flower, leaves
Dose: Decoction: 12 – 50 ml per day.
Varanadi kashaya – used in treating headache, bloating, obesity, abscess etc
Mahamanjistadi Kashaya – used in treatment of skin diseases.
Nyagrodhadi Churna – used in the Ayurvedic treatment for urinary disorders and diabetes
Abhaya Lavana – used in the treatment of liver and spleen disorders.
Use of Varuna during Vedic period –
Varuna is considered auspicious.
The leaves were offered to God.
The leaves were offered to God and beads prepared out of the bark were used as garlands. It is mentioned that Varuna was an Aushadi vraksha, the small pieces of its bark was used as in shape of beads in order to wear as garland.
References of Crataeva nurvala in Charaka Samhita –
The wood from the tree Varuna was used in building Sootikagara – delivery ward.
The wood is also used as fuel to perform nadisweda – a type of sweating treatment.
Varuna is mentioned in treatment of Jwara (fever), Gulma (abdominal tumor) and Arsha (piles)
It is mentioned in a yoga called Agarvadi taila in Jwara Chikitsa, 3/267.
In Gulma chikitsa, 5/166, Varuna is said to be Pathya.
In Arsha Chikitsa, 14/45, Avagahana should be done with the Kwatha prepared with Varuna patra, mulaka, triphala, venu etc.
References of Varuna in Sushruta Samhita –
In Sushruta Samhita, Varuna is used for kaphajarsha (Piles due to Kapha increase), Shira shoola (headache), gulma (abdominal tumor) and to treat Vidradhi (abscess).
In Sutrasthana it is mentioned under
– Vata Samshodana dravya (39/7) – group of herbs used in pacifying Vata
– Tikta Varga (42/18) – Bitter tasting group of herbs
In Chiktsastana, (7/6,14), its mentioned in Vatika ashmari hara ghrutha, and kaphaja ashmari hara yoga.
In annapanavidhi Adhyaya, it is mentioned in Punarnavadi and Vartakadi group of drugs. (46/254,271).
In Sharira stana, 10/22 Varunadi Kwatha with cardamom and Panchakola as Prakshepaka dravyas it is to be given to treat Makkalla shula.
In Kushta Chikitsa (9/35), its mentioned in Mahanila Ghrutha along with other herbs. This is also used in Krumi, Bhagandara, Arsha.
In prameha pidaka Chikitsa (12/5), Varuna is explained in Dhanvantara Ghritha.
In Vidradi Chikitsa (16/28,36), Varunadi Kwatha is mentioned Abyantara Vidradi. In Pakwa Vidradi also Varunadi is mentioned.
In Visarpa Chikitsa (17/16), Varunadi Gana is said to be Shreshta.
In Kalpa stana, (1/70), Varuna Niryasa Anjana is mentioned in Vishakta Anjana Chikitsa. In (5/84) Varuna has been mentioned in Ekarasa Sangyaka Agada. In (6/3, 19), it’s mentioned as an ingredient in Sarvasarpa Vishagna Ksharagada and Mahasughandhi Agada.
In uttarastana (26/8), Ghritha prepared with Varunadi Gana is used as Nasya in Shirashula. In (31/7), it’s mentioned in Revathi Graha Chikitsa. In (32/3) Varuna kwatha is mentioned as Parisheka in Putana Graha chikitsa.
In Shosha Pratisheda (41/46) it’s mentioned as an Ingredient in Panchamuladi Grutha, said to cure Yakshma.
In Mutrakruchra chikitsa (59/17, 23), Varuna is mentioned in Vataja Kruchra and Kaphaja Kruchra Chikitsa.
Astanga Hrudaya –
In Astanga Hrudaya, Varuna has been explained in Sutra Sthana, Chikitsa and Uttara Sthana.
In Sutrastana, (6/95), Varuna is said to be Svadhu and Tiktha and kaphavata hara.
In Chikitsastana, (8/12) kashaya prepared with Varuna and other drugs is to be used in case of Arsha roga.
In ashmari chikitsa (11/19), kashaya prepared with Varuna with other drugs will cure Vataja Ashmari.
In (12/20), Varuna is mentioned as an ingredient in Dhanvantara Ghrutham, used in Prameha pidaka and also in Visha, pandu, Vidradi, Gulma, Arsha, Shosha, Shotha, Gara, udara, Shwasa, Kasa, Vami, Pleeha, Vatarakta, Kushta, Unmada and apasmara.
In (13/8, 22) Varunadi Gana Kwatha is mentioned in Abyantara Vidradhi, and also in Upadravas caused due to Vidradhi.
In (14/110), Varuna is said as Pathya in Gulma roga.
In (18/16), Varunadi Gana is mentioned in Kaphaja Visarpa Chikitsa.
In Uttarastana (3/45), Varuna along with other drugs is mentioned in Balagraha Chikitsa.
In (18/23), the tailam prepared with Varuna And other drugs is said to be useful in Karna Vikaras.
In (24/4), Nasya done with Ghritha prepared with Varunadi gana is said to be best in Shirashula. In (37/83) Varuna is said to be useful in Lutha Visha.
Uses according to Unani, Siddha
Uses in Unani –
The bark promotes appetite, decreases the secretion of the bile and phlegm, and removes disorders of the Urinary organs
Uses in Siddha –
It’s known as Maralingam, bark stimulates liver, extract is used as laxative and for promoting appetite. Also given in calculi and other urinary affections. Root barks rubefacient. Flowers are astringent, cholagogue. Root, bark, leaf, used in fever, urticaria, snake-bite poisoning, diseases of vaatam, urinary calculi, ulcers, skin eruptions.
Side effects, Research
Crataeva nurvala side effects:
Because it is a good diuretic herb, it should be used carefully in people who are already taking allopathic diuretics and medicines for BP.
Seek medical advice during pregnancy. It is safe to use during lactation and in children.
Interaction with medicines, supplements
Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.
this medicine be continued while taking supplements like multivitamin tablets,
Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic / modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take Allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then take the Ayurvedic medicine.