By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
According to ‘Prakriti Purusha Samya’ concept everything in the body is a representation of the things and elements in the nature.
We are created from the nature and we are a part of it. So, we have a macro nature represented in us in the form of micro nature. We are what we are created from. When one dies he gets disintegrated and amalgamated into the nature from which he had come to exist.
There is also a representation of sun, moon and wind, the three great forces of nature in our body.
Prakriti = nature
Purusha = human being
Read – Human Being Is A Replica of Universe – Loka Purusha Samya Vada
Table of Contents
The doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha represent the cosmic or natural forces in the body. They are made up of elements of nature and also behave in accordance to the nature and changes occurring in the nature.
In the nature, moon protects and supports the universe through its visarga (nourishing) and water like action. Therefore the moon is basically nourishing in nature. The seasons in which the moon is predominant and coldness predominantly prevails is called as visarga kala. They include varsha (monsoon), sharad (autumn) and hemanta (early winter).
Kapha represents the moon in the body. Therefore it functions through its visarga property just like the moon. It protects and supports the body through its nourishing property. In short kapha is nourishing in nature. All nourishing activities are under the control of kapha.
Visarga is the function of balanced kapha. When the same kapha gets imbalanced it becomes pathogenic and causes many kinds of kapha disorders. Just like the water causes tsunami when it gets imbalanced. Water too has moon like properties. So – the moon, water and kapha are alike in their properties, actions and cause similar disturbances when get disturbed or imbalanced.
Moon and Visarga
Moon is cool in nature. Therefore it imparts ‘water like effect’ i.e. soothing and cooling effect in the creation. Due to the impact of moon the human beings, plant life and animals are enriched with strength and vigor. In visarga kala, the moon imparts water like effect i.e. it supports, strengthens and promotes growth. It also promotes physical and mental health. The same functions are rendered in the body by kapha.
Read – Nourishing, Depleting and Distributing Functions Of Tridosha (Visarga, Adana And Vikshepa)
In the nature, the sun protects and supports universe through its adana (depleting) and fire like action. Therefore the sun is basically depleting or absorbing in nature. The seasons in which the sun is predominant and heat predominantly prevails is called as adana kala. They include shishira (late winter or end of winter), vasanta (spring) and grishma (summer).
Pitta represents the sun in the body. Therefore it functions through its adana property just like the sun. It beholds, protects and supports the body through its depleting / absorbing property. In short pitta is depleting in nature. All depleting activities are under the control of pitta.
Adana is the function of balanced pitta. When the same pitta gets imbalanced it becomes pathogenic and causes many kinds of pitta disorders. Just like the fire causes volcano when it gets imbalanced. Fire too has sun like properties. So the sun, fire and pitta are alike in their actions and cause similar disturbances when get disturbed.
Sun and Adana
Sun is hot in nature. Therefore it imparts ‘fire like effect’ i.e. depleting, squeezing and weakening effect in the creation. Due to the impact of sun, the human beings, plants and animals are not nourished, supported and strengthened. It also stunts and halts the growth and development. One becomes physically and mentally weak due to the impact of the Sun. The same functions are rendered in the body by pitta.
Read – Universe (Loka) – Meaning, Components, Utility
In the nature, the wind protects and supports the universe through its vikshepa (distributing) and air like / wind like action. Therefore the wind is basically distributing in nature. It is the wind which distributes the heat in the hot season and coldness in the cold season.
Vata represents the wind in the body. Therefore it functions through its vikshepa property just like the wind. In other words, it beholds, protects and supports the body through its distributing property.
In short vata is distributing in nature. All distributing activities are under the control of vata. Vata scatters and distributes things in the body including nutrients, blood, oxygen etc and also moves the wastes out of the body. Vikshepa is the function of balanced vata. When the same vata gets imbalanced it becomes pathogenic and causes many kinds of vata disorders. Just like the wind causes tornado when it gets imbalanced. So, the wind and vata are alike in their properties, actions and cause similar disturbances when get disturbed or imbalanced.
Read – Tridosha Theory in Ayurveda
Air (wind) and Vikshepa
The wind (breeze) is cold in nature but is influenced by variations happening in the climate. When associated with sun (fire/heat) the air would get hot, just like the air flowing on the fire. Air can feel cold when associated with the moon (water/coldness) just like the air flowing over the water. This property of vayu/wind is called as ‘yogavahi’. In adana kala i.e. hot seasons the wind (vayu) will get associated with heat of the sun. Therefore it will be hot in nature and feel. In visarga kala i.e. cold seasons, the wind / air will get associated with moon and the coldness prevailing in the season. Therefore it will be cold in nature and feel. Thus, the wind / air will help in distribution of heat in summer and cold in winter – vikshepa karma.
In the creation the wind evenly distributes the heat and cold waves by carrying them with it. This is characteristic feature of vata and is called as vikshepa karma. If this vikshepa karma of vayu weren’t there the universe would have been severely affected by extremes of heat and cold. The same function i.e. vikshepa karma in the body is carried over by vata. Vata evenly distributes coldness of kapha and heat of pitta in the body and helps in their normal functioning. The heat related and cold related functions are balanced in the body only in the presence of vata.
Read – Vata Dosha – Introduction, 40 Things To Know
Importance of knowing this analogy
Ayurveda has put the body components in comparison with different elements and components of the nature. This analogy wherein the kapha, pitta and vata and their functions are compared to those of moon, sun and wind is exemplary and describes in an easy language about how the body dynamics are carried out by these three doshas. The pathological imbalances of doshas cause many diseases which is understood in comparison to the imbalances of moon, sun and wind and their impact on the external world. The deep understanding of this analogy will help the physician in understanding the nature of doshas in their state of balance and also in states of imbalance.
Understanding of this analogy will help the physician to know the balances and imbalances of doshas inside the body. Increased coldness and cold related activities point out towards pathological imbalances of either kapha or vata – representatives of moon (water) and wind (air) in the body, both being cold in nature (water and wind). The vata can be individually vitiated and cause coldness in the body or it might combine with kapha and enhance the coldness since it is a yogavahi. Similarly increase in heat in abnormal proportions will indicate increase of pitta – the representative of sun energy (fire) in the body. Here too pitta is individually aggravated or is aggravated by the impact and association with vata.
Read – Ritucharya – Healthy Seasonal Regimen – Introduction, Divisions
Physician will also learn to deal with the imbalances of kapha, pitta and vata with suitable treatments and dietetic adjustments, just like he or she uses different approaches and measures to protect self when the natural forces gets imbalanced – like using thin clothes and umbrella and use of cold substances in seasons predominant with sun / heat energy (summer), warm or hot comforts, sweaters, hot and spicy foods etc when moon energy (winter, monsoon, autumn) is predominant and use of protection against wind in windy seasons.
The physician should also be aware that kapha and pitta do not have independent movements in the body. They are either pushed or pulled to the other regions of the body by vata. Vata is all powerful amongst all the three doshas. Kapha and pitta displaced to other places of the body where they do not belong to, causes damages and diseases therein. Treatment should be done accordingly.
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